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Oxidative Damage To Plants

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Oxidative Damage to Plants

Oxidative Damage to Plants Book
Author : Parvaiz Ahmad
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-01-29
ISBN : 0128004606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With contributions that review research on this topic throughout the world, Oxidative Damage to Plants covers key areas of discovery, from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), their mechanisms, quenching of these ROSs through enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, and detailed aspects of such antioxidants as SOD and CAT. Environmental stress is responsible for the generation of oxidative stress, which causes oxidative damage to biomolecules and hence reduces crop yield. To cope up with these problems, scientists have to fully understand the generation of reactive oxygen species, its impact on plants and how plants will be able to withstand these stresses. Provides invaluable information about the role of antioxidants in alleviating oxidative stress Examines both the negative effects (senescence, impaired photosynthesis and necrosis) and positive effects (crucial role that superoxide plays against invading microbes) of ROS on plants Features contributors from a variety of regions globally

Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Plants Under Stress

Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Damage in Plants Under Stress Book
Author : Dharmendra K. Gupta,José M. Palma,Francisco J. Corpas
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-07
ISBN : 3319204211
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides detailed and comprehensive information on oxidative damage caused by stresses in plants with especial reference to the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In plants, as in all aerobic organisms, ROS are common by-products formed by the inevitable leakage of electrons onto O2 from the electron transport activities located in chloroplasts, mitochondria, peroxisomes and in plasma membranes or as a consequence of various metabolic pathways confined in different cellular loci. Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, heavy-metal toxicity, ozone and ultraviolet radiation as well as pathogens/contagion attack lead to enhanced generation of ROS in plants due to disruption of cellular homeostasis. ROS play a dual role in plants; at low concentrations they act as signaling molecules that facilitate several responses in plant cells, including those promoted by biotic and abiotic agents. In divergence, at high levels they cause damage to cellular constituents triggering oxidative stress. In either case, small antioxidant molecules and enzymes modulate the action of these ambivalent species.

Oxidative Stress in Plants

Oxidative Stress in Plants Book
Author : Dirk Inze
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-10-18
ISBN : 0203303148
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants depend on physiological mechanisms to combat adverse environmental conditions, such as pathogen attack, wounding, drought, cold, freezing, salt, UV, intense light, heavy metals and SO2. Many of these cause excess production of active oxygen species in plant cells. Plants have evolved complex defense systems against such oxidative stress. The

Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Plants

Induced Genotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Plants Book
Author : Zeba Khan,Mohd Yunus Khalil Ansari,Durre Shahwar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-08-03
ISBN : 9811620741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the effects of genotoxic agents causing oxidative stress in plants. The book explores different kind of chemicals which induces genotoxicity, their mechanism of action and effects on plant health. Impacts at the physiological and molecular levels are discussed. The book is of interest to teachers, researchers and plant scientists. Also the book serves as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate students of agriculture, forestry, ecology, soil science, and environmental sciences. National and international agricultural scientists will also find this to be a useful read.

Reactive Oxygen Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Plants

Reactive Oxygen  Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Plants Book
Author : Mirza Hasanuzzaman,Vasileios Fotopoulos,Kamrun Nahar,Masayuki Fujita
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-07-02
ISBN : 1119468647
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presents a multidisciplinary analysis of the integration among reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and reactive sulfur species (RSS). Since plants are the main source of our food, the improvement of their productivity is the most important task for plant biologists. In this book, leading experts accumulate the recent development in the research on oxidative stress and approaches to enhance antioxidant defense system in crop plants. They discuss both the plant responses to oxidative stress and mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance, and cover all of the recent approaches towards understanding oxidative stress in plants, providing comprehensive information about the topics. It also discusses how reactive nitrogen species and reactive sulfur species regulate plant physiology and plant tolerance to environmental stresses. Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Plants: Production, Metabolism, Signaling and Defense Mechanisms covers everything readers need to know in four comprehensive sections. It starts by looking at reactive oxygen species metabolism and antioxidant defense. Next, it covers reactive nitrogen species metabolism and signaling before going on to reactive sulfur species metabolism and signaling. The book finishes with a section that looks at crosstalk among reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur species based on current research done by experts. Presents the newest method for understanding oxidative stress in plants. Covers both the plant responses to oxidative stress and mechanisms of abiotic stress tolerance Details the integration among reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive sulfur species (RSS) Written by 140 experts in the field of plant stress physiology, crop improvement, and genetic engineering Providing a comprehensive collection of up-to-date knowledge spanning from biosynthesis and metabolism to signaling pathways implicated in the involvement of RONSS to plant defense mechanisms, Reactive Oxygen, Nitrogen and Sulfur Species in Plants: Production, Metabolism, Signaling and Defense Mechanisms is an excellent book for plant breeders, molecular biologists, and plant physiologists, as well as a guide for students in the field of Plant Science.

Oxidative Stress in Plants

Oxidative Stress in Plants Book
Author : Naser A. Anjum,Shahid Umar,Altaf Ahmad
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9789381141021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Oxidative Stress in Plants book written by Naser A. Anjum,Shahid Umar,Altaf Ahmad, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ascorbate Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants

Ascorbate Glutathione Pathway and Stress Tolerance in Plants Book
Author : Naser A. Anjum,Shahid Umar,Ming-Tsair Chan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-08-20
ISBN : 9789048194049
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are sessile organisms that live under a constant barrage of biotic and abiotic insults. Both biotic and abiotic stress factors have been shown to affect various aspects of plant system including the acceleration in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ascorbate (AsA)-glutathione (GSH) pathway is a key part of the network of reactions involving enzymes and metabolites with redox properties for the detoxification of ROS, and thus to avert the ROS-accrued oxidative damage in plants. The present book mainly deals with the information gained through the cross-talks and inter-relationship studies on the physiological, biochemical and molecular aspects of the cumulative response of various components of AsA-GSH pathway to stress factors and their significance in plant stress tolerance.

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress

Ecophysiology and Responses of Plants under Salt Stress Book
Author : Parvaiz Ahmad,M.M. Azooz,M.N.V. Prasad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-09
ISBN : 146144747X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book will shed light on the effect of salt stress on plants development, proteomics, genomics, genetic engineering, and plant adaptations, among other topics. Understanding the molecular basis will be helpful in developing selection strategies for improving salinity tolerance. The book will cover around 25 chapters with contributors from all over the world.

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defenses in Biology

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defenses in Biology Book
Author : Sami Ahmad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461596890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides a comprehensive treatment of the latest research on oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in all types of aerobic organisms. This book investigates oxidative stress in prokaryotes, protists, plants, fungi, vertebrates, and invertebrates, stimulating cross-fertilization among diverse fields. In addition, it explains the basic science of oxygen activation and oxidative stress as a foundation for more advanced material, making this book useful as a resource for both specialists and non-specialists.

Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants

Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants Book
Author : Parvaiz Ahmad,M.N.V. Prasad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-16
ISBN : 9781461406341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abiotic stress cause changes in soil-plant-atmosphere continuum and is responsible for reduced yield in several major crops. Therefore, the subject of abiotic stress response in plants - metabolism, productivity and sustainability - is gaining considerable significance in the contemporary world. Abiotic stress is an integral part of “climate change,” a complex phenomenon with a wide range of unpredictable impacts on the environment. Prolonged exposure to these abiotic stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to tolerate these stresses by upregulation of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, etc. This volume deals with abiotic stress-induced morphological and anatomical changes, abberations in metabolism, strategies and approaches to increase salt tolerance, managing the drought stress, sustainable fruit production and postharvest stress treatments, role of glutathione reductase, flavonoids as antioxidants in plants, the role of salicylic acid and trehalose in plants, stress-induced flowering. The role of soil organic matter in mineral nutrition and fatty acid profile in response to heavy metal stress are also dealt with. Proteomic markers for oxidative stress as a new tools for reactive oxygen species and photosynthesis research, abscisic acid signaling in plants are covered with chosen examples. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins that are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant are presented. Thus, this volume would provides the reader with a wide spectrum of information including key references and with a large number of illustrations and tables. Dr. Parvaiz is Assistant Professor in Botany at A.S. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. He has completed his post-graduation in Botany in 2000 from Jamia Hamdard New Delhi India. After his Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, India in 2007 he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi. He has published more than 20 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 4 book chapters. He has also edited a volume which is in press with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd., New Delhi, India. Dr. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different plants (mulberry, pea, Indian mustard) under environmental stress. Prof. M.N.V. Prasad is a Professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Hyderabad, India. He received B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1975) degrees from Andhra University, India, and the Ph.D. degree (1979) in botany from the University of Lucknow, India. Prasad has published 216 articles in peer reviewed journals and 82 book chapters and conference proceedings in the broad area of environmental botany and heavy metal stress in plants. He is the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor for eight books. He is the recipient of Pitamber Pant National Environment Fellowship of 2007 awarded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.

Oxidative Stress in Plant

Oxidative Stress in Plant Book
Author : Juan B Barroso,Mounira Chaki,Juan - C Begara-Morales
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-09-16
ISBN : 9783039430062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are continuously exposed to different environmental stress conditions that have a huge impact on agriculture worldwide, consequently leading to massive economic losses. These adverse conditions alter the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). High concentrations of these reactive species-that exceed the capacity of antioxidant defense enzymes-disturb redox homeostasis, which can trigger damage to such macromolecules as membrane lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, ultimately resulting in nitro-oxidative stress and plant cell death. Significant progress has been made to understand how plants persist in these stressful environments which could be vital to improving plant crop yield. This Special Issue "Oxidative Stress in Plants" includes both original research articles and detailed reviews that aim to better understand the nitro-oxidative stress networks in higher plants, and the addressed topics provide updated and new knowledge about ROS and RNS metabolism in plant responses to abiotic stress as well as the modulation of antioxidant systems in the control of ROS production and accumulation.

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Enzymes Involved in Plant Tolerance to Stress

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Enzymes Involved in Plant Tolerance to Stress Book
Author : Andréia Caverzan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are continuously exposed to several stress factors in field, which affect their production. These environmental adversities generally induce the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to plants. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Due to advances in molecular approaches during the last decades, nowadays it is possible to develop economically important transgenic crops that have increased tolerance to stresses. This chapter discusses the oxidative stress and damage to plants. In addition, it reports the involvement of antioxidant enzymes in the tolerance of plants to various stresses.

Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants

Antioxidants and Reactive Oxygen Species in Plants Book
Author : Nicholas Smirnoff
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
ISBN : 1405171464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced during the interaction of metabolism with oxygen. As ROS have the potential to cause oxidative damage by reacting with biomolecules, research on ROS has concentrated on the oxidative damage that results from exposure to environmental stresses and on the role of ROS in defence against pathogens. However, more recently, it has become apparent that ROS also have important roles as signalling molecules. A complex network of enzymatic and small molecule antioxidants controls the concentration of ROS and repairs oxidative damage, and research is revealing the complex and subtle interplay between ROS and antioxidants in controlling plant growth, development and response to the environment. This book covers these new developments, generally focussing on molecular and biochemical details and providing a point of entry to the detailed literature. It is directed at researchers and professionals in plant molecular biology, biochemistry and cell biology, in both the academic and industrial sectors.

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Systems in Plants Role and Regulation under Abiotic Stress

Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Systems in Plants  Role and Regulation under Abiotic Stress Book
Author : M. Iqbal R. Khan,Nafees A. Khan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-02
ISBN : 9811052549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present edited book is an attempt to update the state of art of the knowledge on metabolism of ROS and antioxidants and their relationship in plant adaptation to abiotic stresses involving physiological, biochemical and molecular processes. The chapters are much focused on the current climate issues and how ROS metabolism can manipulate with antioxidant system to accelerate detoxification mechanism. It will enhance the mechanistic understanding on ROS and antioxidants system and will pave the path for agricultural scientists in developing tolerant crops to achieve sustainability under the changing environmental conditions. The increase in abiotic stress factors has become a major threat to sustainability of crop production. This situation has led to think ways which can help to come out with potential measures; for which it is necessary to understand the influence of abiotic stress factors on crops performance and the mechanisms by which these factors impact plants. It has now become evident that abiotic stress impacts negatively on plant growth and development at every stage of plant’s life. Plants adapt to the changing environment with the adjustment at physiological, biochemical and molecular levels. The possible mechanisms involved in the negative effects of abiotic stress factors are excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They alter physiological and molecular mechanisms leading to poor performance of plants. Plants however, are able to cope with these adverse effects by inducing antioxidant systems as the priority. Nevertheless, the dual role of ROS has now been ascertained which provides an evidence for regulation of plant metabolism positively on a concentration-dependent manner. Under conditions of high ROS production, the antioxidant system plays a major role in diminishing the effects of ROS. Thus, ROS production and antioxidant system are interwoven with abiotic stress conditions. The antioxidants have the capacity to hold the stability in metabolism in order to avoid disruption due to environmental disturbances.

Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth Development and Stress Tolerance

Ascorbic Acid in Plant Growth  Development and Stress Tolerance Book
Author : Mohammad Anwar Hossain,Sergi Munné-Bosch,David J. Burritt,Pedro Diaz-Vivancos,Masayuki Fujita,Argelia Lorence
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-03-19
ISBN : 3319740571
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ascorbic acid (AsA), vitamin C, is one of the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in plants and animals. In plants AsA serves as a major redox buffer and regulates various physiological processes controlling growth, development, and stress tolerance. Recent studies on AsA homeostasis have broadened our understanding of these physiological events. At the mechanistic level, AsA has been shown to participate in numerous metabolic and cell signaling processes, and the dynamic relationship between AsA and reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been well documented. Being a major component of the ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, AsA helps to modulate oxidative stress in plants by controlling ROS detoxification alone and in co-operation with glutathione. In contrast to the single pathway responsible for AsA biosynthesis in animals, plants utilize multiple pathways to synthesize AsA, perhaps reflecting the importance of this molecule to plant health. Any fluctuations, increases or decreases, in cellular AsA levels can have profound effects on plant growth and development, as AsA is associated with the regulation of the cell cycle, redox signaling, enzyme function and defense gene expression. Although there has been significant progress made investigating the multiple roles AsA plays in stress tolerance, many aspects of AsA-mediated physiological responses require additional research if AsA metabolism is to be manipulated to enhance stress-tolerance. This book summarizes the roles of AsA that are directly or indirectly involved in the metabolic processes and physiological functions of plants. Key topics include AsA biosynthesis and metabolism, compartmentation and transport, AsA-mediated ROS detoxification, as well as AsA signaling functions in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. The main objective of this volume is therefore to supply comprehensive and up-to-date information for students, scholars and scientists interested in or currently engaged in AsA research.

Advances In Plant Physiology

Advances In Plant Physiology Book
Author : A. Hemantaranjan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008-01-01
ISBN : 9788172335243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dr. S.K. Panda & Dr. (Mrs.) M. Dash This book ``Advances in Stress Physiology of Plants' has been published with an aim to give some insight into the field of stress physiology of Plants. Attempts have been made to highlight different abiotic stresses like water, salt, heavy metals etc. and there effects on plants physiological alterations. Some efforts have also been taken to discuss oxidative stress, its effects and possible protection in plant cells.Oxidative StressThe Biology of Oxidative stress in Green Cells : A Review ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda & M. Dash Abiotic Stress Induced Membrane Damage in Plants : A Free Radical Phenomenon ââ ¬â¬S S. Bhattacharjee & A.K. MukherjeeThe Lipoxygenases ââ ¬â¬S A Review ââ ¬â¬S A.D. Rao, K.N. Devi & K. ThyagarajuPlant Lipoxygenases ââ ¬â¬S K.N. Devi, A.D. Rao & K. ThyagarajuChanges in Antioxidants Levels in Oryza sativa L. Roots subjected to NaCl-salinity stress ââ ¬â¬S M.H. Khan, M. Dash, Ksh. L.B. Singha & S.K. Panda Water StressStudying Plant Responses to Water Stress : An Overview ââ ¬â¬S R.K. Kar Salt StressEffects of Sea Water on Growth of Young Plants of Prosopis julliflora (sw) DC. ââ ¬â¬S A.J. Joshi & H. HinglajiaPhysiology of Salt Stress in Plants : A Review ââ ¬â¬S M. Dash & S.K. PandaHeavy Metal Toxicity StressRole of Nitrogen Nutrition on Chromium Phytoxicty in wheat ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda, B.N. Sahoo & H.K. PatraChromium Toxicity and Water Stress Simulation Effects in Intact Senescing Leaves of Greengram (Vigna radiata L. var. wilckzek K851) ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda, S. Mahapatra & S.K. PandaAlterations in Enzyme Activities of Plants under Heavy Metal Ion Stress ââ ¬â¬S S.D.S. Murthy & S. RajgopalDr. S.K. Panda & Dr. (Mrs.) M. DashThis book ``Advances in Stress Physiology of Plants' has been published with an aim to give some insight into the field of stress physiology of Plants. Attempts have been made to highlight different abiotic stresses like water, salt, heavy metals etc. and there effects on plants physiological alterations. Some efforts have also been taken to discuss oxidative stress, its effects and possible protection in plant cells.Oxidative StressThe Biology of Oxidative stress in Green Cells : A Review ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda & M. Dash Abiotic Stress Induced Membrane Damage in Plants : A Free Radical Phenomenon ââ ¬â¬S S. Bhattacharjee & A.K. MukherjeeThe Lipoxygenases ââ ¬â¬S A Review ââ ¬â¬S A.D. Rao, K.N. Devi & K. ThyagarajuPlant Lipoxygenases ââ ¬â¬S K.N. Devi, A.D. Rao & K. ThyagarajuChanges in Antioxidants Levels in Oryza sativa L. Roots subjected to NaCl-salinity stress ââ ¬â¬S M.H. Khan, M. Dash, Ksh. L.B. Singha & S.K. Panda Water StressStudying Plant Responses to Water Stress : An Overview ââ ¬â¬S R.K. Kar Salt StressEffects of Sea Water on Growth of Young Plants of Prosopis julliflora (sw) DC. ââ ¬â¬S A.J. Joshi & H. HinglajiaPhysiology of Salt Stress in Plants : A Review ââ ¬â¬S M. Dash & S.K. Panda Heavy Metal Toxicity StressRole of Nitrogen Nutrition on Chromium Phytoxicty in wheat ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda, B.N. Sahoo & H.K. PatraChromium Toxicity and Water Stress Simulation Effects in Intact Senescing Leaves of Greengram (Vigna radiata L. var. wilckzek K851) ââ ¬â¬S S.K. Panda, S. Mahapatra & S.K. PandaAlterations in Enzyme Activities of Plants under Heavy Metal Ion Stress ââ ¬â¬S S.D.S. Murthy & S. Rajgopal.

Redox Homeostasis in Plants

Redox Homeostasis in Plants Book
Author : Sanjib Kumar Panda,Yoshiharu Y. Yamamoto
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-04-23
ISBN : 331995315X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes the latest research results on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, particularly in many abiotic stresses, and their regulation. Redox homeostasis refers to maintaining a balance of oxidised and reduced state of biomolecules in a biological system for all-round sustenance. In a living system, redox reactions contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act as signalling molecules for developmental as well as stress-response processes in plants. It is presumed that, being sessile and an aerobe requiring oxygen for mitochondrial energy production, as well as producing oxygen during photosynthesis, the redox homeostasis process is more complex and regulated in plants than in animals. Any imbalance in the homeostasis is mainly compensated for by the production of various ROS molecules, which, though they can cause severe oxidative damage in excess, can also ideally act as signalling molecules.

Condensed Tannins as in Vivo Antioxidants in Populus Tremula X Tremuloides

Condensed Tannins as in Vivo Antioxidants in Populus Tremula X Tremuloides Book
Author : Geraldine Gourlay
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants are exposed to diverse environmental stresses, which can lead to the accumulation of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS). To prevent cellular damage, plants have evolved diverse antioxidant compounds and mechanisms to scavenge and remove ROS. My research aimed to determine if condensed tannins (CTs) function as in vivo antioxidants in plants. CTs are abundant plant secondary metabolites and are well-known for their strong in vitro antioxidant activity, but their function as antioxidants in planta has not previously been investigated. I used transgenic hybrid poplar (Populus tremula x tremuloides) with high (MYB134- and MYB115-overexpressing) and low (MYB134-RNAi) leaf CT content. Three different abiotic stresses were used to induce oxidative stress in the plants: methyl viologen (MV), drought, or UV-B stress. Oxidative stress can damage the plant's photosystems, and this damage was assessed using chlorophyll fluorescence. I employed light-adapted (Fq'/Fm') and dark-adapted (Fv/Fm) parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence and monitored photosystem II function during each stress. Under all three stresses, the high-CT transgenics retained greater chlorophyll fluorescence, demonstrating reduced photosystem II damage, compared to wild-type plants. Oxidative damage was measured by quantifying malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was quantified as a measure of ROS accumulation. High-CT plants consistently accumulated less H2O2 and MDA than wild-type plants before and after each stress. MYB134-RNAi plants showed the converse effects, as predicted by lower CT concentrations, with reduced photosystem function and increased levels of H2O2 and MDA compared to wild-type following each stress. Overall, this work demonstrates that CTs can function as in planta antioxidants and can aid in protection against oxidative damage. My work provides the first evidence for an antioxidant function of CTs in living plants exposed to stress.

Environmental Stress Physiology of Plants and Crop Productivity

Environmental Stress Physiology of Plants and Crop Productivity Book
Author : Tajinder Kaur,Saroj Arora
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2021-05-06
ISBN : 168108791X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The knowledge of plant responses to various abiotic stresses is crucial to understand their underlying mechanisms as well as the methods to develop new varieties of crops, which are better suited to the environment they are grown in. Environmental Stress Physiology of Plants and Crop Productivity provides readers a timely update on the knowledge about plant responses to a variety of stresses such as salinity, temperature, drought, oxidative stress and mineral deficiencies. Chapters focus on biochemical mechanisms identified in plants crucial to adapting to specific abiotic stressors along with the methods of improving plant tolerance. The book also sheds light on plant secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids and plant growth regulators in ameliorating the stressful conditions in plants. Additional chapters present an overview of applications of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics (including CRISPR/CAS techniques) to develop abiotic stress tolerant crops. The editors have also provided detailed references for extended reading to support the information in the book. Environmental Stress Physiology of Plants and Crop Productivity is an informative reference for scholars and researchers working in the field of botany, agriculture, crop science and physiology, soil science, and environmental sciences.

Environmental Adaptations and Stress Tolerance of Plants in the Era of Climate Change

Environmental Adaptations and Stress Tolerance of Plants in the Era of Climate Change Book
Author : Parvaiz Ahmad,M.N.V. Prasad
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-02
ISBN : 9781461408154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Climate change is a complex phenomenon with a wide range of impacts on the environment. Biotic and abiotic stress are a result of climate change. Abiotic stress is caused by primary and secondary stresses which are an impediment to plant productivity. Prolonged exposure to these stresses results in altered metabolism and damage to biomolecules. Plants evolve defense mechanisms to withstand these stresses, e.g. synthesis of osmolytes, osmoprotectants, and antioxidants. Stress responsive genes and gene products including expressed proteins are implicated in conferring tolerance to the plant. This volume will provide the reader with a wide spectrum of information, including vital references. It also provides information as to how phytoconstituents, hormones and plant associated microbes help the plants to tolerate the stress. This volume also highlights the use of plant resources for ameliorating soil contaminants such as heavy metals. Dr. Parvaiz is Assistant professor in Botany at A.S. College, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. He has completed his post-graduation in Botany in 2000 from Jamia Hamdard New Delhi India. After his Ph.D from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, India in 2007 he joined the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, New Delhi. He has published more than 20 research papers in peer reviewed journals and 4 book chapters. He has also edited a volume which is in press with Studium Press Pvt. India Ltd., New Delhi, India. Dr. Parvaiz is actively engaged in studying the molecular and physio-biochemical responses of different plants (mulberry, pea, Indian mustard) under environmental stress. Prof. M.N.V. Prasad is a Professor in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Hyderabad, India. He received B.Sc. (1973) and M.Sc. (1975) degrees from Andhra University, India, and the Ph.D. degree (1979) in botany from the University of Lucknow, India. Prasad had published 216 articles in peer reviewed journals and 82 book chapters and conference proceedings in the broad area of environmental botany and heavy metal stress in plants. He is the author, co-author, editor, or co-editor for eight books. He is the recipient of Pitamber Pant national Environment Fellowship of 2007 awarded by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India.