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Numerical Ecology

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Developments in Numerical Ecology

Developments in Numerical Ecology Book
Author : Pierre Legendre,Louis Legendre
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 3642708803
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics. This book comprises the invited lectures, as well as working group reports, on the NATO workshop held in Roscoff (France) to improve the applicability of this new method numerical ecology to specific ecological problems.

Numerical Ecology

Numerical Ecology Book
Author : P. Legendre,Loic F J Legendre
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1998-11-25
ISBN : 008052317X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. Compared to the first edition of Numerical Ecology, this second edition includes three new chapters, dealing with the analysis of semiquantitative data, canonical analysis and spatial analysis. New sections have been added to almost all other chapters. There are sections listing available computer programs and packages at the end of several chapters. As in the previous English and French editions, there are numerous examples from the ecological literature, and the choice of methods is facilitated by several synoptic tables.

Numerical Ecology with R

Numerical Ecology with R Book
Author : Daniel Borcard,François Gillet,Pierre Legendre
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-03-19
ISBN : 331971404X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary multivariate ecological analysis. The second edition of this book features a complete revision to the R code and offers improved procedures and more diverse applications of the major methods. It also highlights important changes in the methods and expands upon topics such as multiple correspondence analysis, principal response curves and co-correspondence analysis. New features include the study of relationships between species traits and the environment, and community diversity analysis. This book is aimed at professional researchers, practitioners, graduate students and teachers in ecology, environmental science and engineering, and in related fields such as oceanography, molecular ecology, agriculture and soil science, who already have a background in general and multivariate statistics and wish to apply this knowledge to their data using the R language, as well as people willing to accompany their disciplinary learning with practical applications. People from other fields (e.g. geology, geography, paleoecology, phylogenetics, anthropology, the social and education sciences, etc.) may also benefit from the materials presented in this book. Users are invited to use this book as a teaching companion at the computer. All the necessary data files, the scripts used in the chapters, as well as extra R functions and packages written by the authors of the book, are available online (URL: http://adn.biol.umontreal.ca/~numericalecology/numecolR/).

Numerical Ecology

Numerical Ecology Book
Author : P. Legendre,L. Legendre
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-08-06
ISBN : 0444538682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, and others.

Numerical Ecology with R

Numerical Ecology with R Book
Author : Daniel Borcard,Francois Gillet,Pierre Legendre
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-01-07
ISBN : 144197976X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Numerical Ecology with R provides a long-awaited bridge between a textbook in Numerical Ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. After short theoretical overviews, the authors accompany the users through the exploration of the methods by means of applied and extensively commented examples. Users are invited to use this book as a teaching companion at the computer. The travel starts with exploratory approaches, proceeds with the construction of association matrices, then addresses three families of methods: clustering, unconstrained and canonical ordination, and spatial analysis. All the necessary data files, the scripts used in the chapters, as well as the extra R functions and packages written by the authors, can be downloaded from a web page accessible through the Springer web site(http://adn.biol.umontreal.ca/~numericalecology/numecolR/). This book is aimed at professional researchers, practitioners, graduate students and teachers in ecology, environmental science and engineering, and in related fields such as oceanography, molecular ecology, agriculture and soil science, who already have a background in general and multivariate statistics and wish to apply this knowledge to their data using the R language, as well as people willing to accompany their disciplinary learning with practical applications. People from other fields (e.g. geology, geography, paleoecology, phylogenetics, anthropology, the social and education sciences, etc.) may also benefit from the materials presented in this book. The three authors teach numerical ecology, both theoretical and practical, to a wide array of audiences, in regular courses in their Universities and in short courses given around the world. Daniel Borcard is lecturer of Biostatistics and Ecology and researcher in Numerical Ecology at Université de Montréal, Québec, Canada. François Gillet is professor of Community Ecology and Ecological Modelling at Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France. Pierre Legendre is professor of Quantitative Biology and Ecology at Université de Montréal, Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, and ISI Highly Cited Researcher in Ecology/Environment.

Ecological Models and Data in R

Ecological Models and Data in R Book
Author : Benjamin M. Bolker
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2008-07-21
ISBN : 0691125228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction and background; Exploratory data analysis and graphics; Deterministic functions for ecological modeling; Probability and stochastic distributions for ecological modeling; Stochatsic simulation and power analysis; Likelihood and all that; Optimization and all that; Likelihood examples; Standar statistics revisited; Modeling variance; Dynamic models.

Community Ecology

Community Ecology Book
Author : Gary G. Mittelbach,Brian J. McGill
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-05-24
ISBN : 0192572865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Community ecology has undergone a transformation in recent years, from a discipline largely focused on processes occurring within a local area to a discipline encompassing a much richer domain of study, including the linkages between communities separated in space (metacommunity dynamics), niche and neutral theory, the interplay between ecology and evolution (eco-evolutionary dynamics), and the influence of historical and regional processes in shaping patterns of biodiversity. To fully understand these new developments, however, students continue to need a strong foundation in the study of species interactions and how these interactions are assembled into food webs and other ecological networks. This new edition fulfils the book's original aims, both as a much-needed up-to-date and accessible introduction to modern community ecology, and in identifying the important questions that are yet to be answered. This research-driven textbook introduces state-of-the-art community ecology to a new generation of students, adopting reasoned and balanced perspectives on as-yet-unresolved issues. Community Ecology is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers seeking a broad, up-to-date coverage of ecological concepts at the community level.

Stable Isotope Ecology

Stable Isotope Ecology Book
Author : Brian Fry
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-01-15
ISBN : 0387337458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A solid introduction to stable isotopes that can also be used as an instructive review for more experienced researchers and professionals. The book approaches the use of isotopes from the perspective of ecological and biological research, but its concepts can be applied within other disciplines. A novel, step-by-step spreadsheet modeling approach is also presented for circulating tracers in any ecological system, including any favorite system an ecologist might dream up while sitting at a computer. The author’s humorous and lighthearted style painlessly imparts the principles of isotope ecology. The online material contains color illustrations, spreadsheet models, technical appendices, and problems and answers.

Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology

Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology Book
Author : Ed Jongman,Senior Researcher R H G Jongman
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1995-03-02
ISBN : 0521475740
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ecological data has several special properties: the presence or absence of species on a semi-quantitative abundance scale; non-linear relationships between species and environmental factors; and high inter-correlations among species and among environmental variables. The analysis of such data is important to the interpretation of relationships within plant and animal communities and with their environments. In this corrected version of Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology, without using complex mathematics, the contributors demonstrate the methods that have proven most useful, with examples, exercises and case-studies. Chapters explain in an elementary way powerful data analysis techniques such as logic regression, canonical correspondence analysis, and kriging.

Earth Our Living Planet

Earth  Our Living Planet Book
Author : Philippe Bertrand,Louis Legendre
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-04-21
ISBN : 3030677737
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Earth is, to our knowledge, the only life-bearing body in the Solar System. This extraordinary characteristic dates back almost 4 billion years. How to explain that Earth is teeming with organisms and that this has lasted for so long? What makes Earth different from its sister planets Mars and Venus? The habitability of a planet is its capacity to allow the emergence of organisms. What astronomical and geological conditions concurred to make Earth habitable 4 billion years ago, and how has it remained habitable since? What have been the respective roles of non-biological and biological characteristics in maintaining the habitability of Earth? This unique book answers the above questions by considering the roles of organisms and ecosystems in the Earth System, which is made of the non-living and living components of the planet. Organisms have progressively occupied all the habitats of the planet, diversifying into countless life forms and developing enormous biomasses over the past 3.6 billion years. In this way, organisms and ecosystems "took over" the Earth System, and thus became major agents in its regulation and global evolution. There was co-evolution of the different components of the Earth System, leading to a number of feedback mechanisms that regulated long-term Earth conditions. For millennia, and especially since the Industrial Revolution nearly 300 years ago, humans have gradually transformed the Earth System. Technological developments combined with the large increase in human population have led, in recent decades, to major changes in the Earth's climate, soils, biodiversity and quality of air and water. After some successes in the 20th century at preventing internationally environmental disasters, human societies are now facing major challenges arising from climate change. Some of these challenges are short-term and others concern the thousand-year evolution of the Earth's climate. Humans should become the stewards of Earth.

Social ecological Systems of Latin America Complexities and Challenges

Social ecological Systems of Latin America  Complexities and Challenges Book
Author : Luisa E. Delgado,Víctor H. Marín
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-31
ISBN : 3030284522
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human societies are influencing nature in such a way that their independent analysis is no longer suitable. Fortunately, social-ecological systems provide a conceptual framework for the interconnected analysis of societies and ecosystems. However, in the case of Latin America, the complexity of social-ecological processes undermined a much-needed compilation of theoretical concepts, methods and case studies. Increasing readers’ understanding of such systems using a postnormal approach, the book discusses current concepts and methods with examples of studies from eight countries. It is a useful resource for social actors, government decision makers and scholars.

Ecology of Tropical Oceans

Ecology of Tropical Oceans Book
Author : Gerard Meurant
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323140637
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book breaks new ground with the integration of geography, oceanography, plankton and benthic biology, as well as fish, to present a comprehensive account of the ecology of the tropical ocean. Proceeding from a description of the geomorphology, sediments, and vegetation of tropical continental shelves and the oceanography of tropical regions, the authors describe the benthos, plankton, and fish communities of tropical seas. An examination of the production of plant and animal life in tropical oceans is presented together with the numerical population biology of fish and invertebrates.

Disease Ecology

Disease Ecology Book
Author : Sharon K. Collinge,Chris Ray
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2006-01-26
ISBN : 9780198567080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Summary: The chapters in this book llustrate aspects of communityy ecology that influence pathogen transmission rates and disease dynamics in a wide variety of study systems.

Marine Biodiversity Climatic Variability and Global Change

Marine Biodiversity  Climatic Variability and Global Change Book
Author : Grégory Beaugrand
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-11-28
ISBN : 1136462864
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodiversity loss in terrestrial environments associated with human activities has been appreciated as a major issue for some years now. What is less well documented is the effect of such activities, including climate change, on marine biodiversity. This pioneering book is the first to address this important but neglected topic, which is likely to be the key challenge for marine scientists in the near future. Using a multidisciplinary and a holistic approach, the book reveals how climatic variability controls biodiversity at time scales ranging from synoptic meteorological events to millions of years and at spatial scales ranging from local sites to the whole ocean. It shows how global change, including anthropogenic climate change, ocean acidification and more direct human influences such as exploitation, pollution and eutrophication may alter biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and regulating and provisioning services. The author proposes a theory termed the 'macroecological theory on the arrangement of life', which explains how biodiversity is organized and how it responds to climatic variability and anthropogenic climate change. The book concludes with recommendations for further research and theoretical development to identify oceanic areas in need of observation and gaps in current scientific knowledge. Many references and comparisons with the terrestrial realm are included in all chapters to better understand the universality of the relationships between biodiversity, climate and the environment. The book will serve as a textbook for all students and researchers of marine science and environmental change, but will also be accessible to the more general reader.

Essentials of Landscape Ecology

Essentials of Landscape Ecology Book
Author : Kimberly A. With
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-07-01
ISBN : 0192575368
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human activity during the Anthropocene has transformed landscapes worldwide on a scale that rivals or exceeds even the largest of natural forces. Landscape ecology has emerged as a science to investigate the interactions between natural and anthropogenic landscapes and ecological processes across a wide range of scales and systems: from the effects of habitat or resource distributions on the individual movements, gene flow, and population dynamics of plants and animals; to the human alteration of landscapes affecting the structure of biological communities and the functioning of entire ecosystems; to the sustainable management of natural resources and the ecosystem goods and services upon which society depends. This novel and comprehensive text presents the principles, theory, methods, and applications of landscape ecology in an engaging and accessible format that is supplemented by numerous examples and case studies from a variety of systems, including freshwater and marine "scapes".

Ecological Heterogeneity

Ecological Heterogeneity Book
Author : Jurek Kolasa,Steward T.A. Pickett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461230624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An attractive, promising, and frustrating feature of ecology is its complex ity, both conceptual and observational. Increasing acknowledgment of the importance of scale testifies to the shifting focus in large areas of ecology. In the rush to explore problems of scale, another general aspect of ecolog ical systems has been given less attention. This aspect, equally important, is heterogeneity. Its importance lies in the ubiquity of heterogeneity as a feature of ecological systems and in the number of questions it raises questions to which answers are not readily available. What is heterogeneity? Does it differ from complexity? What dimensions need be considered to evaluate heterogeneity ade quately? Can heterogeneity be measured at various scales? Is heterogeneity apart of organization of ecological systems? How does it change in time and space? What are the causes of heterogeneity and causes of its change? This volume attempts to answer these questions. It is devoted to iden tification of the meaning, range of applications, problems, and methodol ogy associated with the study of heterogeneity. The coverage is thus broad and rich, and the contributing authors have been encouraged to range widely in discussions and reflections. vi Preface The chapters are grouped into themes. The first group focuses on the conceptual foundations (Chapters 1-5). These papers exarnine the meaning of the term, historical developments, and relations to scale. The second theme is modeling population and interspecific interactions in hetero geneous environments (Chapters 6 and 7).

Bayesian Analysis for Population Ecology

Bayesian Analysis for Population Ecology Book
Author : Ruth King,Byron Morgan,Olivier Gimenez,Steve Brooks
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2009-10-30
ISBN : 9781439811887
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Novel Statistical Tools for Conserving and Managing PopulationsBy gathering information on key demographic parameters, scientists can often predict how populations will develop in the future and relate these parameters to external influences, such as global warming. Because of their ability to easily incorporate random effects, fit state-space mode

Theoretical Ecology

Theoretical Ecology Book
Author : Kevin S. McCann,Gabriel Gellner
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2020-04-29
ISBN : 0198824289
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Theoretical Ecology: concepts and applications continues the authoritative and established sequence of theoretical ecology books initiated by Robert M. May which helped pave the way for ecology to become a more robust theoretical science, encouraging the modern biologist to better understand the mathematics behind their theories. This latest instalment builds on the legacy of its predecessors with a completely new set of contributions. Rather than placing emphasis on the historical ideas in theoretical ecology, the Editors have encouraged each contribution to: synthesize historical theoretical ideas within modern frameworks that have emerged in the last 10-20 years (e.g. bridging population interactions to whole food webs); describe novel theory that has emerged in the last 20 years from historical empirical areas (e.g. macro-ecology); and finally to cover the rapidly expanding area of theoretical ecological applications (e.g. disease theory and global change theory). The result is a forward-looking synthesis that will help guide the field through a further decade of discovery and development. It is written for upper level undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers seeking synthesis and the state of the art in growing areas of interest in theoretical ecology, genetics, evolutionary ecology, and mathematical biology.

Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds

Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds Book
Author : Jennifer C. Owen,Dana M. Hawley,Kathryn P. Huyvaert
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 0191063304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Birds are the most diverse group of land vertebrates and have evolved to exploit almost every terrestrial niche on earth. They also serve as a natural reservoir for an array of different pathogens that pose serious health risks to human and domestic animal populations, including West Nile virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, Newcastle Disease virus, and numerous enteric pathogens. Avian diseases are also critically important to the conservation of endemic bird species in many places around the world. This accessible textbook focuses on the dynamics of infectious diseases for wild avian hosts across every level of ecological hierarchy, from the way pathogens interact with the physiology and behavior of individual hosts, the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of the host-parasite interactions occurring within populations, up to the complex biotic and abiotic interactions occurring within biological communities and ecosystems. Parasite-bird interactions are also increasingly occurring in rapidly changing global environments - thus, their ecology is also changing - and this shapes the complex ways by which parasites influence the inter-connected health of birds, humans, and shared ecosystems. Given the key role of birds in ecological communities more broadly, and as the primary host to so many zoonotic pathogens, an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary principles underlying the maintenance, amplification, transmission, and dispersal of these infectious agents is crucial to understanding how to mitigate the negative global impacts of the ever-increasing number of emerging infectious diseases. Although the topics and principles discussed in this book relate to birds, they have a far wider relevance and can also be applied to non-avian, wildlife host-pathogen systems. The COVID-19 pandemic has shown that understanding of disease ecology in wild animal populations is paramount to global health. Infectious Disease Ecology of Wild Birds is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in avian disease ecology, ecoimmunology, ecology, and conservation. It will also appeal to the many professional parasitologists, ecoimmunologists, ornithologists, behavioural ecologists, conservation biologists, and wildlife biologists requiring a concise overview of the topic.

Vegetation Ecology

Vegetation Ecology Book
Author : Eddy van der Maarel,Janet Franklin
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-10-24
ISBN : 1118452488
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Additional resources for this book can be found at: ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology"www.wiley.com/go/vandermaarelfranklin/vegetationecology/a. Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive,integrated account of plant communities and their environments.Written by leading experts in their field from four continents, thesecond edition of this book: covers the composition, structure, ecology, dynamics,diversity, biotic interactions and distribution of plantcommunities, with an emphasis on functional adaptations; reviews modern developments in vegetation ecology in ahistorical perspective; presents a coherent view on vegetation ecology whileintegrating population ecology, dispersal biology, soilbiology, ecosystem ecology and global change studies; tackles applied aspects of vegetation ecology, includingmanagement of communities and invasive species; includes new chapters addressing the classification and mappingof vegetation, and the significance of plant functional types Vegetation Ecology, 2nd Edition is aimed at advancedundergraduates, graduates and researchers and teachers in plantecology, geography, forestry and nature conservation. VegetationEcology takes an integrated, multidisciplinary approach and will bewelcomed as an essential reference for plant ecologists the worldover.