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Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

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Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-23
ISBN : 9780080564968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses Book
Author : Edward C. Holmes
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-06-25
ISBN : 0199211124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Virus as Populations

Virus as Populations Book
Author : Esteban Domingo
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-11-06
ISBN : 0128163321
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Virus as Composition, Complexity, Quasispecies, Dynamics, and Biological Implications, Second Edition, explains the fundamental concepts surrounding viruses as complex populations during replication in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, and the probability to be transmitted or respond to treatment all depend on virus population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, and new antiviral strategies are included. The book's main concepts are framed by recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies and current views on the origin and role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

The Major Transitions in Evolution

The Major Transitions in Evolution Book
Author : John Maynard Smith,Eors Szathmary
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 1997-10-30
ISBN : 0191586005
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During evolution, there have been several major changes in the way that genetic information is organized and transmitted from one generation to the next. These transitions include the origin of life itself, the first eukaryotic cells, reproduction by sexual means, the appearance of multicellular plants and animals, the emergence of cooperation and of animal societies, and the unique language ability of humans. This is the first book to discuss all of these major transitions. In discussing such a wide range of topics in one volume, the authors are able to highlight the similarities between different transitions - for example, between the union of replicating molecules to form chromosomes and of cells to form multicellular organisms. The authors also show how an understanding of one transition sheds light on others. A common theme in the book is that entities that could replicate independently before the transition can replicate afterwards only as part of a larger whole. Why, then, does selection between entities at the lower level not disrupt selection at the higher level? In answering this question, the authors offer an explanation for the evolution of cooperation at all levels of complexity. Written in a clear style, and illustrated with many original diagrams, this book can be read with enjoyment by anyone with an undergraduate training in the biological sciences. It will be ideal for advanced discussion groups on evolution. Although the content ranges widely from molecular biology to linguistics and from intragenomic conflict to insect societies, no detailed knowledge of any of these topics is required. Mathematical models are clearly explained, and equations and formulae are kept to a minimum.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Joseph Panno
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9780816068555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Michael G. Cordingley
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2017-06-19
ISBN : 0674978609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While viruses—the world’s most abundant biological entities—are not technically alive, they invade, replicate, and evolve within living cells. Michael Cordingley goes beyond our familiarity with infections to show how viruses spur evolutionary change in their hosts and shape global ecosystems, from ocean photosynthesis to drug-resistant bacteria.

A Planet of Viruses

A Planet of Viruses Book
Author : Carl Zimmer
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2015-10-06
ISBN : 022632026X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For years, scientists have been warning us that a pandemic was all but inevitable. Now it's here, and the rest of us have a lot to learn. Fortunately, science writer Carl Zimmer is here to guide us. In this compact volume, he tells the story of how the smallest living things known to science can bring an entire planet of people to a halt--and what we can learn from how we've defeated them in the past. Planet of Viruses covers such threats as Ebola, MERS, and chikungunya virus; tells about recent scientific discoveries, such as a hundred-million-year-old virus that infected the common ancestor of armadillos, elephants, and humans; and shares new findings that show why climate change may lead to even deadlier outbreaks. Zimmer’s lucid explanations and fascinating stories demonstrate how deeply humans and viruses are intertwined. Viruses helped give rise to the first life-forms, are responsible for many of our most devastating diseases, and will continue to control our fate for centuries. Thoroughly readable, and, for all its honesty about the threats, as reassuring as it is frightening, A Planet of Viruses is a fascinating tour of a world we all need to better understand.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity Book
Author : Luis P. Villarreal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-10
ISBN : 9780387779980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

Viruses and the Evolution of Life

Viruses and the Evolution of Life Book
Author : Luis P. Villarreal
Publisher : Amer Society for Microbiology
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9781555813093
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses and the Evolution of Life is an intriguing presentation of the virus–host relationship, as revealed through an examination of host evolution. This new volume avails the informed reader of a new perspective on the evolution of life while targeting the expert reader with discussions of specific scientific literature. Addresses the adaptation and evolution of viruses and, more importantly, the role of viruses in evolutionary biology Develops integrated themes for study of virology Contributes valuable information to the understanding of the virus–host relationship Integrates the relationship between genetic parasites found in host genomes with the virology of the host Communicates basic principles to the informed reader while presenting a scholarly evaluation of literature to challenge the specialist Written by one of the foremost experts in the field

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity Explaining Unity And Diversity Principles Of Organization With Molecular Structure And Evolutionary Genomics

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity  Explaining Unity And Diversity Principles Of Organization With Molecular Structure And Evolutionary Genomics Book
Author : Gustavo Caetano-anolles
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2020-11-20
ISBN : 9814656631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Untangling Molecular Biodiversity presents a unique global framework to explain molecular and organismal biodiversity that is grounded in evolutionary genomics. This book will tackle important questions such as the origin of life, the emergence of biochemistry, the origin of viruses, the nature of the last universal common ancestor responsible for diversified life, the role of information and thermodynamics in evolution, the reason for having three cellular domains in life, and the centrality of modules in biology.This book will explore six themes: (1) Explanatory frameworks for biological organization; (2) Evolutionary patterns and biodiversity; (3) Molecular structure and evolutionary genomics; (4) A framework of persistence strategies that borrows from engineering and systems biology; (5) Use of this framework to explain diversity in the molecular world; and (6) Exploring the origin and evolution of cells and viruses.Consequently, this book represents a very unique collection of ideas that can attract the attention of a broad readership interested in life sciences/biology.

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases Book
Author : Michel Tibayrenc
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-01-12
ISBN : 0128001534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetics and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Second Edition, discusses the constantly evolving field of infectious diseases and their continued impact on the health of populations, especially in resource-limited areas of the world. Students in public health, biomedical professionals, clinicians, public health practitioners, and decisions-makers will find valuable information in this book that is relevant to the control and prevention of neglected and emerging worldwide diseases that are a major cause of global morbidity, disability, and mortality. Although substantial gains have been made in public health interventions for the treatment, prevention, and control of infectious diseases during the last century, in recent decades the world has witnessed a worldwide human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and the emergence of many new bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The economic, social, and political burden of infectious diseases is most evident in developing countries which must confront the dual burden of death and disability due to infectious and chronic illnesses. Takes an integrated approach to infectious diseases Includes contributions from leading authorities Provides the latest developments in the field of infectious disease

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance Book
Author : Eugene V. Koonin
Publisher : FT Press
Release : 2011-06-23
ISBN : 013262317X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

Viruses Essential Agents of Life

Viruses  Essential Agents of Life Book
Author : Günther Witzany
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-11-13
ISBN : 940074899X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A renaissance of virus research is taking centre stage in biology. Empirical data from the last decade indicate the important roles of viruses, both in the evolution of all life and as symbionts of host organisms. There is increasing evidence that all cellular life is colonized by exogenous and/or endogenous viruses in a non-lytic but persistent lifestyle. Viruses and viral parts form the most numerous genetic matter on this planet.

The Evolution of HIV

The Evolution of HIV Book
Author : Keith A. Crandall
Publisher : JHU Press
Release : 1999-04-26
ISBN : 9780801861512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wolinsky.-- "European Molecular Biology Organization Reports"

Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses Book
Author : Carla Osiowy,Lilly Yuen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-10-14
ISBN : 2889714888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Origin and Evolution of Hepatitis Viruses book written by Carla Osiowy,Lilly Yuen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Paula Tennant,Gustavo Fermin,Jerome E. Foster
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-03-12
ISBN : 0128111941
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses: Molecular Biology, Host Interactions, and Applications to Biotechnology provides an up-to-date introduction to human, animal and plant viruses within the context of recent advances in high-throughput sequencing that have demonstrated that viruses are vastly greater and more diverse than previously recognized. It covers discoveries such as the Mimivirus and its virophage which have stimulated new discussions on the definition of viruses, their place in the current view, and their inherent and derived ‘interactomics’ as defined by the molecules and the processes by which virus gene products interact with themselves and their host’s cellular gene products. Further, the book includes perspectives on basic aspects of virology, including the structure of viruses, the organization of their genomes, and basic strategies in replication and expression, emphasizing the diversity and versatility of viruses, how they cause disease and how their hosts react to such disease, and exploring developments in the field of host-microbe interactions in recent years. The book is likely to appeal, and be useful, to a wide audience that includes students, academics and researchers studying the molecular biology and applications of viruses Provides key insights into recent technological advances, including high-throughput sequencing Presents viruses not only as formidable foes, but also as entities that can be beneficial to their hosts and humankind that are helping to shape the tree of life Features exposition on the diversity and versatility of viruses, how they cause disease, and an exploration of virus-host interactions

Virus as Organism

Virus as Organism Book
Author : Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1945
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reproduction, variation, and survival. Evolution and change in virus disease. The reaction of the host to virus infection. Herpes simplex. Poliomyelitis. Psittacosis and related infections. Smallpox, alastrim, and vaccinia. Yellow fever. Influenza.

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Arnold J. Levine
Publisher : Henry Holt and Company
Release : 1991-08-15
ISBN : 1466813881
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viruses encapsulates for the lay reader the enormous scientific and medical contributions that have come from the field of virology. Dr. Arnold Levine presents the story of the scientists behind our current understanding of these infective agents and explains how that knowledge has helped us comprehend life at both the molecular and the human level. Many intriguing facets of viral behavior are explored, as Dr. Levine provides a clear account of their natural history, the mechanisms by which they spread and survive, and the toll they exact on their animal, plant, and bacterial hosts. Dr. Levine celebrates the great successes that have come from viral studies--the development of a wide range of vaccines, the eradication of smallpox, and the insights into the origins of cancer. He also examines the challeges we still face, with a series of interconnected chapters on the specific viruses behind some of our most urgent public health problems, including the viruses that cause AIDS, influenza, herpes, and hepatitis. A concluding chapter on the origin and evolution of viruses touches on some of the most provocative issues in molecular biology today. Viral infections continue to be an immediate health concern of imposing proportions. Viruses is written for the general reader eager to know how we study and confront these diseases and where today's research may lead.

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life

The Genetic Code and the Origin of Life Book
Author : Lluis Ribas de Pouplana
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-04-03
ISBN : 0387268871
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Early Thoughts on RNA and the Origin of Life The full impact of the essential role of the nucleic acids in biological systems was forcefully demonstrated by the research community in the 1950s. Although Avery and his collaborators had identified DNA as the genetic material responsible for the transformation of bacteria in 1944, it was not until the early 1950s that the Hershey-Chase experiments provided a more direct demonstration of this role. Finally, the structural DNA double helix proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 clearly created a structural frame work for the role of DNA as both information carrier and as a molecule that could undergo the necessary replication needed for daughter cells. Research continued by Kornberg and his colleagues in the mid-1950s emphasized the biochemistry and enzymology of DNA replication. At the same time, there was a growing interest in the role of RNA. The 1956 dis covery by David Davies and myself showed that polyadenylic acid and polyuridylic acid could form a double-helical RNA molecule but that it differed somewhat from DN A A large number of experiments were subsequendy carried out with synthetic polyribonucleotides which illustrated that RNA could form even more complicated helical structures in which the specificity of hydrogen bonding was the key element in determining the molecular conformation. Finally, in I960,1 could show that it was possible to make a hybrid helix.

Virus Bioinformatics

Virus Bioinformatics Book
Author : Manja Marz,Bashar Ibrahim,Franziska Hufsky,David L. Robertson
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-02-21
ISBN : 3039218824
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.