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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Gerold Siedler,John A. Church,John Gould
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2001-04-25
ISBN : 9780126413519
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the views of leading scientists on the knowledge of the global ocean circulation following the completion of the observational phase of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment. WOCE's in situ physical and chemical measurements together with satellite altimetry have produced a data set which provides for development of ocean and coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models used for understanding ocean and climate variability and projecting climate change. This book guides the reader through the analysis, interpretation, modelling and synthesis of this data.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 012805851X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058706
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ice Drift Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift  Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Book
Author : Jens Bischof,Springer-verlag
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000-11
ISBN : 9781852336486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Christoph Heinze,Marion Gehlen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058757
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biogeochemical ocean general circulation models are important tools for quantifying the marine carbon cycle and its feedback to the climate system. These models simulate the inorganic carbon cycle and also the organic carbon cycle through a series of simplified process parameterizations. This chapter presents an overview of the major concepts and methods in marine biogeochemical modeling including the combination of models with observations. Because of the climatic relevance of the carbon cycle, major emphasis is placed on it, but some other related matter cycles are also touched upon. New developments in ocean biogeochemistry during the last decade are described including the marine anthropogenic carbon uptake and ocean acidification. The chapter tries to acquaint scientists from other disciplines with marine biogeochemical modeling and provides key literature resources for further in-depth studies.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : John A. Church,Neil J. White,Catia M. Domingues,Didier P. Monselesan,Elaine R. Miles
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058765
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ocean has the largest heat capacity in the climate system and as a result the ocean plays a critical role in the climate. Changes in ocean heat content dominate the Earth’s energy storage; and the ocean’s thermal expansion has been a major contributor to sea-level rise in the twentieth century and likely to be the largest contributor in the twenty-first century. The agreement between changes in ocean heat storage over recent decades and changes in the Earth’s radiative balance, within uncertainties, provides strong support for current understanding of anthropogenic climate change. As a result of improvements in observations and modeling of sea level and components contributing to sea-level change, there is now an improved explanation for twentieth century sea-level rise. Models project a continuing sea-level rise during the twenty-first century and beyond. However, a number of uncertainties remain in our understanding of the global mean and regional distribution of sea-level rise resulting from changes in ocean circulation and changes in the Earth’s gravitational field. Ocean-ice-sheet interactions are important for quantitatively estimating future ice-sheet contributions to sea-level rise.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Sybren S. Drijfhout,David P. Marshall,Henk A. Dijkstra
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulation, and their transient behavior. While our conceptual understanding of the time-mean wind-driven circulation is now fairly mature, basic questions remain regarding the thermohaline circulation, for example, surrounding its overall strength and stability. Similarly, basic questions remain regarding the transient adjustment and internal variability of the ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Gerold Siedler,Stephen M. Griffies,John Gould,William John Gould,John A. Church
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780123918512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage; Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components; and Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Jennifer MacKinnon,Lou St Laurent,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058560
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Diapycnal mixing in the ocean interior is driven by a wide range of processes, each with distinct governing physics and unique global geography. Here we review the primary processes responsible for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior, with an emphasis on active work from the past decade. We conclude with a discussion of global patterns of mixing and their importance for regional and large-scale modeling accuracy.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Mojib Latif
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058749
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An inherent feature of the climate is its strong variability on a vast range of timescales, from seasonal to multimillennial and beyond. Decadal variability, which is the topic of this chapter, has large implications for society, as its consequences can be experienced by individuals during their own lifetime. Examples of decadal variability include the Dust Bowl drought of the 1930s in the American and Canadian prairie lands, the Sahel drought of the 1970s and 1980s, the ongoing drought which started in 2000 in the southwestern United States, and the multidecadal variability in Atlantic hurricane activity during the twentieth century. Furthermore, it is the decadal to multidecadal variability that makes the detection of anthropogenic climate change a challenge, since global warming evolves on a similar timescale. The detection problem specifically applies to the regional scale, where natural variability is the strongest. It is a central challenge of climate science to understand and possibly predict such regional-scale climate variability and change over timescales of decades.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation Book
Author : Rui Xin Huang
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0521852285
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The modeling of ocean circulation is important not only for its own sake, but also in terms of the prediction of weather patterns and the effects of climate change. This book introduces the basic computational techniques necessary for all models of the ocean and atmosphere, and the conditions they must satisfy. It describes the workings of ocean models, the problems that must be solved in their construction, and how to evaluate computational results. Major emphasis is placed on examining ocean models critically, and determining what they do well and what they do poorly. Numerical analysis is introduced as needed, and exercises are included to illustrate major points. Developed from notes for a course taught in physical oceanography at the College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences at Oregon State University, this book is ideal for graduate students of oceanography, geophysics, climatology and atmospheric science, and researchers in oceanography and atmospheric science.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Stephen R. Rintoul,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058676
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation

Ocean Circulation Book
Author : Andreas Schmittner,John C. H. Chiang,Sidney R. Hemming
Publisher : American Geophysical Union
Release : 2007-01-09
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The meridional overturning circulation is a system of surface and deep currents encompassing all ocean basins. It transports large amounts of water, heat, salt, carbon, nutrients and other substances around the globe, and connects the surface ocean and atmosphere with the huge reservoir of the deep sea. As such, it is of critical importance to the global climate system. This monograph summarizes the current state of knowledge of this current system, how it has changed in the past and how it may change in the future, its driving mechanisms, and the impacts of its variability on climate, ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles.

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions

Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions Book
Author : Barry A. Klinger,Thomas W. N. Haine
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-03-31
ISBN : 0521768438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An innovative survey of large-scale ocean circulation that links observations, conceptual models, numerical models, and theories.

Marine Geochemistry

Marine Geochemistry Book
Author : Matthieu Roy-Barman,Catherine Jeandel
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-09-08
ISBN : 0198787499
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works in terms of ocean circulation, chemical composition, biological activity and atmospheric CO2 regulation. This rapidly growing field is at a crossroad for many disciplines (physical, chemical and biological oceanography, geology, climatology, ecology, etc.). It provides important quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to anthropogenic pressure? This text gives a simple introduction to the concepts, the methods and the applications of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Overall introducing a very large number of topics (physical oceanography, ocean chemistry, isotopes, gas exchange, modelling, biogeochemical cycles), with a balance of didactic and indepth information, it provides an outline and a complete course in marine geochemistry. Throughout, the book uses a hands-on approach with worked out exercises and problems (with answers provided at the end of the book), to help the students work through the concepts presented. A broad scale approach is take including ocean physics, marine biology, ocean-climate relations, remote sensing, pollutions and ecology, so that the reader acquires a global perspective of the ocean. It also includes new topics arising from ongoing research programs. This textbook is essential reading for students, scholars, researchers and other professionals.

The Great Ocean Conveyor

The Great Ocean Conveyor Book
Author : Wally Broecker
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2010-01-11
ISBN : 1400834716
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring the link between the ocean's currents and rapid climate change Wally Broecker is one of the world's leading authorities on abrupt global climate change. More than two decades ago, he discovered the link between ocean circulation and climate change, in particular how shutdowns of the Great Ocean Conveyor—the vast network of currents that circulate water, heat, and nutrients around the globe—triggered past ice ages. Today, he is among the researchers exploring how our planet's climate system can abruptly "flip-flop" from one state to another, and who are weighing the implications for the future. In The Great Ocean Conveyor, Broecker introduces readers to the science of abrupt climate change while providing a vivid, firsthand account of the field's history and development. Could global warming cause the conveyor to shut down again, prompting another flip-flop in climate? What were the repercussions of past climate shifts? How do we know such shifts occurred? Broecker shows how Earth scientists study ancient ice cores and marine sediments to probe Earth's distant past, and how they blend scientific detective work with the latest technological advances to try to predict the future. He traces how the science has evolved over the years, from the blind alleys and wrong turns to the controversies and breathtaking discoveries. Broecker describes the men and women behind the science, and reveals how his own thinking about abrupt climate change has itself flip-flopped as new evidence has emerged. Rich with personal stories and insights, The Great Ocean Conveyor opens a tantalizing window onto how Earth science is practiced.

Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 2003 National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development  and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 2003  National Aeronautics and Space Administration Book
Author : United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development and Independent Agencies Appropriations for 2003 National Aeronautics and Space Administration book written by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Climate and the Oceans

Climate and the Oceans Book
Author : Geoffrey K. Vallis
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0691150281
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explores climate and oceans, providing a look at the basics of climate, a descriptive overview of the oceans, a brief introduction to dynamics, and coverage of other related topics.

Grants and Awards for the Fiscal Year Ended

Grants and Awards for the Fiscal Year Ended     Book
Author : National Science Foundation (U.S.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1972
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Grants and Awards for the Fiscal Year Ended book written by National Science Foundation (U.S.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.