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Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

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Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-23
ISBN : 9780080564968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

A Perspective on the Origin and Evolution of Viruses

A Perspective on the Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Brian C. Yowler,Geneva College (Beaver Falls, Pa.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Perspective on the Origin and Evolution of Viruses book written by Brian C. Yowler,Geneva College (Beaver Falls, Pa.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases explained by the evolutionary flexibility of the viral agents that circulate in a continuously changing earth environment. * NEW to this edition - chapters on the molecular basis of copying fidelity of viral polymerases, methods to establish phylogenetic relationships among viruses, and the mechanisms of cellular RNA interference and editing functions as they affect virus evolution. * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups. * Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interaction with their hosts.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity Book
Author : Luis P. Villarreal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-10
ISBN : 9780387779980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

Molecular Evolution of Viruses Past and Present

Molecular Evolution of Viruses     Past and Present Book
Author : Yechiel Becker
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461314070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The studies presented in this special issue of VIRUS GENES provide information on the two aspects of virus evolution: the ancient evolution of viruses from the time prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells evolved, and the ongoing process of the current molecular evolution of viruses. The studies of many scientists collected in this issue and many more that were published in other scientific journals provide insight into the molecular evolution of viruses as one of nature's mysteries. The use of computer porograms to study the nucleotide sequences of viral genomes, the amino acid compositions of proteins coded by viral genomes, and searches for regulatory mechanisms in viral nucleic acid replication, as well as identities of motifs in proteins of viruses from all families, will provide additional information on the subject. In future issues that will be devoted to this subject, the origin and evolution of RNA and DNA viruses will be further investigated.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses Book
Author : Edward C. Holmes
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-06-25
ISBN : 0199211124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution Book
Author : Adrian J. Gibbs,Charles H. Calisher,Fernando García-Arenal
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-11-17
ISBN : 9780521022897
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 1995 book covers virus evolution, genetics and interaction with host for virologists and evolutionists.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Viruses book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses

The Evolutionary Biology of Viruses Book
Author : Morse
Publisher : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addresses viral phylogeny: origins & relatedness/processes generating genetic diversity/natural selection/etc.

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales Book
Author : Arne T. Skjeltorp,Alexander V. Belushkin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-26
ISBN : 1402087616
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, which is sometimes effectively instantaneous. The book contains reviews on such diverse areas as evolution experiments with microorganisms, the origin and evolution of viruses, evolutionary dynamics of genes and environment in cancer development, aging as an evolution-facilitating program, evolution of vision and evolution of financial markets.

Research Conducted on Evolution of Virus Theory of Tumor Origin

Research Conducted on Evolution of Virus Theory of Tumor Origin Book
Author : Lev Aleksandrovich Zilʹber
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1967
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Research Conducted on Evolution of Virus Theory of Tumor Origin book written by Lev Aleksandrovich Zilʹber, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance Book
Author : Eugene V. Koonin
Publisher : FT Press
Release : 2011-06-23
ISBN : 9780132623179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems

Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems Book
Author : Ricard Solé,Santiago F. Elena
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2018-12-11
ISBN : 0691185115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How complex systems theory sheds new light on the adaptive dynamics of viral populations Viruses are everywhere, infecting all sorts of living organisms, from the tiniest bacteria to the largest mammals. Many are harmful parasites, but viruses also play a major role as drivers of our evolution as a species and are essential regulators of the composition and complexity of ecosystems on a global scale. This concise book draws on complex systems theory to provide a fresh look at viral origins, populations, and evolution, and the coevolutionary dynamics of viruses and their hosts. New viruses continue to emerge that threaten people, crops, and farm animals. Viruses constantly evade our immune systems, and antiviral therapies and vaccination campaigns can be powerless against them. These unique characteristics of virus biology are a consequence of their tremendous evolutionary potential, which enables viruses to quickly adapt to any environmental challenge. Ricard Solé and Santiago Elena present a unified framework for understanding viruses as complex adaptive systems. They show how the application of complex systems theory to viral dynamics has provided new insights into the development of AIDS in patients infected with HIV-1, the emergence of new antigenic variants of the influenza A virus, and other cutting-edge advances. Essential reading for biologists, physicists, and mathematicians interested in complexity, Viruses as Complex Adaptive Systems also extends the analogy of viruses to the evolution of other replicators such as computer viruses, cancer, and languages.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Joseph Panno
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9780816068555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Evolution of Viruses

Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Stephen Rego
Publisher : Delve Publishing
Release : 2017-11
ISBN : 9781773612911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution of virus is a subfield of virology and evolutionary biology, specifically relate to viral evolution. Most viruses, specifically RNA viruses, have comparatively high mutation rates and short generation time. Rate of mutation at this elevated level permits rapid adaptation to alterations in the host environments, when joined with natural selection. Evolution of virus is an important part of epidemiology of viral infections, for example, HCV, AIDS, and influenza, etc. Rapid viral mutations cause difficulties in the progress of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, such as resistant mutations usually seem from weeks to months after treatment begins. Major theoretical models, including the quasi-species model, are discussed in detail in this book, as viral quasi-species. Viruses do not have fossils, as they are very small even smaller than colloidal fragment that forms the sedimentary rocks that fossilize animals and plants. However, many organisms have genomes and genes of ancient virus that in past invaded in germ line of host. For example, most of the vertebrates have genomes comprising of hundreds to thousands sequences that are resultant from past retrovirus. These sequences of are appreciate source of proof retrospective regarding the viral evolutionary history and have originated the paleovirology science.In addition to these, the book describes, modern viral genomic analysis and provide evolutionary history of viruses to some level. Many viral mutation rates dignified and dates of divergence inferred with the help of application of molecular clock. The process of evolution in viruses is by changing in sequence of their hereditary materials (DNA and RNA). Mutants that are best adapted reproduce and divide more quickly than the other ones. Most of the viruses have ability to interchange their hereditary material during the process when these two different viral strains infect the similar cell. This mechanism is genetic shift, and is usually the source of more virulent and new appearing strains. While other viruses develops more slowly due with time accumulation of mutations in their genes through a process of genetic drift. Due to these processes, the viruses are going to be powerful day by day and presenting as challenge in efforts of controlling disease. Just like as natural selection has molded evolution of all living things, humans and plants on the world, this process produce developments in viruses. Viruses are not living things technically; however, they require a host organism to reproduce. Its job is to attack the immune system, to create its copies and spread in its host. If virus killed the host before affecting other one, it will lose its mutation. This book discusses viral cycles in a host and host immune responses to viruses including the development of antibodies. These antibodies lock on the proteins present on outer surface of viruses. These antibodies protect the host from viral entrance. The virus that is different from other types of viruses has an advantage, as the host body has no immunity against that new virus in antibody form. Evolutionary history of viruses is not understood completely. Few might have evolved from bacteria and others from pieces of DNA or plasmids that can transfer among the cells. For example, retrovirus has ability to move among cells. During the cycle of retrovirus, the viral genes could transcribed or translated. RNA polymerase has the capacity to make new copies of single stranded RNA genome of virus. Movement of retrosposons closely mirrors this process. These movable genetic materials make about 45 % of human genome and can move within it with the help of RNA intermediates. It is included in the progressive hypotheses. The book also includes evolution of quasi-species; Quasi-species of viruses related through alike mutations or by mutations that are competing in highly mutagenic surroundings. The hypothesis predicts that a viral quasi-species at a low yet developmentally impartial and profoundly associated (that is, level) area in the wellness scene will outcompete a quasi-species situated at a higher yet smaller wellness top in which the encompassing mutants are unfit. This marvel is known as ''the quasi-species impact'' or, currently, the ''survival of the flattest''. The centrality of the quasi-species demonstrate for virology is that, if the transformation rate is adequately high, choice follows up on mutants instead of individual sequences. Therefore, the developmental direction of the infections related to a virus cannot anticipated exclusively from the qualities of the fittest succession. Information about evolution of plant viruses is also discussedViruses cause major threats to all living life forms including plants, including catastrophic damage to production of crops. Viruses of plants use various processes to make the huge quantity of hereditary diversity present in both among and inside the species. Plant viruses may have processes of highly prone replication, which cause several mutations. By nature, it is quasi-species. The evolution of plant viruses usually use the process of re-assortment and recombination. Different species of plant viruses have different quantity of differences; however, there is no proof of changes in mutation rate. Plant and animal viruses have common origin. It is recommended reading for individuals who seek further information regarding viral evolution.

Viruses Essential Agents of Life

Viruses  Essential Agents of Life Book
Author : Günther Witzany
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-13
ISBN : 940074899X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A renaissance of virus research is taking centre stage in biology. Empirical data from the last decade indicate the important roles of viruses, both in the evolution of all life and as symbionts of host organisms. There is increasing evidence that all cellular life is colonized by exogenous and/or endogenous viruses in a non-lytic but persistent lifestyle. Viruses and viral parts form the most numerous genetic matter on this planet.

Cosmic Genetic Evolution

Cosmic Genetic Evolution Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-10-18
ISBN : 0128215259
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cosmic Genetic Evolution, Volume 106 in the Advances in Genetics series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on Panspermia, Cometary Panspermia and Origin of Life, The Efficient Lamarckian Spread of Life in the Cosmos, The Sociology of Science and Generality of the DNA/RNA/Protein Paradigm Throughout the Cosmos, The Mutagenic Source and Power of Our Own Evolution, Origin of New Emergent Coronavirus and Candida Fungal Diseases – Terrestrial or Cosmic?, and Future Prospects for Investigation -The Near-Earth Neighborhood and Beyond. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Advances in Genetics series Updated release includes the latest information on the Cosmic Genetic Evolution

Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology

Desk Encyclopedia of General Virology Book
Author : Marc H.V. van Regenmortel,Brian W.J. Mahy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-05-21
ISBN : 9780123751621
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume, derived from Encyclopedia of Virology, provides an overview of the development of virology during the last ten years. Entries detail the nature, origin, phylogeny and evolution of viruses. It then moves into a summary of our understanding of the structure and assembly of virus particles and describes how this knowledge was obtained. Genetic material of viruses and the different mechanisms used by viruses to infect and replicate in their host cells are highlighted. The volume is rounded out with an overview of some major groups of viruses with particular attention being given to our current knowledge of their molecular biology. The most comprehensive single-volume source providing an overview of virology to non-specialists Bridges the gap between basic undergraduate texts and specialized reviews Concise and general overviews of important topics within the field will help when preparing for lectures, writing reports, or drafting grant applications

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Arnold J. Levine
Publisher : Henry Holt and Company
Release : 1991-08-15
ISBN : 1466813881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses encapsulates for the lay reader the enormous scientific and medical contributions that have come from the field of virology. Dr. Arnold Levine presents the story of the scientists behind our current understanding of these infective agents and explains how that knowledge has helped us comprehend life at both the molecular and the human level. Many intriguing facets of viral behavior are explored, as Dr. Levine provides a clear account of their natural history, the mechanisms by which they spread and survive, and the toll they exact on their animal, plant, and bacterial hosts. Dr. Levine celebrates the great successes that have come from viral studies--the development of a wide range of vaccines, the eradication of smallpox, and the insights into the origins of cancer. He also examines the challeges we still face, with a series of interconnected chapters on the specific viruses behind some of our most urgent public health problems, including the viruses that cause AIDS, influenza, herpes, and hepatitis. A concluding chapter on the origin and evolution of viruses touches on some of the most provocative issues in molecular biology today. Viral infections continue to be an immediate health concern of imposing proportions. Viruses is written for the general reader eager to know how we study and confront these diseases and where today's research may lead.

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity Explaining Unity And Diversity Principles Of Organization With Molecular Structure And Evolutionary Genomics

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity  Explaining Unity And Diversity Principles Of Organization With Molecular Structure And Evolutionary Genomics Book
Author : Gustavo Caetano-anolles
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2020-11-20
ISBN : 9814656631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity presents a unique global framework to explain molecular and organismal biodiversity that is grounded in evolutionary genomics. This book will tackle important questions such as the origin of life, the emergence of biochemistry, the origin of viruses, the nature of the last universal common ancestor responsible for diversified life, the role of information and thermodynamics in evolution, the reason for having three cellular domains in life, and the centrality of modules in biology.This book will explore six themes: (1) Explanatory frameworks for biological organization; (2) Evolutionary patterns and biodiversity; (3) Molecular structure and evolutionary genomics; (4) A framework of persistence strategies that borrows from engineering and systems biology; (5) Use of this framework to explain diversity in the molecular world; and (6) Exploring the origin and evolution of cells and viruses.Consequently, this book represents a very unique collection of ideas that can attract the attention of a broad readership interested in life sciences/biology.