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Optimally Irrational

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Optimally Irrational

Optimally Irrational Book
Author : Lionel Page
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2022-10-31
ISBN : 1009209191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The seemingly irrational, puzzling aspects of human behaviour are not bugs, but features. Improving our navigation of the real world.

Optimally Irrational

Optimally Irrational Book
Author : Lionel Page
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2022-11-03
ISBN : 9781009209205
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For a long time, economists have assumed that we were cold, self-centred, rational decision makers - so-called Homo economicus; the last few decades have shattered this view. The world we live in and the situations we face are of course rich and complex, revealing puzzling aspects of our behaviour. Optimally Irrational argues that our improved understanding of human behaviour shows that apparent 'biases' are good solutions to practical problems - that many of the 'flaws' identified by behavioural economics are actually adaptive solutions. Page delivers an ambitious overview of the literature in behavioural economics and, through the exposition of these flaws and their meaning, presents a sort of unified theory of behaviouralism, cognitive psychology and evolutionary biology. He gathers theoretical and empirical evidence about the causes of behavioural 'biases' and proposes a big picture of what the discipline means for economics.

Weakness of Will and Practical Irrationality

Weakness of Will and Practical Irrationality Book
Author : Sarah Stroud,Christine Tappolet
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2003-09-04
ISBN : 0199257361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Among the many practical failures that threaten us, weakness of will or akrasia is often considered to be a paradigm of irrationality. The eleven new essays in this collection, written by an excellent international team of philosophers, some well-established, some younger scholars, give a rich overview of the current debate over weakness of will and practical irrationality more generally.Issues covered include classical questions such as the distinction between weakness and compulsion, the connection between evaluative judgement and motivation, the role of emotions in akrasia, rational agency, and the existence of the will. The also include new topics, such as group akrasia, strength of will, the nature of correct choice, the structure of decision theory, the temporality of prudential reasons, and emotional rationality. Because these questions cut across philosophy of mind andethics, the collection will be essential reading for scholars, postgraduates, and upper-level undergraduates in both these fields.

Hatred

Hatred Book
Author : Berit Brogaard
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0190084448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Hatred: Understanding Our Most Dangerous Emotion The first in-depth philosophical analysis of personal hate and group hate, Hate: Understanding Our Most Dangerous Emotion explores how personal hatred can foster domestic violence and emotional abuse, how hate-proneness is a main contributor to the aggressive tendencies of borderlines, narcissists and psychopaths, how seemingly ordinary people embark on some of history's worst hate crimes, and how cohesive groups, subjected to spontaneous forces of group polarization, can develop extremist viewpoints of the sort that motivate hate crimes, mass shootings, and terrorism. The book's first part explores hate in intimate relationships, looking for an answer to the question of why our intimate relationships can survive hate and resentment, but not disrespect or contempt. Berit "Brit" Brogaard shows that where contempt creates an irreparable power imbalance, hate is tied to fear, which our brains may reinterpret as thrill, attraction and excitement. But this can also make hate a dangerous emotion that convinces people to hang onto abusive relationships. When tied to vengeance and the dark triad of personality, hate is not only dangerous but also dehumanizing. Vengeance and the dark personalities are not essential to hate, however. Without them, hate can have more admirable ends. The book's second part explores the polarizing forces that can bias cohesive groups of like-minded individuals and contribute to what is effectively a hate crisis. Drawing on history, politics, legal theory, philosophy, and psychology, Brogaard shows how cultural myths about femininity, ethnic groups, and the land of opportunity perpetuate misogyny, white supremacy and anti-Semitism. But, she argues, politicians and policymakers have it in their power to address the hate crisis through legislation that preserves the original incentive behind the first-amendment right to free speech"--

On Rationality Artificial Intelligence And Economics

On Rationality  Artificial Intelligence And Economics Book
Author : Daniel Muller,Fernando Buarque,Tshilidzi Marwala
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2022-03-09
ISBN : 981125513X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The world we live in presents plenty of tricky, impactful, and hard-tomake decisions to be taken. Sometimes the available options are ample, at other times they are apparently binary, either way, they often confront us with dilemmas, paradoxes, and even denial of values.In the dawn of the age of intelligence, when robots are gradually taking over most decision-making from humans, this book sheds a bit of light on decision rationale. It delves into the limits of these decision processes (for both humans and machines), and it does so by providing a new perspective that is somehow opposed to orthodox economics. All Economics reflections in this book are underlined and linked to Artificial Intelligence.The authors hope that this comprehensive and modern analysis, firmly grounded in the opinions of various groundbreaking Nobel laureate economists, may be helpful to a broad audience interested in how decisions may lead us all to flourishing societies. That is, societies in which economic blunders (caused by over simplification of problems and super estimation of tools) are reduced substantially.

Fuzzy Rationality

Fuzzy Rationality Book
Author : Kofi Kissi Dompere
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-07-22
ISBN : 3540880836
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Philosophy involves a criticism of scientific knowledge, not from a point of view ultimately different from that of science, but from a point of view less concerned with details and more concerned with the h- mony of the body of special sciences. Here as elsewhere, while the older logic shut out possibilities and imprisoned imagination within the walls of the familiar, the newer logic shows rather what may happen, and refuses to decide as to what must happen. Bertrand Russell At any particular stage in the development of humanity knowledge comes up against limits set by the necessarily limited character of the experience available and the existing means of obtaining knowledge. But humanity advances by overcoming such limits. New experience throws down the limits of old experience; new techniques, new means of obtaining knowledge throw down the limits of old techniques and old means of obtaining knowledge. New limits then once again appear. But there is no more reason to suppose these new limits absolute and final than there was to suppose the old ones absolute and final.

The Future of the Philosophy of Economics

The Future of the Philosophy of Economics Book
Author : Constanze Binder,Conrad Heilmann,Jack J Vromen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-04-19
ISBN : 1315462036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Originating from the International Network for Economic Method conference, hosted by the Erasmus Institute for Economics and Philosophy (EIPE) at the Erasmus University Rotterdam in 2013, this book chooses key themes that reflect on fascinating new developments in the philosophy of economics. Contributions discuss new avenues and debates in important and upcoming areas, such as the philosophy of economic policy making, decision theory, ethics, and new questions in economic methodology. The book offers an excellent insight into cutting edge research in these fields that are about to shape the future of the philosophy of economics. This book was originally published as a special issue of The Journal of Economic Methodology.

The ADD Myth

The ADD Myth Book
Author : Martha Burge
Publisher : Mango Media Inc.
Release : 2012-09-01
ISBN : 1609256395
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This radical new approach to ADD and ADHD reframes the diagnosis and offers a way to transform so-called symptoms into gifts. Despite the millions of people taking medication for attention deficit disorders, there remains no objective method of diagnosis for ADHD. Now author and ADHD coach Martha Burge proposes a different understanding and solution for those diagnosed. In The ADD Myth, Burge argues that what is commonly understood as ADHD is actually five intense personality traits: sensual, psychomotor, intellectual, creative, and emotional. Once the supposed ADD symptoms are properly understood, people with these intense personality traits can develop them into gifts. After having two sons diagnosed with ADHD, and witnessing their serious reaction to drug treatments, Martha began a search for a new approach and a more natural treatment. In The ADD Myth, she shares personal stories, practical steps, and daily practices for developing one's intense nature with the least amount of suffering.

Organizing Railway Transportation

Organizing Railway Transportation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Organizing Railway Transportation book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Social Norms Bounded Rationality and Optimal Contracts

Social Norms  Bounded Rationality and Optimal Contracts Book
Author : Suren Basov
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-05-20
ISBN : 9811010412
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book investigates the ways in which social norms and bounded rationality shape different contracts in the real world. It brings into focus existing research into optimal contracts, draws important lessons from that research, and outlines prospects for future investigation. Bounded rationality has acknowledged effects on the power of incentive provisions, such as deviations from sufficient statistic theorem, the power of optimal incentives, and the effects of optimal contracts in multicultural environments. The introduction of social norms to bounded rationality opens up new avenues of investigation into contracts and mechanism design. This book makes an important contribution to the study of bounded rationality by pulling together many separate strands of research in the area of mechanism design, and providing detailed analysis of the impact of societal values on contracts.

The Straight Line

The Straight Line Book
Author : Tom Waidzunas
Publisher : U of Minnesota Press
Release : 2015-11-20
ISBN : 1452945527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To be taken seriously, therapies that claim to “cure” homosexuality wrap themselves in lab coats. Even though the fit is bad, and such therapies and their theorists now inhabit the scientific fringe, the science of sexuality has made some adjustments, too, Tom Waidzunas tells us in this provocative work. Intervening in the politics of sexuality and science, The Straight Line argues that scientific definitions of sexual orientation do not merely reflect the results of investigations into human nature, but rather emerge through a process of social negotiation between opposing groups. The demedicalization of homosexuality and the discrediting of reparative therapies, ex-gay ministries, and reorientation research have, Waidzunas contends, required scientists to enforce key boundaries around scientific expertise and research methods. Drawing on extensive participant observation at conferences for ex-gays, reorientation therapists, mainstream psychologists, and survivors of ex-gay therapy, as well as interviews with experts and activists, The Straight Line traces reorientation debates in the United States from the 1950s to the present, following homosexuality therapies from the mainstream to the margins. As the ex-gay movement has become increasingly transnational in recent years, Waidzunas turns to Uganda, where ideas about the scientific nature of homosexuality influenced the passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act of 2014. While most studies treat the ex-gay movement as a religious phenomenon, this book looks at how the movement, in its attempts to establish legitimacy, has engaged with scientific institutions, shaping virulent anti-gay public policy.

Interactions in the Classroom

Interactions in the Classroom Book
Author : Jeffrey W. Trawick-Smith
Publisher : Prentice Hall
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Interactions in the Classroom book written by Jeffrey W. Trawick-Smith, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking Book
Author : Rupert Wegerif,Li Li,James C. Kaufman
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-05-22
ISBN : 1317752309
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Routledge International Handbook of Research on Teaching Thinking is a comprehensive guide to research on teaching thinking. Teaching thinking is key to growing a more successful economy, is needed for increased democratic engagement and is vital for the well-being of individuals faced with the complexity of a globalised world. However, there are questions about what we mean by ‘thinking’, how best to teach it and how best to assess it, and it is these questions that this handbook explores and addresses. Containing surveys and summaries of international, cutting-edge research on every aspect of teaching thinking in a range of contexts, the handbook is thorough in its delivery, examining many different approaches and methods to help readers understand what teaching thinking is and how we can best take this movement forward. Key topics include: • Theoretical perspectives on teaching thinking • Approaches for teaching thinking • Developing creative thinking • Developing critical thinking and metacognition • The assessment of thinking • Teaching thinking in the context of STEM • Collaborative thinking and new technology • Neuro-educational research on teaching thinking This book is an essential guide for policy-makers, teachers and researchers who are interested in teaching thinking

Resources in Education

Resources in Education Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Resources in Education book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Behavioural Sports Economics

Behavioural Sports Economics Book
Author : Hannah Josepha Rachel Altman,Morris Altman,Benno Torgler
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2021-12-20
ISBN : 1000522695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Economists have entered into the realm of sports to provide what they believe to be more cogent explanations for sport-related behaviour and to suggest ways in which incentives can improve sports outcomes. But prices and income, the traditional workhorses of conventional economics, can only provide partial explanations and understandings. Drawing on a bounded rationality approach to behavioural economics, this book demonstrates the analytical insights to be gained by supplementing the conventional economics toolbox with psychological, cognitive, sociological, and institutional factors. The international cast list of contributors cover a wide range of sports topics on which a behavioural approach can reveal new insights. These include preferences, managerial, efficiency, choking, doping, favouritism, athlete well- being, and spectator behaviour. Throughout the book, there is an emphasis on the cognitive limits to smart decision-making as well as the critical role played by the decision-making environment. This volume demonstrates that adopting a bounded rationality approach, complimented with other behaviouralist approaches, helps to better explain sport-related behavioural, sub-optimal behavioural, and market failures. It also provides insights that could be used to improve sports outcomes and the well-being of those involved in sports and to better configure policy to enhance sports performance. This groundbreaking book will be an indispensable reference to students and scholars of sports economics, sports management, and sports science.

Behavioural Finance for Private Banking

Behavioural Finance for Private Banking Book
Author : Thorsten Hens,Kremena Bachmann
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-07-05
ISBN : 0470742070
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A complete framework for applications of behavioral finance in private banking, Behavioural Finance for Private Banking considers client needs specific to private banking like personal circumstances, objectives, and attitude to risk. This book includes the theoretical foundations of investment decision-making, an introduction to behavioral biases, an explanation of cultural differences in global business, a guide to asset allocation over the life cycle of the investment, and several case studies to illustrate how can be applied. A must-read for anyone in private banking, this book demonstrates how to satisfy client needs.

Economy in Society

Economy in Society Book
Author : Jacek Tittenbrun
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2011-07-12
ISBN : 1443832359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book offers an in-depth analysis of sociology, e.g. such classics as Weber, Parsons and Homans, and its adjacent social sciences with special reference to economics, including public choice theory, property rights theory, the Austrian school and others. This discussion submits many fresh observations; giving the theories under consideration their due, it at the same time exposes their flaws. In addition, the book contains a constructive programme of the research field in question, termed socio-economic structuralism, which involves many theoretical innovations, notions of ownership and class. This positive theory draws on, but is far from mimicking, achievements of the thinkers considered in the remaining parts of the book.

Graph Drawing and Network Visualization

Graph Drawing and Network Visualization Book
Author : Therese Biedl,Andreas Kerren
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-17
ISBN : 3030044149
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 26th International Symposium on Graph Drawing and Network Visualization, GD 2018, held in Barcelona, Spain, in September 2018. The 41 full papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. They were organized in topical sections named: planarity variants; upward drawings; RAC drawings; orders; crossings; crossing angles; contact representations; specialized graphs and trees; partially fixed drawings, experiments; orthogonal drawings; realizability; and miscellaneous. The book also contains one invited talk in full paper length and the Graph Drawing contest report.

The Rationality Quotient

The Rationality Quotient Book
Author : Keith E. Stanovich,Richard F. West,Maggie E. Toplak
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2016-09-30
ISBN : 0262034840
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How to assess critical aspects of cognitive functioning that are not measured by IQ tests: rational thinking skills. Why are we surprised when smart people act foolishly? Smart people do foolish things all the time. Misjudgments and bad decisions by highly educated bankers and money managers, for example, brought us the financial crisis of 2008. Smart people do foolish things because intelligence is not the same as the capacity for rational thinking. The Rationality Quotient explains that these two traits, often (and incorrectly) thought of as one, refer to different cognitive functions. The standard IQ test, the authors argue, doesn't measure any of the broad components of rationality—adaptive responding, good judgment, and good decision making. The authors show that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, they present the first prototype for an assessment of rational thinking analogous to the IQ test: the CART (Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking). The authors describe the theoretical underpinnings of the CART, distinguishing the algorithmic mind from the reflective mind. They discuss the logic of the tasks used to measure cognitive biases, and they develop a unique typology of thinking errors. The Rationality Quotient explains the components of rational thought assessed by the CART, including probabilistic and scientific reasoning; the avoidance of “miserly” information processing; and the knowledge structures needed for rational thinking. Finally, the authors discuss studies of the CART and the social and practical implications of such a test. An appendix offers sample items from the test.

Behavioral Political Economy and Democratic Theory

Behavioral Political Economy and Democratic Theory Book
Author : Petr Špecián
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2022-06-09
ISBN : 1000598543
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Drawing on current debates at the frontiers of economics, psychology, and political philosophy, this book explores the challenges that arise for liberal democracies from a confrontation between modern technologies and the bounds of human rationality. With the ongoing transition of democracy’s underlying information economy into the digital space, threats of disinformation and runaway political polarization have been gaining prominence. Employing the economic approach informed by behavioral sciences’ findings, the book’s chief concern is how these challenges can be addressed while preserving a commitment to democratic values and maximizing the epistemic benefits of democratic decision-making. The book has two key strands: it provides a systematic argument for building a behaviorally informed theory of democracy; and explores how scientific knowledge on quirks and bounds of human rationality can inform the design of resilient democratic institutions. Drawing these together, the book explores the centrality of the rationality assumption in the methodological debates surrounding behavioral sciences as exemplified by the dispute between neoclassical and behavioral economics; the role of (ir)rationality in democratic social choice; behaviorally informed paternalism as a response to the challenge of irrationality; and non-paternalistic avenues to increase the resilience of the democratic institutions towards political irrationality This book is invaluable reading for anyone interested in behavioral economics and sciences, political philosophy and the future of democracy.