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Opportunities for Fluoropolymers

Opportunities for Fluoropolymers Book
Author : Bruno Ameduri,Sergey Fomin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-17
ISBN : 0128219580
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoropolymers are very unique materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century fluoropolymers have been used in applications where a wide temperature range, a high resistance to aggressive media, excellent tribological characteristics, and specific low adhesion are required. Today, researchers turn to fluoropolymers to solve new challenges and to develop materials with previously unattainable properties. Opportunities for Fluoropolymers: Synthesis, Characterization, Processing, Simulation and Recycling covers recent developments in fluoropolymers, including synthesis of new copolymers, strategies for radical polymerization of fluoromonomers (conventional or controlled; RDRP), and the modification of fluoropolymers to achieve desired material characteristics. This volume in the Progress in Fluorine Science series is ideal for researchers and engineers who want to learn about the synthetic strategies, properties, and recycling of these special polymers, as well as industrial manufacturers who are interested in achieving new product characteristics in their respective industries. Written by a global team of fluoropolymer experts Includes conventional techniques of radical polymerization and more modern controlled polymerization techniques Covers nanocomposites, which are of interest to researchers and industrial manufacturers of fluoropolymers

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications Book
Author : Bruno Ameduri,Sergey Fomin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-07-14
ISBN : 0128218738
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoropolymers are unique materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century fluropolymers have been used in applications where a wide temperature range, a high resistance to aggressive media, excellent tribological characteristics, and specific low adhesion are required. Today, researchers turn to fluoropolymers to solve new challenges and to develop materials with previously unattainable properties. Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications covers recent developments of fluoropolymer applications in energy, optical fibers, blood substitutes, textile coatings, membranes and other areas, written by experts in these fields. This volume in the Progress in Fluorine Science series is ideal for researchers and engineers who want to learn about the technology and applications of these special polymers, as well as industrial manufacturers who are interested in achieving new product characteristics in their respective industries. Written by a global team of fluoropolymer experts Includes use of fluoropolymer membranes for various applications in fuel cells, for gases separation, and more Covers fluoropolymer materials with shape memory, in cardiopulmonary bypass systems, in the production of textile materials, and in other areas

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

Introduction to Fluoropolymers Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2020-12-08
ISBN : 0128192992
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to Fluoropolymers, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of the history, principles, properties, processing and applications of fluoropolymers, supporting their development and utilization in high-performance applications, components, and products. This second edition has been updated and expanded to include new in-depth chapters on manufacturing and applications of PTFE and melt processible fluoropolymers. The book begins by demonstrating the role of fluoropolymers in everyday life, before introducing the history and basic principles of fluoropolymers. This is followed by detailed coverage of the main fluoropolymer types. Properties and applications are illustrated by real-world examples as diverse as waterproof clothing, vascular grafts and coatings for aircraft interiors. The different applications of fluoropolymers show the benefits of a group of materials that are highly water-repellant and flame-retardant, with unrivalled lubrication properties and a high level of biocompatibility. Health and safety and environmental aspects are also covered throughout the book, with a final chapter examining safety, disposal, and recycling in detail. This book is an essential resource for anyone looking to understand or use fluoropolymer materials in their products. This includes engineers, product designers, manufacturers, scientists, researchers, and other professionals, across industries such as automotive, aerospace, medical devices, food and beverages, high performance apparel, oil and gas, renewable energy, solar photovoltaics, electronics and semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and chemical processing. This is also a valuable introductory guide for academic researchers and advanced students in plastics engineering, polymer science, and materials science. Introduces and demystifies fluoropolymers for a wide audience of engineers, designers, professionals, and researchers, across industries and disciplines Covers a broad range of materials, including polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinyl fluoride (PVF), vinylidene fluoride polymers, fluoroelastomers, and more Focuses on properties, processing methods and advanced industrial applications of fluoropolymers

Handbook of Fluoropolymer Science and Technology

Handbook of Fluoropolymer Science and Technology Book
Author : Dennis W. Smith,Scott T. Iacono,Suresh S. Iyer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-05-05
ISBN : 1118850084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoropolymers continue to enable new materials and technologies as a result of their remarkable properties. This book reviews fluoropolymer platforms of established commercial interest, as well as recently discovered methods for the preparation and processing of new fluorinated materials. It covers the research and development of fluoropolymer synthesis, characterization, and processing. Emphasis is placed on emerging technologies in optics, space exploration, fuel cells, microelectronics, gas separation membranes, biomedical instrumentation, and much more. In addition, the book covers the current environmental concerns associated with fluoropolymers, as well as relevant regulations and potential growth opportunities. Concepts, studies, and new discoveries are taken from leading international laboratories, including academia, government, and industrial institutions.

Well Architectured Fluoropolymers Synthesis Properties and Applications

Well Architectured Fluoropolymers  Synthesis  Properties and Applications Book
Author : Bruno Ameduri,Bernard Boutevin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2004-07-07
ISBN : 0080474829
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Because of the increasing need for ever better performing materials endowed with specific properties, macromolecular engineering has become a useful tool for designing well-architectured polymers (telomers, telechelics, stars, dendrimers, alternating, block- and graftcopolymers). These polymers are nowadays seeing an enormous growth. Among them, fluoropolymers are seen as high value added materials in many applications ranging from surfactants, optical fibers, biomaterials, coatings, to membranes for fuel cells. Indeed, the relationship between structure of the monomer to the properties of the polymers is of increasing interest so that these properties are tuned for the most appropriate applications. As most fluoropolymers are prepared from radical synthesis, this book devotes various parts on the use of the controlled radical (or pseudo-living) polymerisation of fluoromonomers leading to discoveries of thermoplastic elastomers or original surfactants for polymerisation in supercritical CO2. Well-Architectured Fluoropolymers: Synthesis, Properties and Applications is composed of five chapters starting with a general introduction outlining basic concepts. Emphasis is placed on recent developments, and each chapter describes comprehensive techniques of synthesis of well-defined fluorotelomers or polymers, their properties, characterisations, and their applications, for immediate use by today’s engineers, industrial and academic scientists, and researchers. The book has been arranged to enable self-managed reading and learning. It is both a source of data and a reference. On the synthesis, properties and applications of fluoropolymers: remarkable, high value added materials applied in surfactants, optical fibres, biomaterials, coatings and membranes for fuel cells For immediate use by today's engineers, industrial and academic scientists, and researchers Written to enable self-managed reading and learning, being both a source of data and a reference

Technology of Fluoropolymers Second Edition

Technology of Fluoropolymers  Second Edition Book
Author : Jiri George Drobny
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-09-19
ISBN : 9781420063189
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fully revised and updated, this second edition continues to provide industrial chemists, technologists, and engineers with the most accurate, compact, and practical source on fluoropolymers (such as Teflon). Highlighting new industrial, military, medical, and consumer goods applications, this edition adds more detailed information on equipment and processing conditions. It explores breakthroughs in understanding property-structure relationships, new polymerization techniques, and the chemistry underlying novel polymers, such as melt-processable fluoroplastics. It also expands upon critical environmental aspects of fluoropolymers, including heat degradation, health effects, and recycling.

The Curious World of Fluorinated Molecules

The Curious World of Fluorinated Molecules Book
Author : Konrad Seppelt
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-10-30
ISBN : 0128198753
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Curious World of Fluorinated Molecules: Molecules Containing Fluorine is the sixth volume in the Progress in Fluorine Science series and is edited by the world-renowned scientist Konrad Seppelt. Dr. Seppelt brings together a team of global experts to uncover the multifaceted nature of the most electronegative element in the Periodic Table. The book explores the fascinating world of unpredictable, fluorine-containing molecules through their discoveries, path to recognition, current state of the art, and impact on the broader fields of fluorinated materials development. This volume will inspire and energize researchers, future scientists, and educators working in fluorine chemistry. Highlights the current state of fundamental research of fluorinated molecules that either helped to rewrite the fundamental rules of chemistry or impacted modern material technologies Features contributions from a global team of leading experts in the field Provides a unique combination of the historical and current examples that explain the unique role that fluorine can play in advancing our understanding of the scientific method at large

Fluoroplastics Volume 2

Fluoroplastics  Volume 2 Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2015-07-30
ISBN : 1455731986
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoroplastics, Volume 2: Melt Processible Fluoropolymers - The Definitive User's Guide and Data Book compiles the working knowledge of the polymer chemistry and physics of melt processible fluoropolymers with detailed descriptions of commercial processing methods, material properties, fabrication and handling information, technologies, and applications, also including history, market statistics, and safety and recycling aspects. Both volumes of Fluoroplastics contain a large amount of specific property data useful for users to readily compare different materials and align material structure with end use applications. Volume Two concentrates on melt-processible fluoropolymers used across a broad range of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronic, food, beverage, oil/gas, and medical devices. This new edition is a thoroughly updated and significantly expanded revision covering new technologies and applications, and addressing the changes that have taken place in the fluoropolymer markets. Exceptionally broad and comprehensive coverage of melt processible fluoropolymers processing and applications Provides a practical approach, written by long-standing authorities in the fluoropolymers industry Thoroughly updated and significantly expanded revision covering new technologies and applications, and addressing the changes that have taken place in the fluoropolymer markets

Introduction to Fluoropolymers

Introduction to Fluoropolymers Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2013-05-11
ISBN : 1455775517
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to Fluoropolymers demystifies fluoropolymers for a wide audience of designers, engineers, sales staff and managers. This important group of high-performance polymers has applications across a wide range of market sectors, including automotive, aerospace, medical devices, high performance apparel, oil & gas, renewable energy / solar photovoltaics, electronics / semiconductor, pharmaceuticals, and chemical processing. Dr. Ebnesajjad covers the history and applications of a wide variety of materials, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl fluoride, vinylidene fluoride polymers and fluoroelastomers, just to name a few. Properties and applications are illustrated by real-world examples as diverse as waterproof clothing, vascular grafts and coatings for aircraft interiors. The different applications of fluoropolymers show the benefits of a group of materials that are highly water-repellant and flame-retardant, with unrivalled lubrication properties and a high level of biocompatibility. Health and safety and environmental aspects are also covered throughout the book. Demystifies fluoropolymers for a broad audience of engineers in areas such as product design and manufacturing, as well as for non-engineers such as technical sales and management professionals Explains the potential of fluoropolymers for a wide range of applications across sectors such as aerospace, energy and medical devices Ideal for both recently qualified engineers and engineers with limited experience of fluoropolymers

Polymers for PEM Fuel Cells

Polymers for PEM Fuel Cells Book
Author : Hongting Pu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-10-01
ISBN : 1118869281
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Including chemical, synthetic, and cross-disciplinary approaches; this book includes the necessary techniques and technologies to help readers better understand polymers for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The methods in the book are essential to researchers and scientists in the field and will lead to further development in polymer and fuel cell technologies. • Provides complete, essential, and comprehensive overview of polymer applications for PEM fuel cells • Emphasizes state-of-the-art developments and methods, like PEMs for novel fuel cells and polymers for fuel cell catalysts • Includes detailed chapters on major topics, like PEM for direct liquid fuel cells and fluoropolymers and non-fluorinated polymers for PEM • Has relevance to a range of industries – like polymer engineering, materials, and green technology – involved with fuel cell technologies and R&D

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications

Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications Book
Author : Bruno Ameduri,Sergey Fomin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-17
ISBN : 0128218746
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoropolymers are unique materials. Since the middle of the twentieth century fluropolymers have been used in applications where a wide temperature range, a high resistance to aggressive media, excellent tribological characteristics, and specific low adhesion are required. Today, researchers turn to fluoropolymers to solve new challenges and to develop materials with previously unattainable properties. Fascinating Fluoropolymers and Their Applications covers recent developments of fluoropolymer applications in energy, optical fibers, blood substitutes, textile coatings, membranes and other areas, written by experts in these fields. This volume in the Progress in Fluorine Science series is ideal for researchers and engineers who want to learn about the technology and applications of these special polymers, as well as industrial manufacturers who are interested in achieving new product characteristics in their respective industries. Written by a global team of fluoropolymer experts Includes use of fluoropolymer membranes for various applications in fuel cells, for gases separation, and more Covers fluoropolymer materials with shape memory, in cardiopulmonary bypass systems, in the production of textile materials, and in other areas

Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries

Fluoropolymer Applications in the Chemical Processing Industries Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad,Pradip R. Khaladkar
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2004-12-02
ISBN : 0815517297
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is a self-contained collection of data and information on applications of fluoropolymers components for corrosion control in chemical processing industries. Due to their superior properties, fluoropolymers have been rapidly replacing metal alloys for preserving the purity of processing streams in the chemical processing, plastics, food, pharmaceutical, semiconductor, and pulp and paper industries.

Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerization

Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerization Book
Author : Nikhil K. Singha,Jimmy Mays
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2020-01-20
ISBN : 3110643693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes strategies and mechanism of reversible deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) to synthesize functional polymers. Several approaches such as atom transfer radical polymerization and the combination of click chemistry and RDRP are summarized. Contributors from interdisciplinary fields highlight applications in nanotechnology, self-healing materials, oil and water resistant coatings and controlled drug delivery systems.

Functional Polymers by Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation

Functional Polymers by Reversible Deactivation Radical Polymerisation Book
Author : Nikhil K Singha
Publisher : Smithers Rapra
Release : 2017-03-30
ISBN : 1910242578
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthesis of tailor-made functional polymers with controlled architecture is very challenging. The functional groups present in the monomer often either prevent polymerisation or lead to several side reactions. In this regard, reversible deactivation radical polymerisation (RDRP) techniques are useful tools to prepare macromolecular architectures with controlled molecular weight, architecture, and narrow dispersity. This book delineates the advances in the area of RDRP to prepare functional polymers for a wide range of applications like in self-healing, oil- and water-resistant coatings, controlled drug delivery systems and so on. The worthy contribution from renowned experts working in the area of RDRP makes this book invaluable to researchers in these important areas such as:Introduction and historical development of RDRP.Polymer-nanohybrid materials.Telechelic polymers with controlled end functionality.Functional polymers via a combination of RDRP and 'click' chemistry.Fluorinated polymers.Polymers for biomedical applications.The book will be of prime interest for polymer scientists as well as material scientists dealing with functional polymer synthesis for different applications. It will also be a good source of knowledge for researchers working on functional polymeric materials and their composites.

Fluorinated Ionomers

Fluorinated Ionomers Book
Author : Walther Grot
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2011
ISBN : 1437744575
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluorinated ionomer polymers form impermeable membranes that conduct electricity, properties that have been put to use in large-scale electrochemical applications, revolutionizing the chlor-alkali industry and transforming production methods of some of the world's highest-production commodity chemicals: chlorine, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The use of fluorinated ionomers such as Nafion� have removed the need for mercury and asbestos in these processes and led to a massive reduction in electricity usage in these highly energy-intensive processes. Polymers in this group have also found uses in fuel-cells, metal-ion recovery, water electrolysis, plating, surface treatment of metals, batteries, sensors, drug release technologies, gas drying and humidification, and super-acid catalysis used in the production of specialty chemicals. Walther Grot, who invented Nafion� while working for DuPont, has written this book as a practical guide to engineers and scientists working in electrochemistry, the fuel cell industry and other areas of application. His book is a unique guide to this important polymer group and its applications, in membranes and other forms. The 2e expands this handbook by over a third, with new sections covering developments in electrolysis and membranes, additional information about the synthesis and science of the polymer group, and an enhanced provision of reference data. An essential reference for scientists working with electrolysis and electrochemical processes (the use of this polymer group in industrial chemistry processes is credited with a 1% reduction in global electricity usage) Covers the techniques involved in the growing range of applications for fluorinated ionomers, including fuel cells, batteries and drug delivery The only book on this important polymer group, written by Walther Grot, the inventor of the leading fluorinated ionomer, Nafion� from DuPont

Fluoroplastics Volume 1

Fluoroplastics  Volume 1 Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-10-31
ISBN : 1455732001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluoroplastics, Volume 1, compiles in one place a working knowledge of the polymer chemistry and physics of non-melt processible fluoropolymers with detailed descriptions of commercial processing methods, material properties, fabrication and handling information, technologies, and applications. Also, history, market statistics, and safety and recycling aspects are covered. Both volumes contain a large amount of specific property data which is useful for users to readily compare different materials and align material structure with end use applications. Volume 1 concentrates mostly on polytetrafluoroethylene and polychlorotrifluoroethylene and their processing techniques – which are essentially non-melt-processes – used across a broad range of industries including automotive, aerospace, electronic, food, beverage, oil/gas, and medical devices. Since the first edition was published many new technical developments and market changes have taken place and new grades of materials have entered the market. This new edition is a thoroughly updated and significantly expanded revision covering new technologies and applications, and addressing the changes that have taken place in the fluoropolymer markets. Fluoroplastics, Volume 1 is an all-encompassing handbook for non-melt processible fluoropolymers – a unique and invaluable reference for professionals in the fluoropolymer industry and fluoropolymer application industries. Exceptionally broad and comprehensive coverage of non-melt processible fluoropolymers processing and applications. Practical approach, written by long-standing authority in the fluoropolymers industry. New technologies, materials and applications are included in the new edition.

CVD Polymers

CVD Polymers Book
Author : Karen K. Gleason
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-04-01
ISBN : 352769028X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The method of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) is a versatile technique to fabricate high-quality thin films and structured surfaces in the nanometer regime from the vapor phase. Already widely used for the deposition of inorganic materials in the semiconductor industry, CVD has become the method of choice in many applications to process polymers as well. This highly scalable technique allows for synthesizing high-purity, defect-free films and for systematically tuning their chemical, mechanical and physical properties. In addition, vapor phase processing is critical for the deposition of insoluble materials including fluoropolymers, electrically conductive polymers, and highly crosslinked organic networks. Furthermore, CVD enables the coating of substrates which would otherwise dissolve or swell upon exposure to solvents. The scope of the book encompasses CVD polymerization processes which directly translate the chemical mechanisms of traditional polymer synthesis and organic synthesis in homogeneous liquids into heterogeneous processes for the modification of solid surfaces. The book is structured into four parts, complemented by an introductory overview of the diverse process strategies for CVD of polymeric materials. The first part on the fundamentals of CVD polymers is followed by a detailed coverage of the materials chemistry of CVD polymers, including the main synthesis mechanisms and the resultant classes of materials. The third part focuses on the applications of these materials such as membrane modification and device fabrication. The final part discusses the potential for scale-up and commercialization of CVD polymers.

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook Book
Author : Laurence W. McKeen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2015-10-11
ISBN : 0323374670
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fluorinated Coatings and Finishes Handbook: The Definitive User's Guide, Second Edition, addresses important, frequently posed questions by end-user design engineers, coaters, and coatings suppliers on fluorinated coatings and finishes, thus enabling them to achieve superior product qualities and shorter product and process development times. The book provides broad coverage of these fluorinated polymer coatings, including the best known PTFE, polytetrafluoroethylene, first trademarked as Teflon® and ePTFE (GoreTex®). Their inherent qualities of low surface tension, non-stick, low friction, high melting point, and chemical inertness make fluoropolymer coatings widely desirable across thousands of industrial and consumer applications, but these properties also make it difficult to convert fluoropolymers to coatings that have sufficient adhesion to the substrate to be protected. In this book, readers learn how fluoropolymer coatings are used and made, about their pigments and fillers, binders, dispersion processes, additives, and solvents. The book includes substrate preparation, coating properties, baking and curing processes, performance tests, applications, and health and safety. Provides a practical handbook that covers the theory and practice of fluorinated coatings, including the structure and properties of binders and how to get a non-stick coating to stick to the substrate Covers liquid and power fluorocoatings, their applications methods, curing and baking processes, and their commercial end uses Presents detailed discussions of testing methods related to fluorocoatings, common coating defects, how they form, how to eliminate them, and the health and safety aspects of using and applying fluorocoatings Includes substrate preparation, coating properties, baking and curing processes, performance tests, applications, and health and safety

Fluoroplastics Volume 2 Melt Processible Fluoroplastics

Fluoroplastics  Volume 2  Melt Processible Fluoroplastics Book
Author : Sina Ebnesajjad
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2002-10-30
ISBN : 0815517289
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the second of a two volume series of books about fluoroplastics. Volume 1 covers the non-melt processible homopolymers, requiring non-traditional processing techniques. Volume 2 is devoted to the melt-processible fluoropolymers, their polymerization and fabrication techniques including injection molding, wire, tube, and film extrusion, rotational molding, blow molding, compression molding, and transfer molding. Both a source of data and a reference, the properties, characteristics, applications, safety, disposal, and recycling of melt-processible fluoropolymers are comprehensively detailed for immediate use by today's practicing engineering and scientists in the plastics industry. Students will benefit from the book's arrangement and extensive references.

Organofluorine Chemistry

Organofluorine Chemistry Book
Author : R.E. Banks,B.E. Smart,J.C. Tatlow
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
ISBN : 1489912029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the past fifteen years commercial interest in compounds containing carbon fluorine bonds has burgeoned beyond all expectations, mainly owing to business opportunities arising from work on biologically active fluoroorganics-particularly agrochemicals, the relentless search for new markets for fluoropolymers and fluoro carbon fluids, developments in the field of medical diagnostics, and the drive to find replacements for ozone-depleting CFCs and Halon fire-extinguishing agents. Judging the situation to warrant the publication of a comprehensive collection of up-to-date reviews dealing with commercial organofluorine compounds within a single volume of manageable size (and hence reasonable cost), we were delighted to be invited by Plenum Publishing Corporation to produce a suitable book. In order to provide an authentic and wide-ranging account of current commercial applications of fluoroorganic materials, it clearly was necessary to assemble a sizeable team of knowledgeable contributing authors selected almost entirely from industry. Through their efforts we have been able to produce an almost complete coverage of the modem organofluorochemicals business in a manner designed to attract a reader ship ranging from experts in the field, through chemists and technologists currently unaware of the extent of industrial involvement with fluoroorganics, to students of applied chemistry. Promised chapters dedicated to perfluoroolefin oxides and 18F labeling of radiopharmaceuticals failed to materialize. This is somewhat unfortunate in view of our aim to achieve comprehensive coverage of the subject.