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Overflow Metabolism

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Overflow Metabolism

Overflow Metabolism Book
Author : Alexei Vazquez
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-27
ISBN : 0128123354
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Overflow Metabolism: From Yeast to Marathon Runners provides an overview of overflow metabolism, reviewing the major phenomenological aspects as observed in different organisms, followed by a critical analysis of proposed theories to explain overflow metabolism. In our ideal view of metabolism, we think of catabolism and anabolism. In catabolism nutrients break down to carbon dioxide and water to generate biochemical energy. In anabolism nutrients break down to generate building blocks for cell biosynthesis. Yet, when cells are pushed to high metabolic rates they exhibit incomplete catabolism of nutrients, with a lower energy yield and excretion of metabolic byproducts. This phenomenon, characterized by the excretion of metabolic byproducts that could otherwise be used for catabolism or anabolism, is generally known as overflow metabolism. Overflow metabolism is a ubiquitous phenotype that has been conserved during evolution. Examples are the acetate switch in the bacterium E. coli, Crabtree effect in unicellular eukaryote yeasts, the lactate switch in sports medicine, and the Warburg effect in cancer. Several theories have been proposed to explain this seemingly wasteful phenotype. Yet, there is no consensus about what determines overflow metabolism and whether it offers any selective advantage. Includes examples of overflow metabolism and major phenomenological features Features a critical view of proposed theories to explain overflow metabolism Provides a summary of our preview work, proposing molecular crowding as the cause of overflow metabolism, together with new unpublished results

The Study of Overflow Metabolism and Kinetics in a Model of Metabolism and Gene Expression of Escherichia Coli

The Study of Overflow Metabolism and Kinetics in a Model of Metabolism and Gene Expression of Escherichia Coli Book
Author : Chuankai Cheng
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Overflow metabolism can be explained by a pathway switch behavior in the cell based on the tradeoffs between metabolic efficiency and proteomic efficiency (enzymatic kinetics). This thesis simulates this behavior on the both small-scale and genome-scale model. By sweeping the enzyme kinetics parameters on multiple pathways or reactions, the simulation could potentially approach the experimental results, however, would converge to some bounds beyond. Therefore, hypotheses of some extra constraints, such as the limitation of oxygen uptake, electron transport chain, as well as the function of motility protein are presented.

The Exometabolome of Clostridium Thermocellum Reveals Overflow Metabolism at High Cellulose Loading

The Exometabolome of Clostridium Thermocellum Reveals Overflow Metabolism at High Cellulose Loading Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Clostridium thermocellum is a model thermophilic organism for the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic substrates. The majority of publications studying the physiology of this organism use substrate concentrations of ≤10 g/L. However, industrially relevant concentrations of substrate start at 100 g/L carbohydrate, which corresponds to approximately 150 g/L solids. To gain insight into the physiology of fermentation of high substrate concentrations, we studied the growth on, and utilization of high concentrations of crystalline cellulose varying from 50 to 100 g/L by C. thermocellum. Results: Using a defined medium, batch cultures of C. thermocellum achieved 93% conversion of cellulose (Avicel) initially present at 100 g/L. The maximum rate of substrate utilization increased with increasing substrate loading. During fermentation of 100 g/L cellulose, growth ceased when about half of the substrate had been solubilized. However, fermentation continued in an uncoupled mode until substrate utilization was almost complete. In addition to commonly reported fermentation products, amino acids - predominantly L-valine and L-alanine - were secreted at concentrations up to 7.5 g/L. Uncoupled metabolism was also accompanied by products not documented previously for C. thermocellum, including isobutanol, meso- and RR/SS-2,3-butanediol and trace amounts of 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 1-propanol. We hypothesize that C. thermocellum uses overflow metabolism to balance its metabolism around the pyruvate node in glycolysis. In conclusion: C. thermocellum is able to utilize industrially relevant concentrations of cellulose, up to 93 g/L. We report here one of the highest degrees of crystalline cellulose utilization observed thus far for a pure culture of C. thermocellum, the highest maximum substrate utilization rate and the highest amount of isobutanol produced by a wild-type organism.

The significance of overflow metabolism in the physiology and g

The significance of overflow metabolism in the physiology and g    Book
Author : Oense Martinus Neijssel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The significance of overflow metabolism in the physiology and g book written by Oense Martinus Neijssel, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Journal of General Physiology

The Journal of General Physiology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1948
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Journal of General Physiology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Insect Plant Interactions

Insect Plant Interactions Book
Author : Elizabeth A. Bernays
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-10-01
ISBN : 100069755X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

First Published in 1989, this book explores the relationship between plants and insects and the ways in which they interact with each other. Carefully compiled and filled with a vast repertoire of notes, diagrams, and references this book serves as a useful reference for students of oncology, and other practitioners in their respective fields.

The Effect of Cations on Microbial Metabolism and Growth Energetics

The Effect of Cations on Microbial Metabolism and Growth Energetics Book
Author : Ed T. Buurman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Effect of Cations on Microbial Metabolism and Growth Energetics book written by Ed T. Buurman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Quantitative Aspects of Growth and Metabolism of Microorganisms

Quantitative Aspects of Growth and Metabolism of Microorganisms Book
Author : A.H. Stouthamer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401124469
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Application of recent advances, such as non-equilibrium thermodynamics, the maintenance concept and the material balancing method, to the description, of microbial growth has suggested new experimental approaches which have yielded a wealth of data. These data have been used to develop mathematical models of microbial growth and metabolism, and the models have made it possible to direct the metabolism of a microorganism in such a way that more of a certain desired product is made. While a full quantitative description of all aspects of microbial growth and metabolism is till remote, the new approaches are opening up large areas of new potential -- it is now possible, for instance, to deal with individual cells in a population and with quantitative aspects of product formation and optimisation. Microbiologists, biochemists and physiologists will find this an invaluable update on a field of great promise.

Physiological Stress Responses in Bioprocesses

Physiological Stress Responses in Bioprocesses Book
Author : Sven-Olof Enfors,Thomas Egli
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-05-06
ISBN : 9783540203117
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This review series covers trends in modern biotechnology. All aspects of this interdisciplinary technology, where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science, are treated. Electronic version available at http://link.springer.de/series/abe/

Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production

Metabolic Regulation and Metabolic Engineering for Biofuel and Biochemical Production Book
Author : Kazuyuki Shimizu
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 1351650106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The global warming problem is becoming critical year by year, causing climate disaster all over the world, where it has been believed that the CO2 gas emitted from the factories and the burning of fossil fuels may be one of the reasons of global warming. Moreover, the global stock of fossil fuels is limited, and may run out soon within several tens of years. Although wind, geo-thermal, and tide energies have been considered as clean energy sources, those depend on the land or sea locations and subject to the climate change. Biofuel and biochemical production from renewable bio-resources has thus been paid recent attention from environmental protection and energy production points of view, where the current chemical and energy producing plants can be also utilized with slight modification. The so-called 1st generation biofuels have been produced from corn starch and sugarcane in particular in USA and Brazil. However, this causes the problem of the so-called "food and energy issues" as the production scale increases. The 2nd generation biofuel production from lingo-cellulosic biomass or wastes has thus been paid recent attention. However, it requires energy intensive pretreatment for the degradation of lingo-cellulosic biomass, and the fermentation is slow due to low growth rate, and thus the productivity of biofuels and bio-chemicals is low. The 3rd generation biofuel production from photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and algae has been also paid attention, because such organisms can grow with only sun light and CO2 in the air, but the cell growth rate and thus the productivity of the fuels is significantly low. The main part or core of such production processes is the fermentation by micro-organisms. In particular, it is critical to properly understand the cell metabolism followed by the efficient metabolic engineering. The book gives comprehensive explanation of the cell metabolism and the metabolic regulation mechanisms of a variety of micro-organisms. Then the efficient metabolic engineering approaches are explained to properly design the microbial cell factories for the efficient cell growth and biofuel and biochemical production.

Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis

Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis Book
Author : Tyrrell Conway,Paul S. Cohen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-07-24
ISBN : 1555818889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Groundbreaking thinking on how bacterial metabolism is foundational to pathogenesis For too long, bacterial metabolism and bacterial pathogenesis have been studied as separate entities. However, the scientific community is beginning to realize that not only are bacterial nutrient acquisition and utilization essential for pathogenesis, but that interfering with the pathogen-specific metabolic pathways used during infection can regulate virulence factor expression and might lead to effective breakthroughs in a variety of treatments. Editors Paul Cohen and Tyrrell Conway, who pioneered the use of metabolic mutants in competitive colonization assays, an approach now widely used to investigate the nutrition of pathogens in vivo, are uniquely qualified to advance our knowledge of this integrative field of research. They convened a group of contributors who are breaking new ground in understanding how bacterial metabolism is foundational to pathogenesis to share their expert perspectives and outlook for the future. Beginning with overviews, Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis covers a wide range of diseases and both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria that serve as model systems for in vitro and in vivo investigations intracellular, respiratory, and enteric pathogens pathogen-specific nutrient acquisition in hosts mechanisms of host-driven metabolic adaptation by pathogens metabolic regulation of virulence gene expression Useful for specialists in bacterial pathogenesis and specialists in metabolism as well as molecular biologists, physicians, veterinarians, dentists, graduate and undergraduate students, and laboratory technicians, Metabolism and Bacterial Pathogenesis is also essential reading for scientists studying the microbiome.

Basic Biotechnology

Basic Biotechnology Book
Author : Colin Ratledge,Bjorn Kristiansen
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2006-05-25
ISBN : 0521840317
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biotechnology is one of the major technologies of the twenty-first century. Its wide-ranging, multi-disciplinary activities include recombinant DNA techniques, cloning and the application of microbiology to the production of goods from bread to antibiotics. In this new edition of the textbook Basic Biotechnology, biology and bioprocessing topics are uniquely combined to provide a complete overview of biotechnology. The fundamental principles that underpin all biotechnology are explained and a full range of examples are discussed to show how these principles are applied; from starting substrate to final product. A distinctive feature of this text are the discussions of the public perception of biotechnology and the business of biotechnology, which set the science in a broader context. This comprehensive textbook is essential reading for all students of biotechnology and applied microbiology, and for researchers in biotechnology industries.

The Metabolic Pathway Engineering Handbook

The Metabolic Pathway Engineering Handbook Book
Author : Christina Smolke
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-07-28
ISBN : 9781439802977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This first volume of the Metabolic Pathway Engineering Handbook provides an overview of metabolic pathway engineering with a look towards the future. It discusses cellular metabolism, including transport processes inside the cell and energy generating reactions, as well as rare metabolic conversions. This volume also explores balances and reaction

The Metabolic Pathway Engineering Handbook Two Volume Set

The Metabolic Pathway Engineering Handbook  Two Volume Set Book
Author : Christina Smolke
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-08-18
ISBN : 1420005626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Christina Smolke, who recently developed a novel way to churn out large quantities of drugs from genetically modified brewer's yeast, is regarded as one of the most brilliant minds in biomedical engineering. In this handbook, she brings together pioneering scientists from dozens of disciplines to provide a complete record of accomplishment in metab

Bacterial Cellular Metabolic Systems

Bacterial Cellular Metabolic Systems Book
Author : K. Shimizu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-03-26
ISBN : 1908818204
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The metabolic regulation of a cell system is of critical importance in systems biology, and a robust model of these mechanisms is essential in predicting the effects on the metabolism of both the culture environment and the knockout of specific genes. Bacterial cellular metabolic systems focuses on this highly topical subject in relation to culture environment and provides a detailed analysis from gene level to metabolic level regulation, as well as offering a discussion of the most recent modelling approaches. The book begins with an introduction to metabolic mechanisms and to the metabolic regulation of a cell, before moving on to discussing the action of global regulators in response to a specific culture environment. The second half of the book examines conventional flux balance analysis and its applications, 13C-metabolic flux analysis, and the effect of a specific gene knockout on the metabolism. Comprehensive account of metabolic regulation via global regulators in response to changes in the culture environment Basic formulation of 13C-metabolic flux analysis based on 13C-labelling experiments Systems biology approach for the modelling and computer simulation of the main metabolic pathways of a cell system

Fluxomics and Metabolic Analysis in Systems Microbiology

Fluxomics and Metabolic Analysis in Systems Microbiology Book
Author : Wei Xiong,Yinjie Tang,Lars Keld Nielsen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-10-21
ISBN : 2889630692
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fluxomics and Metabolic Analysis in Systems Microbiology book written by Wei Xiong,Yinjie Tang,Lars Keld Nielsen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Secondary Metabolism in Plant Cell Cultures

Secondary Metabolism in Plant Cell Cultures Book
Author : Morris, Howard Richard,International Association of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
Publisher : CUP Archive
Release : 1986-09-25
ISBN : 9780521328890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 1986 book, derived from the meeting held by the International Association of Plant Cell and Tissue Culture in Sheffield in July 1985, describes the state of research in the area of secondary metabolism in plant cell and tissue culture. Such cultures are a major tool in horticulture and agriculture, and in the chemical industry.

Amino Acid Biosynthesis Pathways Regulation and Metabolic Engineering

Amino Acid Biosynthesis     Pathways  Regulation and Metabolic Engineering Book
Author : Volker F. Wendisch
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-03-24
ISBN : 3540485961
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the current knowledge of fundamental as well as applied microbiology of amino acids. Coverage details the amino acid biosynthetic pathways, their genetic and biochemical regulation, transport of amino acids and genomics of producing microorganisms. The book also examines the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the biotechnological production of amino acids for use as pharmaceuticals and as food and feed additives.