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Parasitoid Viruses

Parasitoid Viruses Book
Author : Nancy E. Beckage,Jean-Michel Drezen
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011
ISBN : 012384858X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parasitoids are parasitic insects that kill their insect hosts in immature pre-reproductive stages. Parasitoids are employed in biological control programs worldwide to kill insect pests and are environmentally safe and benign alternatives to chemical pesticides. As resistance to chemical pesticides continues to escalate in many pest populations, attention is now refocusing on biologically-based strategies to control pest species in agriculture and forestry as well as insect vector populations that transmit human and animal diseases. Parasitoids are an economically critical element in this equation and 'integrated pest management.' Viruses have evolved intimate associations with parasitoids, and this book features sections on both symbiotic viruses that are integrated into the wasp's chromosomal DNA (polydnaviruses) that play critical roles in suppressing host immunity during parasitism. A separate section with additional chapters on viral pathogens that infect parasitoids to cause disease and act as detrimental agents that limit effectiveness of wasp species employed in biological control of pests is also featured. A third component is a section on parasitoid venoms, which are of interest to the pharmaceutical and medical communities as well as insect-oriented biologists. Sections focus on both virus evolution and genomics as well as proteomics and functional roles of polydnavirus-encoded gene products International researchers and emerging leaders in their fields provide readers with syntheses of the latest research Includes content on both symbiotic viruses and pathogenic viruses, plus new research on parasitoid venoms Cutting-edge section on future directions in the field covers the impacts of polydnavirus research on medicine, human health, bioengineering and the economy, increasing the value for researchers and practitioners who need to stay on top of the research in this swiftly moving field

Parasitoid Viruses Insect Immunology

 Parasitoid Viruses  Insect Immunology  Book
Author : Nancy Beckage
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Toxic Factor Produced in Virus infected Armyworm Larva Effect on the Parasitoid Apanteles Militaris Walsh Hymenoptera Braconidae

Toxic Factor Produced in Virus infected Armyworm Larva  Effect on the Parasitoid  Apanteles Militaris  Walsh   Hymenoptera  Braconidae  Book
Author : Harry K. Kaya
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1970
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Toxic Factor Produced in Virus infected Armyworm Larva Effect on the Parasitoid Apanteles Militaris Walsh Hymenoptera Braconidae book written by Harry K. Kaya, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Parasitoids Ecology and Evolution

Parasitoids    Ecology and Evolution Book
Author : Paul-andré Calatayud,Catherine Wanjiru Clarke,René F. H. Sforza,Rose Ngeh Ndemah,Casper Nyamukondiwa
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-02-24
ISBN : 2889634809
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Parasitoids Ecology and Evolution book written by Paul-andré Calatayud,Catherine Wanjiru Clarke,René F. H. Sforza,Rose Ngeh Ndemah,Casper Nyamukondiwa, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity Book
Author : Luis P. Villarreal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-10
ISBN : 9780387779980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps

The Braconid and Ichneumonid Parasitoid Wasps Book
Author : Donald L. J. Quicke
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-01-20
ISBN : 1118907051
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Ichneumonoidea is a vast and important superfamily of parasitic wasps, with some 60,000 described species and estimated numbers far higher, especially for small-bodied tropical taxa. The superfamily comprises two cosmopolitan families - Braconidae and Ichneumonidae - that have largely attracted separate groups of researchers, and this, to a considerable extent, has meant that understanding of their adaptive features has often been considered in isolation. This book considers both families, highlighting similarities and differences in their adaptations. The classification of the whole of the Ichneumonoidea, along with most other insect orders, has been plagued by typology whereby undue importance has been attributed to particular characters in defining groups. Typology is a common disease of traditional taxonomy such that, until recently, quite a lot of taxa have been associated with the wrong higher clades. The sheer size of the group, and until the last 30 or so years, lack of accessible identification materials, has been a further impediment to research on all but a handful of ‘lab rat’ species usually cultured initially because of their potential in biological control. New evidence, largely in the form of molecular data, have shown that many morphological, behavioural, physiological and anatomical characters associated with basic life history features, specifically whether wasps are ecto- or endoparasitic, or idiobiont or koinobiont, can be grossly misleading in terms of the phylogeny they suggest. This book shows how, with better supported phylogenetic hypotheses entomologists can understand far more about the ways natural selection is acting upon them. This new book also focuses on this superfamily with which the author has great familiarity and provides a detailed coverage of each subfamily, emphasising anatomy, taxonomy and systematics, biology, as well as pointing out the importance and research potential of each group. Fossil taxa are included and it also has sections on biogeography, global species richness, culturing and rearing and preparing specimens for taxonomic study. The book highlights areas where research might be particularly rewarding and suggests systems/groups that need investigation. The author provides a large compendium of references to original research on each group. This book is an essential workmate for all postgraduates and researchers working on ichneumonoid or other parasitic wasps worldwide. It will stand as a reference book for a good number of years, and while rapid advances in various fields such as genomics and host physiological interactions will lead to new information, as an overall synthesis of the current state it will stay relevant for a long time.

Viruses Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

Viruses   Advances in Research and Application  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-26
ISBN : 1464993602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Viruses. The editors have built Viruses—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Viruses in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Viruses—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Insect Viruses

Insect Viruses Book
Author : Bryony C. Bonning,Karl Maramorosch,Aaron J. Shatkin
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0120398680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Baculoviruses are perhaps unique among viruses in the breadth of their biotechnological applications: these insect specific viruses are used not only for insect pest management purposes, but also as laboratory research tools for production of recombinant proteins and for protein display, and as potential vectors for human gene therapy. In addition to highlighting recent advances, this volume provides a comprehensive review of the biotechnological applications of these and other insect viruses in both the academic and private sectors.

The Insect Viruses

The Insect Viruses Book
Author : Lois K. Miller,L. Andrew Ball
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461553415
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are over a million different species of insects, and individually they 8 outnumber humans by more than 10 to 1. Moreover, some insects live in close association with both plants and higher animals and naturally exchange viruses with them. It has even been speculated that viruses in general may have radiated through the plant and animal kingdoms from common insect origins. Be that as it may, since insects play pivotal roles in the biosphere, both to the benefit and detriment of mankind, they and the viruses that infect them are important subjects for study. Insects are infected by a diverse medley of viruses, and this volume focuses on those insect virus families that are found primarily or exclusively in insects. All major families of insect-selective viruses are covered except for the baculo viruses, which were described in a separate volume of The Viruses series. Included in this volume are the established families of insect viruses, the newly recognized ascovirus family, and the nudiviruses, which probably represent a separate family but currently remain unclassified. The coverage of arboviruses is limited to a single chapter that focuses on their potential utility as vectors and in insect control. Omitted for practical reasons are several individual insect viruses that have been described sporadically in the literature and probably represent novel virus families.

Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata

Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Entomologia Experimentalis Et Applicata book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Immune Suppression by Parasitoid Wasps of Drosophila

Immune Suppression by Parasitoid Wasps of Drosophila Book
Author : Jorge Morales
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Immune Suppression by Parasitoid Wasps of Drosophila book written by Jorge Morales, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Parasitoid Community Ecology

Parasitoid Community Ecology Book
Author : Bradford A. Hawkins,William Sheehan
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The study of parasitoid communities has direct relevance to general ecological theory and to the applied practice of biological control. Yet, despite the existence of a large and active international research community involved in the study of parasitoids, until now no books devoted to the theme of parasitoid community ecology have been available. Here, with a healthy mix of general discussions and specific examples such as tortricids and weevils, the authors constructively review and evaluate our understanding of these often very complex systems. The book emphasizes basic science, linking the discussion to wider areas such as population dynamics, food webs, competition, and community structure. The more applied end of the subject is covered in a section exclusively devoted to biological control. This book, the first to deal entirely with ecological aspects of parasitoid biology, offers summaries of the state of the field by leading researchers and identifies critical areas in need of further investigation. Students, researchers, and teachers in the field of ecology, animal behavior, entomology, forestry, and agriculture will all want to have a copy of the book on their shelves

Mutualism Between Parasitoids and Polydnaviruses

Mutualism Between Parasitoids and Polydnaviruses Book
Author : Kristine Kadash
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Spatial Ecology of an Insect Host parasitoid virus Interaction

Spatial Ecology of an Insect Host parasitoid virus Interaction Book
Author : Simon Harold
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Indirect Manipulation Of Plant Induced Defenses By Parasitoids Of Caterpillars

Indirect Manipulation Of Plant Induced Defenses By Parasitoids Of Caterpillars Book
Author : Ching Wen Tan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Almost all plant species are attacked by multiple herbivore species and have evolved various strategies to defend themselves. These plant defense strategies include inducible physical and chemical traits; for example, induced defensive proteins and secondary metabolites can impair herbivore growth and survival. These induced defenses rely on the recognition of herbivore presence. The oral secretions (regurgitant and saliva) of insect herbivores play a crucial role in providing cues that are recognized by plants, which then trigger plant defense responses. However, the interactions between plants and insects are considerably more complex in nature where other trophic levels are involved and can influence these interactions. Microorganisms are abundant in the environment and can impact interactions in many ways including altering the perception of herbivores by plants. Braconid parasitoids are small wasps which lay their eggs inside host caterpillars. These parasitoids possess obligate mutualistic viruses called polydnaviruses (PDVs). PDVs are injected by parasitoids with their eggs into host caterpillars. PDVs suppress caterpillar immune responses and metabolism, thus allowing parasitoid eggs to hatch and develop. In nature, 35-80% of caterpillars are parasitized, depending on locations and host plant species. However, it is not clear how parasitoid/PDVs influence plant and herbivore interactions. The main objective of this study were to: 1. Reveal the mechanism and impacts of the parasitoid and its PDV (Microplitis croceipes) on tomato plant defenses through its host caterpillar (Helicoverpa zea); 2. Evaluate the consequences of parasitoid suppression of induced plant defenses on plant fitness; and 3. Determine if the parasitoid effect on plant defenses are commonly present in other plant and insect systems. These objectives were approached by a series of biochemical, physiological and molecular experiments and results provide solid evidence to support the hypothesis that plants can distinguish between feeding by parasitized and non-parasitized caterpillars, thus altering their defense responses accordingly. Microplitis croceipes parasitized Helicoverpa zea larvae produced lower elicitor activity in their saliva (i.e., glucose oxidase) compared with non-parasitized caterpillars, and significantly downregulated tomato defense-related gene expression and defense protein activities during feeding. The ultimate cause of downregulation of plant defense responses was due to the obligate mutualist PDVs of the parasitoid. PDVs suppressed GOX gene expression and activity in parasitized caterpillar salivary glands thereby downregulating plant defense responses. The lower induced plant defenses benefit the parasitoid by promoting parasitized caterpillar growth performance, producing heavier cocoon mass and overall higher parasitoid survival rate. Besides, tomato plants treated by parasitized caterpillar saliva had significantly higher fitness (increased flower number and fruit weight) compared to those treated by non-parasitized caterpillars. These results support the hypothesis that plants benefit from parasitoids indirectly. This is a previously unidentified benefit of parasitoids on plant productivity/fitness. Two other plant and insect systems were also tested and confirmed that parasitoids can indirectly influence plants perception of insect herbivores. These findings have revealed a novel aspect of microbe-mediated interactions between plants and insects. The symbiotic PDV virus not only alters the phenotype of its primary host (i.e., parasitoid) and secondary host (i.e., caterpillar), but also the host plant of the caterpillar. This is the most extreme example of the extended phenotype known: a virus phenotype that extends across three trophic levels. This work has important implications for the evolutionary ecology of plant-herbivore-parasitoid interactions and points out a new perspective of mutualism between plants and parasitoids.

Virus like Particles in the Venom of Parasitoid Wasps

Virus like Particles in the Venom of Parasitoid Wasps Book
Author : Daniel Dashevsky
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Virus like Particles in the Venom of Parasitoid Wasps book written by Daniel Dashevsky, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Effects of a Protease expressing Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide on the Parasitoid Cotesia Marginiventris Cresson

Effects of a Protease expressing Recombinant Baculovirus Insecticide on the Parasitoid Cotesia Marginiventris  Cresson  Book
Author : Tyasning Nusawardani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Baculoviruses have been used for management of lepidopteran pests in a number of niche markets. Advantages of use of baculovirus insecticides include that they have a narrow host range and are relatively safe for nontarget organisms. However, the commercial use of baculovirus insecticides has been limited because of the relatively slow speed of kill compared to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses have been constructed for improved insecticidal efficacy. AcMLF9. ScathL is a recombinant baculovirus that expresses a basement membrane-degrading protease. AcMLF9. ScathL reduces the survival time and feeding damage of AcMLF9. ScathL -infected Heliothis virescens larvae when compared to those of wild type virus, AcMNPVC6 -infected larvae. Before field trials can be conducted with AcMLF9. ScathL, risk assessment studies are required. One of the categories of tests required by the United States Environmental Protection Agency concerns the risk posed by use of AcMLF9. ScathL to nontarget organisms, including those that play a beneficial role in agriculture, such as pollinators, insect predators, and parasitoids. Laboratory studies were conducted to identify any deleterious effects of AcMLF9. ScathL on the life history traits of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Choice tests showed that infection of H. virescens with AcMLF9. ScathL did not affect host preference of the parasitoid. AcMLF9. ScathL reduced the larval and adult survival of C. marginiventris compared to the wild type virus when the hosts were infected with a high dose of virus (>LC99) at 72 hour post parasitism, but not at a low dose (LC50). The survival of the parasitoid was not significantly different between the wild type virus and recombinant virus treatments at 96- and 120 hour post parasitism. There were no significant differences between AcMLF9. ScathL and wild type virus treatments for the parasitoid larval emergence time, adult emergence time, sex ratio, size, and fecundity. One-third of the parasitoids that developed within diseased hosts tested positive for AcMLF9. ScathL and were able to transmit virus to healthy larvae. These results indicate that the use of AcMLF9. ScathL may pose a slightly higher risk to parasitoids when compared to use of wild type virus if infection occurs at 72 hours post parasitism.

Factors That Influence Viral Parasitism

Factors That Influence Viral Parasitism Book
Author : James A. Baker,Ben E. Sheffy,NEW YORK STATE VETERINARY COLL ITHACA VETERINARY VIRUS RESEARCH INST.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1971
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A new concept for prevention of disease was developed after finding that bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus protected pigs against hog cholera (HC), measles virus from human beings protected dogs against distemper, and human adenovirus (adenovirus type 4) virus protected dogs against infectious canine hepatitis (canine adenovirus type 1). A model first was developed to study the protection between heterotypically related viruses. Because HC virus was host specific and invariably lethal, and BVD virus prevented death in pigs, this heterotypic pair gave unequivocal results. Some features of this heterotypic system are: (a) BVD and HC viruses did not cross neutralize; (b) BVD and HC viruses cross fixed complement; (c) a prior inoculation of BVD accelerated subsequent production of antibody to HC virus when the two viruses were sequentially inoculated; (d) the type antibody associated with this secondary response was Igg. Heterotypically related virus protected by completing the first of 2 stages in development of antibody. With the first stage already completed, antibody appeared earlier; consequently, virus growth was restricted and the effects of virus eliminated. Antigenic analysis of BVD virus showed soluble antigen fixed complement and protected pigs against HC. It appeared that the soluble antigen component was responsible for the heterotypic relationship. (Author).

Insect Immunity

Insect Immunity Book
Author : J.P.N. Pathak
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1993-08-31
ISBN : 9780792320869
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Immunity in insects is different from immunity in vertebrates. Insects lack immunoglobulins even though they are capable of reacting against foreign components with effective defense mechanism. There has been a marked advancement in most of the fields of science in the past two decades. Insect immunity is also one of them. It is a developing subject which is now established as a new branch in insect study. This treatise is an attempt to compile meaningful articles of leading workers in this field, nevertheless we do not claim that leadership in insect immunity is by any means restricted to them. The idea is to provide a vibrant description of various aspects of "Insect Immunity". With the rapid development of the subject, it is difficult for any one author to discuss all the aspects of an area in a limited number of pages, even then they have done their utmost to include the entire development of the subject in their articles. The treatise deals with insect haemocytes, their population, isolation and role in defense mechanism, humoral encapsulation, inducible humoral antibacterial immunity, cellular immune reactions, role of endocrines, role of prophenol oxidase system in cellular communication, haemagglutinins and impact of parasite on insect immune system. Some topics could not be covered because experts in those area though willing could not complete their commitment within time limits.

Parasites and Pathogens of Insects

Parasites and Pathogens of Insects Book
Author : Nancy E. Beckage,Stephen A. Thompson,B. A. Federici
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 008091649X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Both volumes of Parasites and Pathogens of Insects provide in-depth coverage of the interface between insect parasites and pathogens and hosts, and explore the relationships between these partners. They emphasize biochemical and molecular interactions, basic biology, and the roles of hormones, receptors, and other cellular components in modulating interactions between host insects and attacking agents. These topics also are assessed in relation to biotechnology and biological control. In the short term, these volumes fill a void in current literature by emphasizing basic interactions at the biochemical and molecular levels. In the long term, these interactions may provide avenues for exploitation to enhance the rate of "beneficial" parasitism or to reduce the rates of disease transmission and infection of vertebrate hosts. Key Features * Presents the latest information on insect parasites and pathogens * Describes biochemical and molecular host-parasite and host-pathogen relationships * Covers mechanisms of insect pathogenicity and resistance * Provides exceptional breadth of coverage and authoritative reviews * Special topics * Transposable elements in insect pathogens * Co-evolution and gene transfer between hosts and invaders * Biological control