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Optimally Irrational

Optimally Irrational Book
Author : Lionel Page
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-15
ISBN : 9780128144794
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Optimally Irrational: The Hidden Benefits of Bad Instincts provides economists, social scientists and researchers in behavioral economics with a clear view of the frontier of research in economics and other behavioral sciences, including how the different biases unveiled by behavioral economics make sense when we try to optimize problems. The book evaluates the role of bias in human economic behavior, considers the human decision-making processes as the product of natural selection, and explores why we behave the way we do. Discusses how we think about, and adopt, apparently irrational behaviors and biases in empirical research Explains how biases may be adaptive solutions to well-posed optimization problems under constraints Unites advances in behavioral economics with those from other behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology

Hatred

Hatred Book
Author : Berit Brogaard
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0190084448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Hatred: Understanding Our Most Dangerous Emotion The first in-depth philosophical analysis of personal hate and group hate, Hate: Understanding Our Most Dangerous Emotion explores how personal hatred can foster domestic violence and emotional abuse, how hate-proneness is a main contributor to the aggressive tendencies of borderlines, narcissists and psychopaths, how seemingly ordinary people embark on some of history's worst hate crimes, and how cohesive groups, subjected to spontaneous forces of group polarization, can develop extremist viewpoints of the sort that motivate hate crimes, mass shootings, and terrorism. The book's first part explores hate in intimate relationships, looking for an answer to the question of why our intimate relationships can survive hate and resentment, but not disrespect or contempt. Berit "Brit" Brogaard shows that where contempt creates an irreparable power imbalance, hate is tied to fear, which our brains may reinterpret as thrill, attraction and excitement. But this can also make hate a dangerous emotion that convinces people to hang onto abusive relationships. When tied to vengeance and the dark triad of personality, hate is not only dangerous but also dehumanizing. Vengeance and the dark personalities are not essential to hate, however. Without them, hate can have more admirable ends. The book's second part explores the polarizing forces that can bias cohesive groups of like-minded individuals and contribute to what is effectively a hate crisis. Drawing on history, politics, legal theory, philosophy, and psychology, Brogaard shows how cultural myths about femininity, ethnic groups, and the land of opportunity perpetuate misogyny, white supremacy and anti-Semitism. But, she argues, politicians and policymakers have it in their power to address the hate crisis through legislation that preserves the original incentive behind the first-amendment right to free speech"--

Resources in Education

Resources in Education Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Resources in Education book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fuzzy Rationality

Fuzzy Rationality Book
Author : Kofi Kissi Dompere
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-07-22
ISBN : 3540880836
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Philosophy involves a criticism of scientific knowledge, not from a point of view ultimately different from that of science, but from a point of view less concerned with details and more concerned with the h- mony of the body of special sciences. Here as elsewhere, while the older logic shut out possibilities and imprisoned imagination within the walls of the familiar, the newer logic shows rather what may happen, and refuses to decide as to what must happen. Bertrand Russell At any particular stage in the development of humanity knowledge comes up against limits set by the necessarily limited character of the experience available and the existing means of obtaining knowledge. But humanity advances by overcoming such limits. New experience throws down the limits of old experience; new techniques, new means of obtaining knowledge throw down the limits of old techniques and old means of obtaining knowledge. New limits then once again appear. But there is no more reason to suppose these new limits absolute and final than there was to suppose the old ones absolute and final.

The Future of the Philosophy of Economics

The Future of the Philosophy of Economics Book
Author : Constanze Binder,Conrad Heilmann,Jack J Vromen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-04-19
ISBN : 1315462036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Originating from the International Network for Economic Method conference, hosted by the Erasmus Institute for Economics and Philosophy (EIPE) at the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 2013, this book chooses key themes that reflect on fascinating new developments in the philosophy of economics. Contributions discuss new avenues and debates in important and upcoming areas, such as the philosophy of economic policy making, decision theory, ethics, and new questions in economic methodology. The book offers an excellent insight into cutting edge research in these fields that are about to shape the future of the philosophy of economics. This book was originally published as a special issue of The Journal of Economic Methodology.

The Straight Line

The Straight Line Book
Author : Tom Waidzunas
Publisher : U of Minnesota Press
Release : 2015-11-20
ISBN : 1452945527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To be taken seriously, therapies that claim to “cure” homosexuality wrap themselves in lab coats. Even though the fit is bad, and such therapies and their theorists now inhabit the scientific fringe, the science of sexuality has made some adjustments, too, Tom Waidzunas tells us in this provocative work. Intervening in the politics of sexuality and science, The Straight Line argues that scientific definitions of sexual orientation do not merely reflect the results of investigations into human nature, but rather emerge through a process of social negotiation between opposing groups. The demedicalization of homosexuality and the discrediting of reparative therapies, ex-gay ministries, and reorientation research have, Waidzunas contends, required scientists to enforce key boundaries around scientific expertise and research methods. Drawing on extensive participant observation at conferences for ex-gays, reorientation therapists, mainstream psychologists, and survivors of ex-gay therapy, as well as interviews with experts and activists, The Straight Line traces reorientation debates in the United States from the 1950s to the present, following homosexuality therapies from the mainstream to the margins. As the ex-gay movement has become increasingly transnational in recent years, Waidzunas turns to Uganda, where ideas about the scientific nature of homosexuality influenced the passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act of 2014. While most studies treat the ex-gay movement as a religious phenomenon, this book looks at how the movement, in its attempts to establish legitimacy, has engaged with scientific institutions, shaping virulent anti-gay public policy.

Organizing Railway Transportation

Organizing Railway Transportation Book
Author : China. Tie dao bu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Organizing Railway Transportation book written by China. Tie dao bu, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The ADD Myth

The ADD Myth Book
Author : Martha Burge
Publisher : Mango Media Inc.
Release : 2012-09-01
ISBN : 1609256395
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Alternative Approach to Addressing ADD Despite the millions of people taking medication for attention deficit disorders, there remains no objective method of diagnosis for ADHD. In The ADD Myth, Martha Burge proposes a different understanding and solution for those diagnosed. ADD isn’t what we think it is. Author and ADHD coach Martha Burge introduces a different way of looking at the disorder often associated with boredom and impulsivity in young people. She argues that what is commonly understood as ADHD is actually five intense personality traits: sensual, psychomotor, intellectual, creative, and emotional. Once the supposed ADD symptoms are properly understood for what they are, people with these intense personality traits can develop them into gifts. Finding an alternative solution. After having two sons diagnosed with ADHD, and witnessing their serious reaction to drug treatments, Martha began a search for a different approach and a more natural treatment for ADHD. By looking at all personalities as part of the neurodiversity spectrum, she shows us how we can see where those with “intense” personality traits fit on the spectrum. Once we understand that, we are better able to help people embrace their traits and develop one’s intense nature rather than try to stifle it. This book will change the way you look at ADD for the better—open it up and learn more about: The five intense personality traits and how they apply to individuals diagnosed with ADHD Why the medical profession should seek alternative explanations for ADHD Stories, practical steps, and daily practices for developing one's intense nature with the least amount of suffering Readers of books such as Driven to Distraction, Healing ADD, Delivered from Distraction, or ADHD: Non-Medication Treatments and Skills for Children and Teens will enjoy The ADD Myth.

Social Norms Bounded Rationality and Optimal Contracts

Social Norms  Bounded Rationality and Optimal Contracts Book
Author : Suren Basov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-05-20
ISBN : 9811010412
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book investigates the ways in which social norms and bounded rationality shape different contracts in the real world. It brings into focus existing research into optimal contracts, draws important lessons from that research, and outlines prospects for future investigation. Bounded rationality has acknowledged effects on the power of incentive provisions, such as deviations from sufficient statistic theorem, the power of optimal incentives, and the effects of optimal contracts in multicultural environments. The introduction of social norms to bounded rationality opens up new avenues of investigation into contracts and mechanism design. This book makes an important contribution to the study of bounded rationality by pulling together many separate strands of research in the area of mechanism design, and providing detailed analysis of the impact of societal values on contracts.

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking Book
Author : Rupert Wegerif,Li Li,James C. Kaufman
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-05-22
ISBN : 1317752309
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking is a comprehensive guide to research on teaching thinking. Teaching thinking is key to growing a more successful economy, is needed for increased democratic engagement and is vital for the well-being of individuals faced with the complexity of a globalised world. However, there are questions about what we mean by ‘thinking’, how best to teach it and how best to assess it, and it is these questions that this handbook explores and addresses. Containing surveys and summaries of international, cutting-edge research on every aspect of teaching thinking in a range of contexts, the handbook is thorough in its delivery, examining many different approaches and methods to help readers understand what teaching thinking is and how we can best take this movement forward. Key topics include: • Theoretical perspectives on teaching thinking • Approaches for teaching thinking • Developing creative thinking • Developing critical thinking and metacognition • The assessment of thinking • Teaching thinking in the context of STEM • Collaborative thinking and new technology • Neuro-educational research on teaching thinking This book is an essential guide for policy-makers, teachers and researchers who are interested in teaching thinking

Foundational Principles of Contract Law

Foundational Principles of Contract Law Book
Author : Melvin A. Eisenberg
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-09-20
ISBN : 0199875677
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Foundational Principles of Contract Law not only sets out the principles and rules of contract law, it places more emphasis on what the principles and rules of contract law should be, based on policy, morality, and experience. A major premise of the book is that the best way to grasp contract law is to understand it from a critical perspective as an organic, dynamic subject. When contract law is approached in this way it is much easier to grasp and learn than when it is presented simply as a static collection of principles and rules. Professor Eisenberg covers almost all areas of contract law, including the enforceability of promises, remedies for breach of contract, problems of assent, form contracts, the effect of mistake and changed circumstances, interpretation, and problems of performance. Although the emphasis of the book is on the principles and rules of contract law, it also covers important theories in contract law, such as the theory of efficient breach, the theory of overreliance, the normative theory of contracts, formalism, and theories of contract interpretation.

Behavioural Finance for Private Banking

Behavioural Finance for Private Banking Book
Author : Thorsten Hens,Kremena Bachmann
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-05
ISBN : 0470742070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A complete framework for applications of behavioral finance in private banking, Behavioural Finance for Private Banking considers client needs specific to private banking like personal circumstances, objectives, and attitude to risk. This book includes the theoretical foundations of investment decision-making, an introduction to behavioral biases, an explanation of cultural differences in global business, a guide to asset allocation over the life cycle of the investment, and several case studies to illustrate how can be applied. A must-read for anyone in private banking, this book demonstrates how to satisfy client needs.

Economy in Society

Economy in Society Book
Author : Jacek Tittenbrun
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2011-07-12
ISBN : 1443832359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers an in-depth analysis of sociology, e.g. such classics as Weber, Parsons and Homans, and its adjacent social sciences with special reference to economics, including public choice theory, property rights theory, the Austrian school and others. This discussion submits many fresh observations; giving the theories under consideration their due, it at the same time exposes their flaws. In addition, the book contains a constructive programme of the research field in question, termed socio-economic structuralism, which involves many theoretical innovations, notions of ownership and class. This positive theory draws on, but is far from mimicking, achievements of the thinkers considered in the remaining parts of the book.

Theory of Decision under Uncertainty

Theory of Decision under Uncertainty Book
Author : Itzhak Gilboa
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2009-03-16
ISBN : 1107782511
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the classical axiomatic theories of decision under uncertainty, as well as critiques thereof and alternative theories. It focuses on the meaning of probability, discussing some definitions and surveying their scope of applicability. The behavioral definition of subjective probability serves as a way to present the classical theories, culminating in Savage's theorem. The limitations of this result as a definition of probability lead to two directions - first, similar behavioral definitions of more general theories, such as non-additive probabilities and multiple priors, and second, cognitive derivations based on case-based techniques.

Graph Drawing and Network Visualization

Graph Drawing and Network Visualization Book
Author : Therese Biedl,Andreas Kerren
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-17
ISBN : 3030044149
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization, GD 2018, held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2018. The 41 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: planarity variants; upward drawings; RAC drawings; orders; crossings; crossing angles; contact representations; specialized graphs and trees; partially fixed drawings, experiments; orthogonal drawings; realizability; and miscellaneous. The book also contains one invited talk in full paper length and the Graph Drawing contest report.

Relating to God

Relating to God Book
Author : Dan Merkur
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release : 2013-11-21
ISBN : 0765710161
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In Relating to God: Clinical Psychoanalysis, Spirituality, and Theism, Dan Merkur conceptualizes religious discourse within psychoanalysis. He proposes that God be treated as a transferential figure whose analysis leads to a reduction of the parental content that is projected onto God. Merkur notes that religious conversion experiences regularly involve theological intuitions that are either rational or, owing to morbid complications, have undergone displacement into irrational symbolism. Analysis renders the religiosity more wholesome. Traditionally, psychoanalytic thought has been dismissive of religion. Freud is on record, however, as having called psychoanalysis a neutral procedure. He argued that religion, with its dependency on a providential God who punishes disobedience, imagines spirituality on the model of human parents and fails to approach spirituality in an appropriately scientific manner. He wrote little of spiritual phenomena, but mentioned both the rationality of the universe and the parapsychological occurrence of thought transference. Occasionally, later psychoanalysts used different language in order to contrast wholesome and morbid forms of religion. Erich Fromm distinguished authoritarian and humanistic religions, while D. W. Winnicott condemned fetishistic behavior while approving of playful illusions that require “belief-in.” These formulations constructed a middle position for clinicians, neither categorically opposed to religion as classical psychoanalysis was, nor do they embrace cultural relativity as “spiritually oriented” psychotherapists are currently advocating. What sorts of spiritual practices does psychoanalysis find unobjectionable? As examples of humanistic religion, Fromm named Zen Buddhism, Buddhist mindfulness meditation, and the via negativa or “way of negating” that some Christian and Jewish mystics have followed. Because the Bible-based approaches are little known, Merkur discusses their histories, procedures, and psychoanalytic understanding.

The Rationality Quotient

The Rationality Quotient Book
Author : Keith E. Stanovich,Richard F. West,Maggie E. Toplak
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2016-09-30
ISBN : 0262034840
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Theoretical underpinnings -- Definitions of rationality in philosophy, cognitive science, and lay discourse -- Rationality, intelligence, and the functional architecture of the mind -- Overcoming miserly processing : detection, override, and mindware -- A framework for the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking (CART) -- The components of rational thought assessed by the CART -- Probabilistic and statistical reasoning -- Scientific reasoning -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : direct tests -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : indirect effects -- Probabilistic numeracy, financial literacy, sensitivity to expected value, and risk knowledge -- Contaminated mindware -- The dispositions and attitudes of rationality -- Comprehensive rational thinking assessment : data and conclusions -- Associations among the subtests : a short-form CART -- Associations among the subtests : the full-form CART -- The CART : context, caveats, and questions -- The social and practical implications of a rational thinking test -- Appendix: Structure and sample items for the subtests and scales of the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking -- References -- Index

Interactions in the Classroom

Interactions in the Classroom Book
Author : Jeffrey W. Trawick-Smith
Publisher : Prentice Hall
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Interactions in the Classroom book written by Jeffrey W. Trawick-Smith, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

An Analysis of Regulatory Frameworks for Wireless Communications Societal Concerns and Risk

An Analysis of Regulatory Frameworks for Wireless Communications  Societal Concerns and Risk Book
Author : Haim Mazar
Publisher : Universal-Publishers
Release : 2009
ISBN : 1599427109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis analyses how and why culture and geography influence the allocation and licensing of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum in different nations. Based on a broad comparative study of 235 countries, an inter-disciplinary approach is used to explore regulatory frameworks and attitudes toward risk. In addition, detailed case studies of the UK, France, the US and Ecuador provide deeper insights into the main contrasting regulatory styles. Three alternative sociological theories are used to analyse and explain the results for both the in-depth and broad brush studies. The Cultural Theory of Mary Douglas and co-workers is first used to categorise countries in terms of perceptual filters. The empirical findings indicate some countries to be apparently exceptional in their behaviour. The theory of Bounded Rationality is used to investigate and explain these apparent irrationalities. Finally, Rational Field Theory shows how beliefs and values guide administrations in their RF regulation. A number of key factors are found to dominate and patterns emerge. The European RF harmonisation is unique. Following European unification, wireless regulation is divided into two major camps (the EU and the US), which differ in their risk concerns, approach to top-down mandated standards, allocation of RF spectrum to licence-exempt bands and type approval process. The adoption of 3G cellular (UMTS versus CDMA2000) and digital TV standards (DVB-T/ATSC/ISDB-T) around the world reflects geopolitical and colonial influence. The language of a country is a significant indicator of its analogue TV standard (SECAM/PAL/NTSC). Interestingly, the longitude of a country to a fair extent defines RF allocation: Africa and West Asia follow Europe, whereas the Americas approximate the US. RF regulation and risk tolerability differ between tropical and non-tropical climates. The collectivised/centralised versus the individualised/market-based rationalities result in different regulatory frameworks and contrasting societal and risk concerns. The success of the top-down European GSM and the bottom-up Wi-Fi standards reveal how the central-planning and market-based approaches have thrived. Attitudes to RF human hazards and spurious emissions levels reveal that the US, Canada and Japan are more tolerant of these radiation risks than Europe. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, UK and USA encourage technological innovation. A practical benefit of this study is that it will give regulators more freedom to choose a rational RF licensing protocol, by better understanding the possibly self-imposed boundaries of cultural and geographical factors which are currently shaping allocation. Academically, there is utility in undertaking a cultural and geographic analysis of a topic that is mostly the domain of engineering, economic and legal analysts.

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice Theory Book
Author : Margaret S. Archer,Jonathan Q. Tritter
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-04-03
ISBN : 1134546521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rational Choice Theory is flourishing in sociology and is increasingly influential in other disciplines. Contributors to this volume are convinced that it provides an inadequate conceptualization of all aspects of decision making: of the individuals who make the decisions, of the process by which decisions get made and of the context within which decisions get made. The ciritique focuses on the four assumptions which are the bedrock of rational choice: rationality: the theory's definition of rationality is incomplete, and cannot satisfactorily incorporate norms and emotions individualism: rational choice is based upon atomistic, individual decision makers and cannot account for decisions made by ;couples', 'groups' or other forms of collective action process: the assumption of fixed, well-ordered preferences and 'perfect information' makes the theory inadequate for situations of change and uncertainty aggregation: as methodological individualists, rational choice theorists can only view structure and culture as aggregates and cannot incorporate structural or cultural influences as emergent properties which have an effect upon decision making. The critique is grounded in discussion of a wide range of social issues, including race, marriage, health and education.