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Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Gerold Siedler,Stephen M. Griffies,John Gould,William John Gould,John A. Church
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780123918512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation. Presents in situ and remote observations with worldwide coverage; Provides theoretical understanding of processes within the ocean and at its boundaries to other Earth System components; and Allows for simulating ocean and climate processes in the past, present and future using a hierarchy of physical-biogeochemical models

Ice Drift Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift  Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Book
Author : Jens Bischof,Springer-verlag
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000-11
ISBN : 9781852336486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Thomas F. Stocker
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058501
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A broad perspective of the ocean as a key component of the Earth System and of its role in the past, present, and future climate change is provided. The ocean is a huge reservoir of heat, mass, carbon, and many other quantities, and their estimated exchange fluxes suggest characteristic timescales of adjustment ranging from decades to many thousands of years. Surface patterns and meridional fluxes of these quantities highlight the important role of the wind-driven circulation and the deep ocean flow systems through all ocean basins. Ocean-dominated phenomena of natural variability, in particular associated with the tropical oceans, are explained. The relevance of the ocean circulation for abrupt climate change, as recorded from a variety of paleoclimate records, is discussed. This includes the bipolar seesaw concept which explains many features of interhemispheric response during the sequence of rapid warmings in the past ice age. Finally, the ocean’s role during the anthropocene, the time epoch which is dominated by the human-caused increase in greenhouse gases to levels unprecedented in the past 800,000 years, is explored. Both the warming and the increase in atmospheric transport of water polewards create conditions for the ocean that may induce large and irreversible changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ocean Circulation and Climate book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Stefan Rahmstorf,Georg Feulner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 012805851X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The oceans play a crucial role in the Earth’s climate system due largely to their ability to store and transport heat. The instrumental record, spanning an order of magnitude of 100 years, is short compared with some of the important timescales of climate variability. To understand the oceans’ role in these long-term changes, proxy data from sediments, ice cores, and corals must be used. Using these proxy data, we examine the evidence for past ocean circulation and sea-level changes before instrumental oceanographic measurements began. We discuss what paleoclimatic data can tell us about past ocean states and what can be learned from ocean and climate models. Particular foci of the chapter are the ocean circulation and sea-level changes during the Quaternary and the Cretaceous, two particularly interesting periods in Earth’s history. The Quaternary covers the past 2.5 million years and is characterized by periodic glaciations, while the Cretaceous, reaching back around 100 million years, had a warm greenhouse climate with a weak temperature gradient between the tropics and the poles.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Carl Wunsch,Patrick Heimbach
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058706
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The World Ocean Circulation Experiment drove the development of estimates of the decadal scale time evolving general circulation that are dynamically and kinematically consistent. A long timescale, and a goal of estimation rather than prediction, preclude the use of meteorological methods called “data assimilation (DA).” Instead, “state estimation” methods are reviewed here and distinguished from DA. Results from the dynamically consistent family of solutions from the project Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean based upon least-squares Lagrange multipliers (adjoints) are used to discuss the determination of the dominant elements of the circulation in the period since 1992—which marked the beginning of the satellite altimetric record. Significant changes documented in the Arctic in recent decades now mandate consideration of the coupled ocean-cryospheric state.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Shiro Imawaki,Amy S. Bower,Lisa Beal,Bo Qiu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058625
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Strong, persistent currents along the western boundaries of the world’s major ocean basins are called “western boundary currents” (WBCs). This chapter describes the structure and dynamics of WBCs, their roles in basin-scale circulation, regional variability, and their influence on atmosphere and climate. WBCs are largely a manifestation of wind-driven circulation; they compensate the meridional Sverdrup transport induced by the winds over the ocean interior. Some WBCs also play a role in the global thermohaline circulation, through inter-gyre and inter-basin water exchanges. After separation from the boundary, most WBCs have zonal extensions, which exhibit high eddy kinetic energy due to flow instabilities, and large surface fluxes of heat and carbon dioxide. The WBCs described here in detail are the Gulf Stream, Brazil and Malvinas Currents in the Atlantic, the Somali and Agulhas Currents in the Indian, and the Kuroshio and East Australian Current in the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Sybren S. Drijfhout,David P. Marshall,Henk A. Dijkstra
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conceptual models are a vital tool for understanding the processes that maintain the global ocean circulation, both in nature and in complex numerical ocean models. In this chapter we provide a broad overview of our conceptual understanding of the wind-driven circulation, the thermohaline circulation, and their transient behavior. While our conceptual understanding of the time-mean wind-driven circulation is now fairly mature, basic questions remain regarding the thermohaline circulation, for example, surrounding its overall strength and stability. Similarly, basic questions remain regarding the transient adjustment and internal variability of the ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Nikolai Maximenko,Rick Lumpkin,Luca Centurioni
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058617
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter summarizes the history of and recent progress in observations of surface circulation of the ocean. The description is biased toward Lagrangian drifting buoys and satellite altimetry that, in the authors’ opinion, have revolutionized our understanding of ocean surface currents by providing a high resolution, continuous global view of mesoscale ocean “weather.” We outline the current state of the observing system and characterize geostrophic surface circulation, Ekman currents, and effects of centrifugal force and nonlinear interaction between geostrophic and Ekman currents. This general description is complemented by regional examples, detailing processes in the California Current System, off Senegal, and the Kuroshio interaction with the East and South China Seas. Applications to various tasks, in which surface currents play important role, are illustrated by model simulations of motions of marine debris, including debris generated by the 2011 tsunami in Japan. The chapter concludes with a brief discussion of the next tasks needed to improve understanding of the dynamics of the surface ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Southampton Oceanography Centre
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ocean Circulation and Climate book written by Southampton Oceanography Centre, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Stephen M. Griffies,Anne Marie Treguier
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058692
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter focuses on numerical models used to understand and predict large-scale circulation, such as the circulation comprising basin and global scales. It is organized according to two themes. The first addresses physical and numerical topics forming a foundation for ocean models. We focus here on the science of ocean models, in which we ask questions about fundamental processes and develop the mathematical equations for ocean thermo-hydrodynamics. We also touch upon various methods used to represent the continuum ocean fluid with a discrete computer model, raising such topics as the finite volume formulation of the ocean equations; the choice for vertical coordinate; the complementary issues related to horizontal gridding; and the pervasive questions of subgrid scale parameterizations. The second theme of this chapter concerns the applications of ocean models, in particular how to design an experiment and how to analyze results. This material forms the basis for ocean modelling, with the aim being to mechanistically describe, interpret, understand, and predict emergent features of the simulated, and ultimately the observed, ocean.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : John Gould,Bernadette Sloyan,Martin Visbeck
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058528
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initializing, validating, and improving ocean models. It is only since the late twentieth century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology, and satellite communication, in situ observations (together with satellite observations) have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allow us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally coordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally, there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : P. Ted Strub,Vincent Combes,Frank A. Shillington,Oscar Pizarro
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058633
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, we review the physical processes that create the mean and variable circulation features along the eastern margins of the ocean basins. Rather than describing the individual systems, we describe the processes and their variability between the systems, dividing the discussion into the low-, mid- and high-latitude regions. We start with the low latitudes, since their signals often move poleward along the coastal wave guides into the midlatitudes, which are the well-known eastern boundary upwelling systems. Our treatment of the higher latitudes is limited to examples from the better-studied NE Pacific Basin (The Alaska Current).

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2001-03-27
ISBN : 0080491979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book represents all the knowledge we currently have on ocean circulation. It presents an up-to-date summary of the state of the science relating to the role of the oceans in the physical climate system. The book is structured to guide the reader through the wide range of World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) science in a consistent way. Cross-references between contributors have been added, and the book has a comprehensive index and unified reference list. The book is simple to read, at the undergraduate level. It was written by the best scientists in the world who have collaborated to carry out years of experiments to better understand ocean circulation.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Alison M. Macdonald,Molly O. Baringer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058781
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to ascertain the implications of a changing climate are based first and foremost on our understanding the fundamental balances comprising earth’s climate. The global energy budget is integral to this understanding, and the poleward transport of heat by the oceans is an intrinsic component of the energy balance. In this chapter, we look to describe what is presently known about ocean heat transport and its role in the climate system. At the end of the last century, as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), the ocean-going research community completed a decade-long international effort to explore the ocean through the acquisition of a single consistent and comparable set of high-quality, full-depth observations. This global-scale field campaign was designed to determine the mean steady-state basin-scale circulation and meridional ocean heat transport. At the time, it was recognized that this mean was unlikely to be stationary. It was also understood that patterns of variability that had yet to be measured would influence our eventual understanding of these one-time “synoptic” observations. A decade later, time series of ocean heat transport (from moorings, repeat XBT and CTD lines and profiling floats), although still quite short and either spatially and/or temporally sparse, are now becoming available. The WOCE/JGOFS programs of the 1990s have been extended through large international efforts first by the Climate Variability and Predictability program and now by the Global Ocean Ship-based Hydrographic Investigations Program. Through these newly acquired time series, improvements in analysis techniques, and recent modeling advances, we are beginning to describe ocean heat transport variability and to understand its possible response to and role in climate change. In this chapter, we focus on what has been learnt about ocean heat transport through in situ observations. We include some history, a detailed description of ocean heat transport computation and decomposition, and a discussion of the present state of the science, seeking to measure ocean heat transport variability.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Stephen R. Rintoul,Alberto C. Naveira Garabato
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058676
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Southern Ocean circulation connects the ocean basins as well as the upper and deep layers of the ocean. As a result, the region has a profound influence on the global ocean circulation and climate. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the overturning circulation are dynamically linked through interactions between the mean flow, eddies, topography, air–sea forcing, and mixing and stirring by small- and mesoscale processes. A new dynamical paradigm is emerging that emphasizes the fully three-dimensional nature of the circulation, including the localization of meridional and vertical exchange of momentum, vorticity, and tracers by interactions between the flow and topography. Changes observed in the Southern Ocean in recent decades have implications for global climate and provide insight into the response of the Southern Ocean circulation to changes in forcing.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Swadhin Behera,Peter Brandt,Gilles Reverdin
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The tropical oceans play important roles in the global climate system through ocean transports of heat and freshwater as well as ocean–atmosphere interactions. The developments in observational networks during recent decades have helped us to quantify the strength and variability of most of the ocean general circulations responsible for the transports. Those are discussed in detail in individual sections covering each tropical basin separately with a special emphasis on recent research results. Shallow overturning cells observed in all three tropical basins as well as the deep Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are such examples that are linked to ocean and climate variations on multiple timescales. In addition, tropical ocean–atmosphere interactions associated with oceanic planetary waves cause large-scale climate variations such as El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole, Atlantic Niño, and ENSO Modoki. Recent advances in numerical modeling augmented by in situ and satellite observations are helping the research community to understand ocean process and to predict associated climate variations on seasonal to longer timescales.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Paul J. Durack,Susan E. Wijffels,Tim P. Boyer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058773
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Long-term global ocean salinity variation provides an insight into water cycle change. This connection reflects changes to the evaporation and precipitation (E–P) fields along with terrestrial runoff, which comprises the global water cycle and sets the spatial pattern of salinity on the ocean surface. The dynamic nature of the global ocean ensures that along with E–P, temperature and circulation changes also play a role in driving patterns of salinity change. This chapter provides an introduction to the global water cycle, briefly outlines the history of ocean salinity observation, and introduces results that relate resolved salinity change to water cycle change. Because of sparse observational coverage, the use of climate models are necessary to investigate these relationships. Long-term changes to global ocean salinity suggest that an unambiguous and coherent water cycle change has occurred over the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Climate model simulations project that such changes will intensify in the twenty-first century in response to continued greenhouse gas emissions.

Ocean Circulation and Climate

Ocean Circulation and Climate Book
Author : Lee-Lueng Fu,Rosemary Morrow
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 0128058536
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The past decade has seen tremendous progress in the application of ocean remote sensing to the study of the global ocean circulation. This chapter provides a summary of the resultant advances in our understanding of the key processes of the ocean that affect climate variability. Many of the advances result from the combined usage of remote sensing from multiple types of measurement and in situ observations. Remotely sensed ocean variables include sea surface height, wind, temperature, salinity and color, as well as the variable mass of the ocean and ice from spaceborne measurement of the earth’s gravity field. These observations have often been analyzed with various in situ observations, including moored buoys, hydrographic profiles, surface drifters, and Argo floats. The general circulation of the ocean as manifested by the ocean surface dynamic topography from satellite altimetry, and the geoid from satellite gravity measurements, can now be determined at scales approaching 100km. The information from surface drifters and Argo floats has added more details through the upper ocean depths. The large-scale changes of the ocean on decadal scales reveal complex geographic patterns in relation to the changes in the atmospheric forcing. The causes for the slow rise of the global mean sea level are diagnosed in terms of the steric and mass change of the ocean. The bottom pressure inferred from ocean mass change measured from space provides direct observation of the barotropic variability of the ocean. The detailed information of ocean surface wind measured from scatterometry and temperature from infrared and microwave radiometry reveals a positive correlation between the two, leading to new understanding of air–sea interactions at scales below 1000km. Data combined from multiple satellite altimeters through optimally designed processing have revolutionized the study of the global ocean mesoscale processes, revealing new information on the spectral transfer of energy and on global eddy propagation characteristics, which vary in relation to the mean circulation, bottom topography, and the nonlinearity of eddy dynamics. The gridded fields of remote sensing data have made satellite observations routinely accessible to general users for scientific and operational applications. The outlook for future development in ocean remote sensing is also discussed.

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ocean Circulation and Climate Change Book
Author : Klaus Hasselmann
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ocean Circulation and Climate Change book written by Klaus Hasselmann, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.