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Oil Spill Studies

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Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology

Handbook of Oil Spill Science and Technology Book
Author : Merv Fingas
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-02
ISBN : 0470455519
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides a scientific basis for the cleanup and for the assessment of oil spills Enables Non-scientific officers to understand the science they use on a daily basis Multi-disciplinary approach covering fields as diverse as biology, microbiology, chemistry, physics, oceanography and toxicology Covers the science of oil spills from risk analysis to cleanup and through the effects on the environment Includes case studies examining and analyzing spills, such as Tasman Spirit oil spill on the Karachi Coast, and provides lessons to prevent these in the future

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies Book
Author : Scott Stout,Zhendi Wang
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2017-10-31
ISBN : 0128044357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies includes 34 chapters that serve to present various aspects of environmental forensics in relation to “real-world oil spill case studies from around the globe. Authors representing academic, government, and private researcher groups from 14 countries bring a diverse and global perspective to this volume. Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies addresses releases of natural gas/methane, automotive gasoline and other petroleum fuels, lubricants, vegetable oils, paraffin waxes, bitumen, manufactured gas plant residues, urban runoff, and, of course, crude oil, the latter ranging from light Bakken shale oil to heavy Canadian oil sands oil. New challenges surrounding forensic investigations of stray gas in the shallow subsurface, volatiles in air, dissolved chemicals in water (including passive samplers), and biological tissues associated with oil spills are included, as are the effects and long-term oil weathering, long-term monitoring in urbanized and non-urbanized environments, fate and transport, forensic historical research, new analytical and chemical data processing and interpretation methods. Presents cases in each chapter on the application of specific oil spill environmental forensic techniques Features chapters written by international experts from both academia and industry Includes relevant concepts and theories elucidated for each theme

Responding to Oil Spills in the U S Arctic Marine Environment

Responding to Oil Spills in the U S  Arctic Marine Environment Book
Author : National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Marine Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Polar Research Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2014-08-01
ISBN : 030929889X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

U.S. Arctic waters north of the Bering Strait and west of the Canadian border encompass a vast area that is usually ice covered for much of the year, but is increasingly experiencing longer periods and larger areas of open water due to climate change. Sparsely inhabited with a wide variety of ecosystems found nowhere else, this region is vulnerable to damage from human activities. As oil and gas, shipping, and tourism activities increase, the possibilities of an oil spill also increase. How can we best prepare to respond to such an event in this challenging environment? Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment reviews the current state of the science regarding oil spill response and environmental assessment in the Arctic region north of the Bering Strait, with emphasis on the potential impacts in U.S. waters. This report describes the unique ecosystems and environment of the Arctic and makes recommendations to provide an effective response effort in these challenging conditions. According to Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment, a full range of proven oil spill response technologies is needed in order to minimize the impacts on people and sensitive ecosystems. This report identifies key oil spill research priorities, critical data and monitoring needs, mitigation strategies, and important operational and logistical issues. The Arctic acts as an integrating, regulating, and mediating component of the physical, atmospheric and cryospheric systems that govern life on Earth. Not only does the Arctic serve as regulator of many of the Earth's large-scale systems and processes, but it is also an area where choices made have substantial impact on life and choices everywhere on planet Earth. This report's recommendations will assist environmentalists, industry, state and local policymakers, and anyone interested in the future of this special region to preserve and protect it from damaging oil spills.

Oil Spill Dispersants

Oil Spill Dispersants Book
Author : Committee on Understanding Oil Spill Dispersants: Efficacy and Effects,Ocean Studies Board,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies
Publisher : National Academy Press
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Approximately 3 million gallons of oil or refined petroleum products are spilled into U.S. waters every year. Oil dispersants (chemical agents such as surfactants, solvents, and other compounds) are used to reduce the effect of oil spills by changing the chemical and physical properties of the oil. By enhancing the amount of oil that physically mixes into the water, dispersants can reduce the potential that a surface slick will contaminate shoreline habitats. Although called for in the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 as a tool for minimizing the impact of oil spills, the use of chemical dispersants has long been controversial. This book reviews the adequacy of existing information and ongoing research regarding the effectiveness of dispersants as an oil spill response technique, as well as the effect of dispersed oil on marine and coastal ecosystems. Oil Spill Dispersants also includes recommended steps for policy makers faced with making hard choices regarding the use of dispersants as part of spill contingency planning efforts or during actual spills.

Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments

Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments Book
Author : Oleg Makarynskyy
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-08-19
ISBN : 0128193735
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments: From Risk of Spill through to Probabilities Estimates describes the methods used for estimating hydrocarbon spill risks and the potential consequences. Throughout the book, mathematical methodologies and algorithms are included to aid the reader in the solving of applied tasks presented. Marine Hydrocarbon Spill Assessments: From Risk of Spill through to Probabilities Estimates provides a fundamental understanding of the oil properties and processes which determine the persistence and impacts of oils in the marine environment. It informs the reader of the current research in hydrocarbon spill assessments, starting from an assessment of a risk of a spill, and moving on to modelling approaches to impact assessments, laboratory toxicity assessments, field impact assessments and response options, and prevention and contingency planning. Identifies efficient solutions to protect coastal regions from the marine pollution of hydrocarbon spills Includes case studies examining and analyzing spills, providing lessons to prevent these in the future Covers the science of oil spills from risk analysis to cleanup and the effects on the environment

An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico

An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon-252 Oil Spill on Ecosystem Services in the Gulf of Mexico
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2013-12-20
ISBN : 0309288487
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the Gulf of Mexico recovers from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, natural resource managers face the challenge of understanding the impacts of the spill and setting priorities for restoration work. The full value of losses resulting from the spill cannot be captured, however, without consideration of changes in ecosystem services--the benefits delivered to society through natural processes. An Ecosystem Services Approach to Assessing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico discusses the benefits and challenges associated with using an ecosystem services approach to damage assessment, describing potential impacts of response technologies, exploring the role of resilience, and offering suggestions for areas of future research. This report illustrates how this approach might be applied to coastal wetlands, fisheries, marine mammals, and the deep sea -- each of which provide key ecosystem services in the Gulf -- and identifies substantial differences among these case studies. The report also discusses the suite of technologies used in the spill response, including burning, skimming, and chemical dispersants, and their possible long-term impacts on ecosystem services.

Oil in the Sea III

Oil in the Sea III Book
Author : National Research Council,Transportation Research Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Marine Board,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-03-14
ISBN : 0309084385
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the early 1970s, experts have recognized that petroleum pollutants were being discharged in marine waters worldwide, from oil spills, vessel operations, and land-based sources. Public attention to oil spills has forced improvements. Still, a considerable amount of oil is discharged yearly into sensitive coastal environments. Oil in the Sea provides the best available estimate of oil pollutant discharge into marine waters, including an evaluation of the methods for assessing petroleum load and a discussion about the concerns these loads represent. Featuring close-up looks at the Exxon Valdez spill and other notable events, the book identifies important research questions and makes recommendations for better analysis ofâ€"and more effective measures againstâ€"pollutant discharge. The book discusses: Inputâ€"where the discharges come from, including the role of two-stroke engines used on recreational craft. Behavior or fateâ€"how oil is affected by processes such as evaporation as it moves through the marine environment. Effectsâ€"what we know about the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on marine organisms and ecosystems. Providing a needed update on a problem of international importance, this book will be of interest to energy policy makers, industry officials and managers, engineers and researchers, and advocates for the marine environment.

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Book
Author : Zhendi Wang,Scott Stout
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-07-26
ISBN : 9780080467733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Oil Spill Environmental Forensics provides a complete view of the various forensic techniques used to identify the source of an oil spill into the environment. The forensic procedures described within represent various methods from scientists throughout the world. The authors explore which analytical and interpretative techniques are best suited for a particular oil spill project. This handy reference also explores the use of these techniques in actual environmental oil spills. Famous incidents discussed include the Exxon Valdez incident in 1989 and the Guanabara Bay, Brazil 2000. The authors chronicle both the successes and failures of the techniques used for each of these events. Dr. Zhendi Wang is a senior research scientist and Head of Oil Spill Research of Environment Canada, working in the oil and toxic chemical spill research field. He has authored over 270 academic publications and won a number of national and international scientific honors and awards. Dr. Wang is a member of American Chemical Society (ACS), the Canadian Society for Chemistry (CSC), and the International Society of Environmental Forensics (ISEF). International experts show readers the forensic techniques used in oil spill investigations Provides the theoretical basis and practical applications for investigative techniques Contains numerous case studies demonstrating proven technique

Countering Violent Extremism Through Public Health Practice

Countering Violent Extremism Through Public Health Practice Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Disasters and Emergencies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2017-06-30
ISBN : 0309453658
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Countering violent extremism consists of various prevention and intervention approaches to increase the resilience of communities and individuals to radicalization toward violent extremism, to provide nonviolent avenues for expressing grievances, and to educate communities about the threat of recruitment and radicalization to violence. To explore the application of health approaches in community-level strategies to countering violent extremism and radicalization, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public workshop in September 2016. Participants explored the evolving threat of violent extremism and radicalization within communities across America, traditional versus health-centered approaches to countering violent extremism and radicalization, and opportunities for cross-sector and interdisciplinary collaboration and learning among domestic and international stakeholders and organizations. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response

The Use of Dispersants in Marine Oil Spill Response Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Ocean Studies Board,Committee on the Evaluation of the Use of Chemical Dispersants in Oil Spill Response
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2020-04-24
ISBN : 0309478219
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Whether the result of an oil well blowout, vessel collision or grounding, leaking pipeline, or other incident at sea, each marine oil spill will present unique circumstances and challenges. The oil type and properties, location, time of year, duration of spill, water depth, environmental conditions, affected biomes, potential human community impact, and available resources may vary significantly. Also, each spill may be governed by policy guidelines, such as those set forth in the National Response Plan, Regional Response Plans, or Area Contingency Plans. To respond effectively to the specific conditions presented during an oil spill, spill responders have used a variety of response optionsâ€"including mechanical recovery of oil using skimmers and booms, in situ burning of oil, monitored natural attenuation of oil, and dispersion of oil by chemical dispersants. Because each response method has advantages and disadvantages, it is important to understand specific scenarios where a net benefit may be achieved by using a particular tool or combination of tools. This report builds on two previous National Research Council reports on dispersant use to provide a current understanding of the state of science and to inform future marine oil spill response operations. The response to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon spill included an unprecedented use of dispersants via both surface application and subsea injection. The magnitude of the spill stimulated interest and funding for research on oil spill response, and dispersant use in particular. This study assesses the effects and efficacy of dispersants as an oil spill response tool and evaluates trade-offs associated with dispersant use.

Oil Spill Impacts

Oil Spill Impacts Book
Author : Yejun Wu
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-02-22
ISBN : 1498712150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Starting with the 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill incident, Oil Spill Impacts: Taxonomic and Ontological Approaches chronicles a timeline of events that focus on the impact of oil spills and provides an understanding of these incidents using a number of approaches. The book includes an interdisciplinary oil spill taxonomy, an

Deep Oil Spills

Deep Oil Spills Book
Author : Steven A. Murawski,Cameron H. Ainsworth,Sherryl Gilbert,David J. Hollander,Claire B. Paris,Michael Schlüter,Dana L. Wetzel
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-29
ISBN : 3030116050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The demand for oil and gas has brought exploration and production to unprecedented depths of the world’s oceans. Currently, over 50% of the oil from the Gulf of Mexico now comes from waters in excess of 1,500 meters (one mile) deep, where no oil was produced just 20 years ago. The Deepwater Horizon oil spill blowout did much to change the perception of oil spills as coming just from tanker accidents, train derailments, and pipeline ruptures. In fact, beginning with the Ixtoc 1 spill off Campeche, Mexico in 1979-1980, there have been a series of large spill events originating at the sea bottom and creating a myriad of new environmental and well control challenges. This volume explores the physics, chemistry, sub-surface oil deposition and environmental impacts of deep oil spills. Key lessons learned from the responses to previous deep spills, as well as unresolved scientific questions for additional research are highlighted, all of which are appropriate for governmental regulators, politicians, industry decision-makers, first responders, researchers and students wanting an incisive overview of issues surrounding deep-water oil and gas production.

Environmental Forensics

Environmental Forensics Book
Author : R E Hester,R M Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2008-06-27
ISBN : 1847558348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'Environmental forensics' is a combination of analytical and environmental chemistry, which is useful in the court room context. It therefore involves field analytical studies and both data interpretation and modelling connected with the attribution of pollution events to their causes. Recent decades have seen a burgeoning of legislation designed to protect the environment and, as the costs of environmental damage and clean-up are considerable, not only are there prosecutions by regulatory agencies, but the courts are also used as a means of adjudication of civil damage claims relating to environmental causes or environmental degradation. As a result is the increasing number of prosecutions of companies who have breached regulations for environmental protection and in civil claims relating to harm caused by excessive pollutant releases to the environment. Such cases can become extremely protracted as expert witnesses provide their sometimes conflicting interpretations of environmental measurement data and their meaning. It is in this context that environmental forensics is developing as a specialism, leading to greater formalisation of investigative methods which should lead to more definitive findings and less scope for experts to disagree. Now a significant subject in its own right, at least one journal devoted to the field and a number of degree courses have sprung up. As a result of the topicality and rapid growth of the subject area, is the publication of this book - the 26th volume in the highly acclaimed Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Series. This volume contains authoritative articles by a number of the leading practitioners across the globe in the environmental forensics field and aims to cover some of the main techniques and areas to which environmental forensics are being applied. The content is comprehensive and describes a number of the key areas within environmental forensics - topics covered by the authors include: - Source identification issues - Microbial techniques - Metal contamination and methods of assigning liability - The use of isotopes to determine sources and their applications - Molecular biological methods - Hydrocarbon fingerprinting techniques - Oil chemistry and key compound identification - The emerging role of environmental forensics in groundwater pollution Additionally, the volume considers specific pollutants and long-lived pollutants of groundwater such as halocarbons which have presented particular problems and which are described in some depth, as well as the way in which chemical degradation processes can lead to compositional changes which provide valuable information. The book provides a comprehensive overview of many of the key areas of environmental forensics written by some of the leading experts in the field. It will be both of specialist use to those seeking expert insights into the field and its capabilities as well as of more general interest to those involved in both environmental analytical science and environmental law.

Understanding Oil Spills and Oil Spill Response

Understanding Oil Spills and Oil Spill Response Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Understanding Oil Spills and Oil Spill Response book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Basics of Oil Spill Cleanup

The Basics of Oil Spill Cleanup Book
Author : Merv Fingas
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-01-01
ISBN : 1420032593
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Constant media attention on oil spills has created global awareness of their risks and the damage they do. Often under-reported is the average cost of the cleanup - often as high as $200 per liter of oil spilled. Oil is a necessity in today's industrial society, and since our dependence on it is not likely to and any time soon, we will continue to

Oil Spill Science and Technology

Oil Spill Science and Technology Book
Author : Mervin F. Fingas
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9781856179430
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 1.7 to 8.8 million tons of oil are released into world's water every year, of which more than 70% is directly related to human activities. The effects of these spills are all too apparent: dead wildlife, oil covered marshlands and contaminated water chief among them. This reference will provide scientists, engineers and practitioners with the latest methods use for identify and eliminating spills before they occur and develop the best available techniques, equipment and materials for dealing with oil spills in every environment. Topics covered include: spill dynamics and behaviour, spill treating agents, and cleanup techniques such as: in situ burning, mechanical containment or recovery, chemical and biological methods and physical methods are used to clean up shorelines. Also included are the fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage. Covers spill dynamics and behaviour Definitive guide to spill treating agents Complete coverage of cleanup techniques Includes fate and effects of oil spills and means to assess damage.

Oil Spill Occurrence Simulation and Behavior

Oil Spill Occurrence  Simulation  and Behavior Book
Author : M.R. Riazi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-03-25
ISBN : 0429778147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Oil Spill Occurrence, Simulation, and Behavior provides practical insight into oil spills and their causes, impacts, response and cleanup methods, simple and advanced modeling of oil spill behavior, and oil spill simulation techniques. Discusses various sources of oil spills and major accidents Includes case studies on the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill, including environmental, economic, and political impacts, modeling and behavior as well as response and cleanup methods Introduces some commercial softwares on predicting oil movement and spreading on water Describes properties and characteristics of crude oil and its products needed for simulation and prediction of behavior of an oil slick Written as an applied book with minimal math and theory, making it accessible to a wide range of readers The book includes more than 100 unique and informative images in color This essential book is aimed at professionals, academics, and scientists in the fields of chemical engineering, petroleum engineering, environmental engineering, marine and ocean engineering working on the simulation and modeling, mitigation, and prevention of oil spills.

Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea

Using Oil Spill Dispersants on the Sea Book
Author : National Research Council (U. S.),National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Effectiveness of Oil Spill Dispersants
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Assesses the state of knowledge and practice in the use of dispersants in responding to open-ocean oil spills. Treats the chemistry and physics of these substances and considers how they are used: techniques, logistics, monitoring and application strategies. Cloth edition, $39.95. Annotation copyrig

Oil Spill Remediation

Oil Spill Remediation Book
Author : Ponisseril Somasundaran,Partha Patra,Raymond S. Farinato,Kyriakos Papadopoulos
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-04-10
ISBN : 1118825640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of oil spillremediation from the perspectives of policy makers, scientists, andengineers, generally focusing on colloid chemistry phenomena andsolutions involved in oil spills and their cleanup. • First book to address oil spill remediation from theperspective of physicochemical and colloidal science • Discusses current and emerging detergents used inclean-ups • Includes chapters from leading scientists,researchers, engineers, and policy makers • Presents new insights into the possible impact of oilspills on ecosystems as well as preventive measures

Field Research Spills to Investigate the Physical and Chemical Fate of Oil in Pack Ice

Field Research Spills to Investigate the Physical and Chemical Fate of Oil in Pack Ice Book
Author : Buist, I. A,I. Bjerkelund,D.F. Dickins Associates,S.L. Ross Environmental Research Ltd,David Dickins,Environmental Studies Revolving Funds (Canada)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Describes three experimental crude oil spills of one cubic metre each carried out in pack ice offshore of Cape Breton Island. The spills were conducted to study the behaviour and fate of oil spilled in pack ice conditions (pack ice concentrations of 50 to 90 percent). Specifically, the spills were designed to: relate oil spreading behaviour to ice conditions; evaluate the fate of oil spilled in leads and brash ice according to processes of evaporation, emulsification, dispersion, and incorporation into or on top of the ice; and identify possible countermeasures strategies for crude oil spills in ice through observation of the oil behaviour. Results are presented with regard to oil spreading as determined by aerial remote sensing; comparison of observed spreading with those predicted by a model; oil drift; oil/ice interactions; changes occurring during weathering; and experience with in-situ burning of the spill.