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Origin And Evolution Of Viruses

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Origin and Evolution of Viruses

Origin and Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Esteban Domingo,Colin R. Parrish,John J. Holland
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-06-23
ISBN : 9780080564968
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New viral diseases are emerging continuously. Viruses adapt to new environments at astounding rates. Genetic variability of viruses jeopardizes vaccine efficacy. For many viruses mutants resistant to antiviral agents or host immune responses arise readily, for example, with HIV and influenza. These variations are all of utmost importance for human and animal health as they have prevented us from controlling these epidemic pathogens. This book focuses on the mechanisms that viruses use to evolve, survive and cause disease in their hosts. Covering human, animal, plant and bacterial viruses, it provides both the basic foundations for the evolutionary dynamics of viruses and specific examples of emerging diseases. * NEW - methods to establish relationships among viruses and the mechanisms that affect virus evolution * UNIQUE - combines theoretical concepts in evolution with detailed analyses of the evolution of important virus groups * SPECIFIC - Bacterial, plant, animal and human viruses are compared regarding their interation with their hosts

Viruses

Viruses Book
Author : Joseph Panno
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9780816068555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learn all about viruses in this New Biology book.

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution Book
Author : Adrian J. Gibbs,Charles H. Calisher,Fernando García-Arenal
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-11-17
ISBN : 9780521022897
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 1995 book covers virus evolution, genetics and interaction with host for virologists and evolutionists.

The Logic of Chance

The Logic of Chance Book
Author : Eugene V. Koonin
Publisher : FT Press
Release : 2011-06-23
ISBN : 9780132623179
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.

Evolution of Viruses

Evolution of Viruses Book
Author : Stephen Rego
Publisher : Delve Publishing
Release : 2017-11
ISBN : 9781773612911
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution of virus is a subfield of virology and evolutionary biology, specifically relate to viral evolution. Most viruses, specifically RNA viruses, have comparatively high mutation rates and short generation time. Rate of mutation at this elevated level permits rapid adaptation to alterations in the host environments, when joined with natural selection. Evolution of virus is an important part of epidemiology of viral infections, for example, HCV, AIDS, and influenza, etc. Rapid viral mutations cause difficulties in the progress of effective antiviral drugs and vaccines, such as resistant mutations usually seem from weeks to months after treatment begins. Major theoretical models, including the quasi-species model, are discussed in detail in this book, as viral quasi-species. Viruses do not have fossils, as they are very small even smaller than colloidal fragment that forms the sedimentary rocks that fossilize animals and plants. However, many organisms have genomes and genes of ancient virus that in past invaded in germ line of host. For example, most of the vertebrates have genomes comprising of hundreds to thousands sequences that are resultant from past retrovirus. These sequences of are appreciate source of proof retrospective regarding the viral evolutionary history and have originated the paleovirology science.In addition to these, the book describes, modern viral genomic analysis and provide evolutionary history of viruses to some level. Many viral mutation rates dignified and dates of divergence inferred with the help of application of molecular clock. The process of evolution in viruses is by changing in sequence of their hereditary materials (DNA and RNA). Mutants that are best adapted reproduce and divide more quickly than the other ones. Most of the viruses have ability to interchange their hereditary material during the process when these two different viral strains infect the similar cell. This mechanism is genetic shift, and is usually the source of more virulent and new appearing strains. While other viruses develops more slowly due with time accumulation of mutations in their genes through a process of genetic drift. Due to these processes, the viruses are going to be powerful day by day and presenting as challenge in efforts of controlling disease. Just like as natural selection has molded evolution of all living things, humans and plants on the world, this process produce developments in viruses. Viruses are not living things technically; however, they require a host organism to reproduce. Its job is to attack the immune system, to create its copies and spread in its host. If virus killed the host before affecting other one, it will lose its mutation. This book discusses viral cycles in a host and host immune responses to viruses including the development of antibodies. These antibodies lock on the proteins present on outer surface of viruses. These antibodies protect the host from viral entrance. The virus that is different from other types of viruses has an advantage, as the host body has no immunity against that new virus in antibody form. Evolutionary history of viruses is not understood completely. Few might have evolved from bacteria and others from pieces of DNA or plasmids that can transfer among the cells. For example, retrovirus has ability to move among cells. During the cycle of retrovirus, the viral genes could transcribed or translated. RNA polymerase has the capacity to make new copies of single stranded RNA genome of virus. Movement of retrosposons closely mirrors this process. These movable genetic materials make about 45 % of human genome and can move within it with the help of RNA intermediates. It is included in the progressive hypotheses. The book also includes evolution of quasi-species; Quasi-species of viruses related through alike mutations or by mutations that are competing in highly mutagenic surroundings. The hypothesis predicts that a viral quasi-species at a low yet developmentally impartial and profoundly associated (that is, level) area in the wellness scene will outcompete a quasi-species situated at a higher yet smaller wellness top in which the encompassing mutants are unfit. This marvel is known as ''the quasi-species impact'' or, currently, the ''survival of the flattest''. The centrality of the quasi-species demonstrate for virology is that, if the transformation rate is adequately high, choice follows up on mutants instead of individual sequences. Therefore, the developmental direction of the infections related to a virus cannot anticipated exclusively from the qualities of the fittest succession. Information about evolution of plant viruses is also discussedViruses cause major threats to all living life forms including plants, including catastrophic damage to production of crops. Viruses of plants use various processes to make the huge quantity of hereditary diversity present in both among and inside the species. Plant viruses may have processes of highly prone replication, which cause several mutations. By nature, it is quasi-species. The evolution of plant viruses usually use the process of re-assortment and recombination. Different species of plant viruses have different quantity of differences; however, there is no proof of changes in mutation rate. Plant and animal viruses have common origin. It is recommended reading for individuals who seek further information regarding viral evolution.

Molecular Evolution of Viruses Past and Present

Molecular Evolution of Viruses   Past and Present Book
Author : Yechiel Becker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1996-06-30
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The studies presented in this special issue of VIRUS GENES provide information on the two aspects of virus evolution: the ancient evolution of viruses from the time prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells evolved, and the ongoing process of the current molecular evolution of viruses. The studies of many scientists collected in this issue and many more that were published in other scientific journals provide insight into the molecular evolution of viruses as one of nature's mysteries. The use of computer porograms to study the nucleotide sequences of viral genomes, the amino acid compositions of proteins coded by viral genomes, and searches for regulatory mechanisms in viral nucleic acid replication, as well as identities of motifs in proteins of viruses from all families, will provide additional information on the subject. In future issues that will be devoted to this subject, the origin and evolution of RNA and DNA viruses will be further investigated.

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales

Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales Book
Author : Arne T. Skjeltorp,Alexander V. Belushkin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-26
ISBN : 1402087616
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution is a critical challenge for many areas of science, technology and development of society. The book reviews general evolutionary facts such as origin of life and evolution of the genome and clues to evolution through simple systems. Emerging areas of science such as "systems biology" and "bio-complexity" are founded on the idea that phenomena need to be understood in the context of highly interactive processes operating at different levels and on different scales. This is where physics meets complexity in nature, and where we must begin to learn about complexity if we are to understand it. Similarly, there is an increasingly urgent need to understand and predict the evolutionary behavior of highly interacting man-made systems, in areas such as communications and transport, which permeate the modern world. The same applies to the evolution of human networks such as social, political and financial systems, where technology has tended to vastly increase both the complexity and speed of interaction, which is sometimes effectively instantaneous. The book contains reviews on such diverse areas as evolution experiments with microorganisms, the origin and evolution of viruses, evolutionary dynamics of genes and environment in cancer development, aging as an evolution-facilitating program, evolution of vision and evolution of financial markets.

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses Book
Author : Edward C. Holmes
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2009-06-25
ISBN : 0199211124
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Encyclopedia of Microbiology

Encyclopedia of Microbiology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-01-14
ISBN : 0123739446
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Available as an exclusive product with a limited print run, Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 3e, is a comprehensive survey of microbiology, edited by world-class researchers. Each article is written by an expert in that specific domain and includes a glossary, list of abbreviations, defining statement, introduction, further reading and cross-references to other related encyclopedia articles. Written at a level suitable for university undergraduates, the breadth and depth of coverage will appeal beyond undergraduates to professionals and academics in related fields. 16 separate areas of microbiology covered for breadth and depth of content Extensive use of figures, tables, and color illustrations and photographs Language is accessible for undergraduates, depth appropriate for scientists Links to original journal articles via Crossref 30% NEW articles and 4-color throughout - NEW!

Virus Bioinformatics

Virus Bioinformatics Book
Author : Manja Marz,Bashar Ibrahim,Franziska Hufsky,David L. Robertson
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-02-21
ISBN : 3039218824
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Virus bioinformatics is evolving and succeeding as an area of research in its own right, representing the interface of virology and computer science. Bioinformatic approaches to investigate viral infections and outbreaks have become central to virology research, and have been successfully used to detect, control, and treat infections of humans and animals. As part of the Third Annual Meeting of the European Virus Bioinformatics Center (EVBC), we have published this Special Issue on Virus Bioinformatics.

Principles of Molecular Virology

Principles of Molecular Virology Book
Author : Alan Cann
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-08-09
ISBN : 9780120887897
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The fourth edition of the hugely successful Principles of Molecular Virology takes on a molecular approach, presenting the principles of virology in a clear and concise manner. This work explores and explains the fundamental aspects of virology, including structure of virus particles and genome, replication, gene expression, infection, pathogenesis and subviral agents. The self-assessment questions, glossary and abbreviations section provide excellent revision aids and serve as handy references to students, tutors and researchers alike. NEW TO FOURTH EDITION: * New material on virus structure and virus evolution * Updated pathogenesis section covering Ebola, SARS and HIV * New section on Bioterrorism * Fully updated references * New material on virus structure, virus evolution, zoonoses, bushmeat, SARS and bioterrorism

Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans

Insight into Influenza Viruses of Animals and Humans Book
Author : Sanjay Kapoor,Kuldeep Dhama
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-03-31
ISBN : 3319055127
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides salient information on all aspects of influenza/flu viruses affecting animals and humans. It specifically reviews the properties and replication of influenza viruses; their evolution and emergence; epidemiology; role of migratory birds in disease transmission; clinical signs in humans, animals and poultry; pathogenesis and pathogenicity; public health importance and potential threats; diagnosis; prevention and control measures; and pandemic preparedness. Influenza/flu viruses evolve continuously and jump species causing epidemics as well as pandemics in both human and animals. During the past 150 years, various strains of influenza virus like the Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, bird flu and swine flu were responsible for high mortality in humans as well as birds. High mutation rates, antigenic shifts, drifts, reassortment phenomena, and the development of antiviral drug resistance all contribute to ineffective chemotherapy and vaccines against influenza viruses. Due to their devastating nature, high zoonotic implications and high mortality in humans and poultry, they have a severe impact on the socioeconomic status of countries. Disease awareness, rapid and accurate diagnosis, surveillance, strict biosecurity, timely adoption of appropriate preventive and control measures and pandemic preparedness are crucial to help reduce virus transmission, thus reducing clinical cases, deaths and pandemic threats.

Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams

Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams Book
Author : Hans-Wolfgang Ackermann,Michel Tremblay,Laurent Berthiaume
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-11-29
ISBN : 9780849322075
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams is the first book of its kind to illustrate viral pathogenesis on a comparative basis. The text covers the pathogenesis of viral diseases, including vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, and protists. The diagrams summarize and integrate large numbers of observations, from electron microscopy to clinical data, into a single picture or a few related drawings. Organized alphabetically by virus family or groups, this book covers the complete domain of virology. Transcending photographs and experimental data, the diagrams are ideally suited to illustrate the pathogenesis of viral diseases, from infection to host defenses and cell death. Included are two chapters describing general pathogenesis in vertebrate virus infections and illustrating the spread of viruses through the body, as well as cytopathology and host defenses. One chapter illustrates the pathogenic behavior of 19 vertebrate virus families, especially herpesviruses and retroviruses. The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci. This up-to-date reference will promote understanding and future research.

Origin and Early Evolution of Life

Origin and Early Evolution of Life Book
Author : Tom Fenchel,Professor of Marine Biology and Director of Marine Biological Laboratory Tom Fenchel
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9780198525332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Origin and Early Evolution of Life draws on evidence from molecular genetics, the structure and function of extant organisms, and geology. It covers the period from about 4 billion years ago, when life is thought to have originated, to about 600 million years ago when multicellular organisms first arose. There are significant gaps in our understanding of the earliest evolution of life forms, but an insight into the topic leads to a more profound understanding of life itself. Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that although life arose very soon after the origin of the Earth, it was represented only by simple microbial life forms for approximately 85% of this time. Increase in complexity beyond the microbial level took place only very late in the history of life.

Origin of Group Identity

Origin of Group Identity Book
Author : Luis P. Villarreal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-10
ISBN : 9780387779980
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A sense of belonging is basic to the human experience. But in this, humans are not unique. Essentially all life, from bacteria to humans, have ways by which it determines which members belong and which do not. This is a basic cooperative nature of life I call group membership which is examined in this book. However, cooperation of living things is not easily accounted for by current theory of evolutionary biology and yet even viruses display group membership. That viruses have this feature would likely seem coincidental or irrelevant to most scientist as having any possible relationship to human group identity. Surely such simple molecular-based relationships between viruses are unrelated to the complex cognitive and emotional nature of human group membership. Yet viruses clearly affect bacterial group membership, which are the most diverse and abundant cellular life form on Earth and from which all life has evolved. Viruses are the most ancient, numerous and adaptable biological entities we know. And we have long recognized them for the harm and disease they can cause, and they have been responsible for the greatest numbers of human deaths. However, with the sequencing of entire genomes and more recently with the shotgun sequencings of habitats, we have come to realize viruses are the black hole of biology; a giant force that has until recently been largely unseen and historically ignored by evolutionary biology. Viruses not only can cause acute disease, but also persist as stable unseen agents in their host.

Human Influenza New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2011 Edition

Human Influenza  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2011 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1464908273
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Influenza: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Human Influenza in a compact format. The editors have built Human Influenza: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Human Influenza in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Human Influenza: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Nature at Work the Ongoing Saga of Evolution

Nature at Work   the Ongoing Saga of Evolution Book
Author : V. P. Sharma
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-27
ISBN : 8184899920
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Charles Robert Darwin was born on 12th February, 1809 in Shrewsbury, England. Darwin shares his birthday with U. S. President Abraham Lincoln. Both were crusaders against slavery: Darwin disliked slavery and Lincoln abolished it. Darwin was a born naturalist and showed keen interest in nature from the very beginning. A breakthrough came when he was selected as a naturalist on the H. M. S. Beagle ship. His ?ve year voyage on the Beagle started in 1931 and was completed in 1936. This was followed by publication of his research ?ndings that challenged creationist views of the church. Darwin conducted a study of fossils and geological records and concluded rightly, that all life forms emerged over millions of years of evolution through the force of natural selection. In 1959 Darwin published his work on evolution in a book titled “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favored Races”. The book was received as a scienti?c bomb shell and has since changed the human understanding of life forever. Today Darwin’s ideas on evolution provide foundation to modern biology. Darwin died of a heart attack on the 19th April 1882 and was buried in Westminster Abbey near the grave of Sir Isaac Newton. The scienti?c community is celebrating Darwin’s bicentenary worldwide in honor of his ingenuity, scienti?c thought, conviction and courage.

Viral Genes Advances in Research and Application 2012 Edition

Viral Genes   Advances in Research and Application  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-26
ISBN : 1464999449
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viral Genes—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Viral Genes. The editors have built Viral Genes—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Viral Genes in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Viral Genes—Advances in Research and Application: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Genomics and computational science for virus research

Genomics and computational science for virus research Book
Author : Hironori Sato,Masaru Yokoyama,Hiroyuki Toh
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2020-12-02
ISBN : 2889191265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A biologically striking and clinically important feature of viruses is their rapid evolutionary dynamics in nature. The continual interactions between viruses and host organisms promote quick changes in virus populations, eventually leading to co-evolution of viruses and hosts for their survival. The structural and functional information on the interactions between viruses and hosts should provide a molecular and biological basis to understand infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and direction of evolution of viruses. The information is also essential to develop methods to control transmission and replication of pathogenic viruses. However, the integrated information on the structure, function, and evolution of viruses and hosts has remained poorly accumulated, partly due to the limitation of analytical methods. Recent progress in genome science and computational approach may open up a new avenue of research of the interactions between viruses and hosts by integrating information on the structures, functions, and evolution. In this Research Topic, we welcome papers concerning the computer-assisted structural and functional studies based on genomic information, with theoretical or in combination with experimental approaches, for understanding molecules, infection, replication, cell/host-tropism, immune escape, pathogenesis, and evolution of viruses in nature.

Origin of HIV and Emerging Persistent Viruses

Origin of HIV and Emerging Persistent Viruses Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Accademia Naz. dei Lincei
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Origin of HIV and Emerging Persistent Viruses book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.