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Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling Book
Author : Darryl I. MacKenzie,James D. Nichols,Larissa L. Bailey,J. Andrew Royle,Kenneth H. Pollock,James E. Hines
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10
ISBN : 9780128146910
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition, provides a synthesis of model-based approaches for analyzing presence-absence data, allowing for imperfect detection. Beginning from the relatively simple case of estimating the proportion of area or sampling units occupied at the time of surveying, the authors describe a wide variety of extensions that have been developed since the early 2000s. This provides an improved insight about species and community ecology, including, detection heterogeneity; correlated detections; spatial autocorrelation; multiple states or classes of occupancy; changes in occupancy over time; species co-occurrence; community-level modeling, and more. Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition has been greatly expanded and detail is provided regarding the estimation methods and examples of their application are given. Important study design recommendations are also covered to give a well rounded view of modeling. Provides authoritative insights into the latest in occupancy modeling Examines the latest methods in analyzing detection/no detection data surveys Addresses critical issues of imperfect detectability and its effects on species occurrence estimation Discusses important study design considerations such as defining sample units, sample size determination and optimal effort allocation

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling Book
Author : Darryl I. MacKenzie,James D. Nichols,J. Andrew Royle,Kenneth H. Pollock,Larissa Bailey,James E. Hines
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-11-17
ISBN : 0124072453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition, provides a synthesis of model-based approaches for analyzing presence-absence data, allowing for imperfect detection. Beginning from the relatively simple case of estimating the proportion of area or sampling units occupied at the time of surveying, the authors describe a wide variety of extensions that have been developed since the early 2000s. This provides an improved insight about species and community ecology, including, detection heterogeneity; correlated detections; spatial autocorrelation; multiple states or classes of occupancy; changes in occupancy over time; species co-occurrence; community-level modeling, and more. Occupancy Estimation and Modeling: Inferring Patterns and Dynamics of Species Occurrence, Second Edition has been greatly expanded and detail is provided regarding the estimation methods and examples of their application are given. Important study design recommendations are also covered to give a well rounded view of modeling. Provides authoritative insights into the latest in occupancy modeling Examines the latest methods in analyzing detection/no detection data surveys Addresses critical issues of imperfect detectability and its effects on species occurrence estimation Discusses important study design considerations such as defining sample units, sample size determination and optimal effort allocation

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling

Occupancy Estimation and Modeling Book
Author : Darryl I. MacKenzie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Occupancy in ecological investigations; Fundamental principles of statistical inference; Single-species, single-season occupancy models; Single-species, single-season models with heterogeneous detection probabilities; Design of single-season occupancy studies; Single-species, multiple-season occupancy models; Occupancy data for multiple species: species interactions; Occupancy in community-level studies; Future directions.

Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology Analysis of Distribution Abundance and Species Richness in R and BUGS

Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology  Analysis of Distribution  Abundance and Species Richness in R and BUGS Book
Author : Marc Kery,J. Andrew Royle
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-10-10
ISBN : 0128097272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Applied Hierarchical Modeling in Ecology: Analysis of Distribution, Abundance and Species Richness in R and BUGS, Volume Two: Dynamic and Advanced Models provides a synthesis of the state-of-the-art in hierarchical models for plant and animal distribution, also focusing on the complex and more advanced models currently available. The book explains all procedures in the context of hierarchical models that represent a unified approach to ecological research, thus taking the reader from design, through data collection, and into analyses using a very powerful way of synthesizing data. Makes ecological modeling accessible for people who are struggling to use complex or advanced modeling programs Synthesizes current ecological models and explains how they are inter-connected Contains examples throughout the book, walking the reading through scenarios with both real and simulated data Presents an ideal resource for ecologists working in R, an open source version of S known for its exceptional ecology analyses, and in BUGS for more flexible Bayesian analyses

Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology

Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology Book
Author : J. Andrew Royle,Robert M. Dorazio
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-10-15
ISBN : 0080559255
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to data collection, modeling and inference strategies for biological survey data using Bayesian and classical statistical methods. This book describes a general and flexible framework for modeling and inference in ecological systems based on hierarchical models, with a strict focus on the use of probability models and parametric inference. Hierarchical models represent a paradigm shift in the application of statistics to ecological inference problems because they combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are developed and applied to problems in population, metapopulation, community, and metacommunity systems. The book provides the first synthetic treatment of many recent methodological advances in ecological modeling and unifies disparate methods and procedures. The authors apply principles of hierarchical modeling to ecological problems, including * occurrence or occupancy models for estimating species distribution * abundance models based on many sampling protocols, including distance sampling * capture-recapture models with individual effects * spatial capture-recapture models based on camera trapping and related methods * population and metapopulation dynamic models * models of biodiversity, community structure and dynamics * Wide variety of examples involving many taxa (birds, amphibians, mammals, insects, plants) * Development of classical, likelihood-based procedures for inference, as well as Bayesian methods of analysis * Detailed explanations describing the implementation of hierarchical models using freely available software such as R and WinBUGS * Computing support in technical appendices in an online companion web site

Spatial Capture Recapture

Spatial Capture Recapture Book
Author : J. Andrew Royle,Richard B. Chandler,Rahel Sollmann,Beth Gardner
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-27
ISBN : 012407152X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spatial Capture-Recapture provides a comprehensive how-to manual with detailed examples of spatial capture-recapture models based on current technology and knowledge. Spatial Capture-Recapture provides you with an extensive step-by-step analysis of many data sets using different software implementations. The authors' approach is practical – it embraces Bayesian and classical inference strategies to give the reader different options to get the job done. In addition, Spatial Capture-Recapture provides data sets, sample code and computing scripts in an R package. Comprehensive reference on revolutionary new methods in ecology makes this the first and only book on the topic Every methodological element has a detailed worked example with a code template, allowing you to learn by example Includes an R package that contains all computer code and data sets on companion website

Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology

Hierarchical Modeling and Inference in Ecology Book
Author : J. Andrew Royle,Robert M. Dorazio
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9780123740977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to data collection, modeling and inference strategies for biological survey data using Bayesian and classical statistical methods. This book describes a general and flexible framework for modeling and inference in ecological systems based on hierarchical models, with a strict focus on the use of probability models and parametric inference. Hierarchical models represent a paradigm shift in the application of statistics to ecological inference problems because they combine explicit models of ecological system structure or dynamics with models of how ecological systems are observed. The principles of hierarchical modeling are developed and applied to problems in population, metapopulation, community, and metacommunity systems. The book provides the first synthetic treatment of many recent methodological advances in ecological modeling and unifies disparate methods and procedures. The authors apply principles of hierarchical modeling to ecological problems, including * occurrence or occupancy models for estimating species distribution * abundance models based on many sampling protocols, including distance sampling * capture-recapture models with individual effects * spatial capture-recapture models based on camera trapping and related methods * population and metapopulation dynamic models * models of biodiversity, community structure and dynamics * Wide variety of examples involving many taxa (birds, amphibians, mammals, insects, plants) * Development of classical, likelihood-based procedures for inference, as well as Bayesian methods of analysis * Detailed explanations describing the implementation of hierarchical models using freely available software such as R and WinBUGS * Computing support in technical appendices in an online companion web site

Confronting Assumptions of Occupancy Estimation and Species Distribution Models

Confronting Assumptions of Occupancy Estimation and Species Distribution Models Book
Author : Christopher T. Rota
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Here, I contrast logistic regression models of species occurrence that do not correct for detectability to hierarchical occupancy models that explicitly estimate and adjust for detectability, and maximum entropy models that circumvent the detectability problem by only using data on known presence locations. I contrast these models for four landbird species that vary in abundance and detectability using a large-scale, long-term monitoring database across western Montana and northern Idaho. Overall, logistic regression models were similar to, or better than, other approaches, in terms of predictive accuracy, as measured by the Area under the ROC curve (AUC). I conclude by discussing the advantages and limitations to each approach for developing large-scale species distribution models.

Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology

Predictive Species and Habitat Modeling in Landscape Ecology Book
Author : C. Ashton Drew,Yolanda F. Wiersma,Falk Huettmann
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-11-25
ISBN : 9781441973900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most projects in Landscape Ecology, at some point, define a species-habitat association. These models are inherently spatial, dealing with landscapes and their configurations. Whether coding behavioral rules for dispersal of simulated organisms through simulated landscapes, or designing the sampling extent of field surveys and experiments in real landscapes, landscape ecologists must make assumptions about how organisms experience and utilize the landscape. These convenient working postulates allow modelers to project the model in time and space, yet rarely are they explicitly considered. The early years of landscape ecology necessarily focused on the evolution of effective data sources, metrics, and statistical approaches that could truly capture the spatial and temporal patterns and processes of interest. Now that these tools are well established, we reflect on the ecological theories that underpin the assumptions commonly made during species distribution modeling and mapping. This is crucial for applying models to questions of global sustainability. Due to the inherent use of GIS for much of this kind of research, and as several authors’ research involves the production of multicolored map figures, there would be an 8-page color insert. Additional color figures could be made available through a digital archive, or by cost contributions of the chapter authors. Where applicable, would be relevant chapters’ GIS data and model code available through a digital archive. The practice of data and code sharing is becoming standard in GIS studies, is an inherent method of this book, and will serve to add additional research value to the book for both academic and practitioner audiences.

Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores

Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores Book
Author : Robert A. Long,Paula MacKay,Justina Ray,William Zielinski
Publisher : Island Press
Release : 2012-09-26
ISBN : 1610911393
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The status of many carnivore populations is of growing concern to scientists and conservationists, making the need for data pertaining to carnivore distribution, abundance, and habitat use ever more pressing. Recent developments in “noninvasive” research techniques—those that minimize disturbance to the animal being studied—have resulted in a greatly expanded toolbox for the wildlife practitioner. Presented in a straightforward and readable style, Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores is a comprehensive guide for wildlife researchers who seek to conduct carnivore surveys using the most up-to-date scientific approaches. Twenty-five experts from throughout North America discuss strategies for implementing surveys across a broad range of habitats, providing input on survey design, sample collection, DNA and endocrine analyses, and data analysis. Photographs from the field, line drawings, and detailed case studies further illustrate on-the-ground application of the survey methods discussed. Coupled with cutting-edge laboratory and statistical techniques, which are also described in the book, noninvasive survey methods are effi cient and effective tools for sampling carnivore populations. Noninvasive Survey Methods for Carnivores allows practitioners to carefully evaluate a diversity of detection methods and to develop protocols specific to their survey objectives, study area, and species of interest. It is an essential resource for anyone interested in the study of carnivores, from scientists engaged in primary research to agencies or organizations requiring carnivore detection data to develop management or conservation plans.

Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds

Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds Book
Author : Jennifer C. Owen,Dana M. Hawley,Kathryn P. Huyvaert
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 0191063304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Birds are the most diverse group of land vertebrates and have evolved to exploit almost every terrestrial niche on earth. They also serve as a natural reservoir for an array of different pathogens that pose serious health risks to human and domestic animal populations, including West Nile virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, Newcastle Disease virus, and numerous enteric pathogens. Avian diseases are also critically important to the conservation of endemic bird species in many places around the world. This accessible textbook focuses on the dynamics of infectious diseases for wild avian hosts across every level of ecological hierarchy, from the way pathogens interact with the physiology and behavior of individual hosts, the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of the host-parasite interactions occurring within populations, up to the complex biotic and abiotic interactions occurring within biological communities and ecosystems. Parasite-bird interactions are also increasingly occurring in rapidly changing global environments - thus, their ecology is also changing - and this shapes the complex ways by which parasites influence the inter-connected health of birds, humans, and shared ecosystems. Given the key role of birds in ecological communities more broadly, and as the primary host to so many zoonotic pathogens, an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary principles underlying the maintenance, amplification, transmission, and dispersal of these infectious agents is crucial to understanding how to mitigate the negative global impacts of the ever-increasing number of emerging infectious diseases. Although the topics and principles discussed in this book relate to birds, they have a far wider relevance and can also be applied to non-avian, wildlife host-pathogen systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that understanding of disease ecology in wild animal populations is paramount to global health. Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in avian disease ecology, ecoimmunology, ecology, and conservation. It will also appeal to the many professional parasitologists, ecoimmunologists, ornithologists, behavioural ecologists, conservation biologists, and wildlife biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

A Bayesian Machine Learning Model for Estimating Building Occupancy from Open Source Data

A Bayesian Machine Learning Model for Estimating Building Occupancy from Open Source Data Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding building occupancy is critical to a wide array of applications including natural hazards loss analysis, green building technologies, and population distribution modeling. Due to the expense of directly monitoring buildings, scientists rely in addition on a wide and disparate array of ancillary and open source information including subject matter expertise, survey data, and remote sensing information. These data are fused using data harmonization methods which refer to a loose collection of formal and informal techniques for fusing data together to create viable content for building occupancy estimation. In this paper, we add to the current state of the art by introducing the Population Data Tables (PDT), a Bayesian based informatics system for systematically arranging data and harmonization techniques into a consistent, transparent, knowledge learning framework that retains in the final estimation uncertainty emerging from data, expert judgment, and model parameterization. PDT probabilistically estimates ambient occupancy in units of people/1000ft2 for over 50 building types at the national and sub-national level with the goal of providing global coverage. The challenge of global coverage led to the development of an interdisciplinary geospatial informatics system tool that provides the framework for capturing, storing, and managing open source data, handling subject matter expertise, carrying out Bayesian analytics as well as visualizing and exporting occupancy estimation results. We present the PDT project, situate the work within the larger community, and report on the progress of this multi-year project. Understanding building occupancy is critical to a wide array of applications including natural hazards loss analysis, green building technologies, and population distribution modeling. Due to the expense of directly monitoring buildings, scientists rely in addition on a wide and disparate array of ancillary and open source information including subject matter expertise, survey data, and remote sensing information. These data are fused using data harmonization methods which refer to a loose collection of formal and informal techniques for fusing data together to create viable content for building occupancy estimation. In this paper, we add to the current state of the art by introducing the Population Data Tables (PDT), a Bayesian model and informatics system for systematically arranging data and harmonization techniques into a consistent, transparent, knowledge learning framework that retains in the final estimation uncertainty emerging from data, expert judgment, and model parameterization. PDT probabilistically estimates ambient occupancy in units of people/1000 ft2 for over 50 building types at the national and sub-national level with the goal of providing global coverage. The challenge of global coverage led to the development of an interdisciplinary geospatial informatics system tool that provides the framework for capturing, storing, and managing open source data, handling subject matter expertise, carrying out Bayesian analytics as well as visualizing and exporting occupancy estimation results. We present the PDT project, situate the work within the larger community, and report on the progress of this multi-year project.

APPLIED HIERARCHICAL MODELING IN ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS IN R AND BUGS INTERLOAN 390463

APPLIED HIERARCHICAL MODELING IN ECOLOGY  ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION  ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS IN R AND BUGS  INTERLOAN 390463   Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-07-25
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download APPLIED HIERARCHICAL MODELING IN ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES RICHNESS IN R AND BUGS INTERLOAN 390463 book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Preferential Lane Treatments for High occupancy Vehicles

Preferential Lane Treatments for High occupancy Vehicles Book
Author : Charles A. Fuhs,National Cooperative Highway Research Program
Publisher : Transportation Research Board
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9780309053129
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This synthesis will be of interest to transportation planners, highway engineers, environmental personnel, highway design engineers, transit planners, highway administrators, and others concerned with the planning, design, and operational features of preferential high- occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on highways. Information is provided on the current and proposed state of the practice in North America. This synthesis describes the state of the art with respect to preferential treatment for HOVs on highways. This report of the Transportation Research Board provides information on long-distance facilities, such as barrier-separated, concurrent-flow (separated and nonseparated), and contraflow facilities, as well as on short-distance facilities, such as queue by-pass lanes. Planning, design, and operational features of each treatment are described. The issues and operating results are described, and specific case studies are included.

Multicore Technology

Multicore Technology Book
Author : Muhammad Yasir Qadri,Stephen J. Sangwine
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-07-26
ISBN : 1439880646
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The saturation of design complexity and clock frequencies for single-core processors has resulted in the emergence of multicore architectures as an alternative design paradigm. Nowadays, multicore/multithreaded computing systems are not only a de-facto standard for high-end applications, they are also gaining popularity in the field of embedded computing. The start of the multicore era has altered the concepts relating to almost all of the areas of computer architecture design, including core design, memory management, thread scheduling, application support, inter-processor communication, debugging, and power management. This book gives readers a holistic overview of the field and guides them to further avenues of research by covering the state of the art in this area. It includes contributions from industry as well as academia.

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems Book
Author : Wolfgang Fennel,Thomas Neumann
Publisher : Elsevier Science
Release : 2014-08-28
ISBN : 9780444633637
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems, Second Edition provides foundational information on the construction of chemical and biological models - from simple cases to more complex biogeochemical models and life cycle resolving model components. This step-by-step approach to increasing the complexity of the models allows readers to explore the theoretical framework and become familiar with the models even when they have limited experience in mathematical modeling. Introduction to the Modelling of Marine Ecosystems shows how biological model components can be integrated into three dimensional circulation models and how such models can be used for numerical experiments. Covers the marine food web from nutrients, phytoplankton to higher trophic levels Presents information on the response of marine systems to external pressures as seen in physical biological models Provides an extended discussion of unifying theoretical concepts and of physical biological interaction Covers higher trophic levels, in particular multi-species fish models and their interaction with the biogeochemical models Offers MATLAB scripts on a companion website for many of the described example models to facilitate reproduction of the findings in the book and guide reader to writing own code

Modeling the Relationship Between Estimates of Local Occupancy and Local Abundance in Avian Species

Modeling the Relationship Between Estimates of Local Occupancy and Local Abundance in Avian Species Book
Author : Amber L. Jonker
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Occupancy, the percentage of an area occupied by one or more individuals of a species, and abundance, the number of animals in a population, are population variables often used to make management decisions. Because occupancy does not precisely estimate abundance for many wildlife species, it is not considered as vital to an informed management program. However, estimating occupancy usually requires less effort than abundance. If occupancy is strongly related to abundance then occupancy may be useful to managers as a surrogate of abundance. Describing a linear relationship between occupancy and abundance would make estimating abundance more straightforward by allowing abundance to be calibrated to occupancy. Therefore, one objective was determining whether a linear relationship existed between occupancy and abundance. I also examined whether the relationship varies due to life history traits such as habitat use (specialist or generalist) and movement (year round resident or migrant). To address these objectives I conducted two seasons of avian point counts on Camp Swift in Bastrop County, TX during the fall of 2007 and winter of 2008. I sampled 100 detection stations located 200 meters apart and conducted four point count surveys of the detection stations for both seasons. I estimated occupancy using modified mark-recapture models and abundance using binomial mixture models. The findings indicated a linear relationship between occupancy and abundance. Moreover, slopes of the regressions for migrants and residents were significantly different. My research shows that occupancy-abundance relationships estimated at the local scale have the potential to be used to estimate abundance from occupancy. This has significant management implications for the use of occupancy models in lieu of the traditional, but more laborious, abundance estimators--Abstract.