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Nucleation Of Water

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Anomalous Water Nucleation Growth and Properties

Anomalous Water  Nucleation  Growth and Properties Book
Author : George K. Swinzow
Publisher :
Release : 1971
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An anomalous liquid phase forming in an atmosphere of reduced water vapor pressure was investigated. The liquid was grown in capillary tubes. Technical experimental refinements resulted in high nucleation rates not previously observed. An examination of vapor pressures disclosed the relationship of nucleation growth and equilibria of anomalous water. The possibility of nucleation and growth of anomalous water on flat surfaces was confirmed by observation. Anomalous water was nucleated and grown on glass, quartz, Teflon, polyethylene and metal. Growth rates on free flat surfaces were higher, and the total amount of fluid obtained was several orders of magnitude higher, than those obtained from capillary tubes. Refractive indexes and other properties were measured directly. The new method of growing anomalous water outside capillary tubes is an advantage that may lead to large-scale production. Neither investigation of nor conclusion on the nature of the substance was made. Its low freezing temperature, high boiling temperature, low vapor pressure and high viscosity, reported by previous investigators and observed by the author, are of primary importance and justify a search for large-scale preparation methods. (Author).

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols Book
Author : Colin D. O'Dowd,Paul E. Wagner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-15
ISBN : 1402064756
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere: they form the seeds for cloud droplets and they form haze layers, blocking out incoming radiation and contributing to a partial cooling of our climate. They also contribute to poor air quality and health impacts. A large fraction of aerosols are formed from nucleation processes – that is a phase transition from vapour to liquid or solid particles. Examples are the formation of stable clusters about 1 nm in size from molecular collisions and these in turn can grow into larger (100 nm or more) haze particles via condensation to the formation of ice crystals in mixed phase or cold clouds. This book brings together the leading experts from the nucleation and atmospheric aerosols research communities to present the current state-of-the-art knowledge in these related fields. Topics covered are: Nucleation Experiment & Theory, Binary, Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation, Ion & Cluster Properties During Nucleation, Aerosol Characterisation & Properties, Aerosol Formation, Dynamics and Growth, Marine Aerosol Production, Aerosol-Cloud Interactions, Chemical Composition & Cloud Drop Activation, Remote Sensing of aerosol & clouds and Air Quality-Climate Interactions

Water

Water Book
Author : Felix Franks
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780854045839
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book will provide an understanding of the behavioural properties of water which is fundamental to gaining an appreciation of many scientific processes and principles.

Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems

Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems Book
Author : Hanna Vehkamäki
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-03-22
ISBN : 3540312188
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation

Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation Book
Author : H.R. Pruppacher,J.D. Klett
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-06-25
ISBN : 0306481006
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cloud physics has achieved such a voluminous literature over the past few decades that a significant quantitative study of the entire field would prove unwieldy. This book concentrates on one major aspect: cloud microphysics, which involves the processes that lead to the formation of individual cloud and precipitation particles. Common practice has shown that one may distinguish among the following addi tional major aspects: cloud dynamics, which is concerned with the physics respon sible for the macroscopic features of clouds; cloud electricity, which deals with the electrical structure of clouds and the electrification processes of cloud and precipi tation particles; and cloud optics and radar meteorology, which describe the effects of electromagnetic waves interacting with clouds and precipitation. Another field intimately related to cloud physics is atmospheric chemistry, which involves the chemical composition ofthe atmosphere and the life cycle and characteristics of its gaseous and particulate constituents. In view of the natural interdependence of the various aspects of cloud physics, the subject of microphysics cannot be discussed very meaningfully out of context. Therefore, we have found it necessary to touch briefly upon a few simple and basic concepts of cloud dynamics and thermodynamics, and to provide an account of the major characteristics of atmospheric aerosol particles. We have also included a separate chapter on some of the effects of electric fields and charges on the precipitation-forming processes.

Thermodynamics Kinetics and Microphysics of Clouds

Thermodynamics  Kinetics and Microphysics of Clouds Book
Author : Vitaly I. Khvorostyanov,Judith A. Curry
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2014-08-25
ISBN : 1107016037
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book advances understanding of cloud microphysics and provides a unified theoretical foundation for modeling cloud processes, for researchers and advanced students.

Nucleation Dynamics for Water Condensation on Hydrophobic Surfaces in the Presence of Non condensable Gases

Nucleation Dynamics for Water Condensation on Hydrophobic Surfaces in the Presence of Non condensable Gases Book
Author : Xinyu Jiang (Mechanical engineer)
Publisher :
Release : 2020
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The density and rate of nucleation (here-in called nucleation density rate) significantly influences the heat transfer performance during dropwise condensation, as more than 70% of the total heat transfer happen for droplets smaller than 10 [mu]m. Based on the classical nucleation theory, supersaturation strongly influences nucleation dynamics. However, the presence of non-condensable gas can strongly reduce the nucleation density rate by forming a vapor-depleted gas diffusion layer. Therefore, this work studied the relationship between nucleation density rate and supersaturation ratio during dropwise condensation on subcooled smooth hydrophobic surfaces with the presence of non-condensable gases in a custom-built condensation chamber. High-speed imaging and high-resolution microscopy enabled the experimental quantification of condensation dynamics. These were then compared to theoretical values based on the classical nucleation density. Based on the present experiments and a size distribution model, the relationship between heat transfer rate and supersaturation ratio were analyzed. Finally, through experimental observations, it is shown that the fast movement of relatively larger droplets can disturb the diffusion layer and enhance the nucleation density rate.

Advances in Quantum Chemistry

Advances in Quantum Chemistry Book
Author : John R. Sabin,Erkki J. Brandas
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-09-06
ISBN : 0080878059
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current developments in this rapidly developing field that falls between the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. With invited reviews written by leading international researchers, each presenting new results, it provides a single vehicle for following progress in this interdisciplinary area. Theoretical methods have dramatically extended the reach and grasp of atmospheric scientists. This edition of Advances in Quantum Chemistry collects a broad range of articles that provide reports from the leading edge of this interaction. The chemical systems span the range from atoms to clusters to droplets. Electronic structure calculations are used to uncover the details of the breakdown and removal of emissions from the atmosphere and the simultaneous development of air pollution including ozone and particles. The anomalous enrichment of heavy isotopes in atmospheric ozone is discussed using RRKM theory, and a number of techniques are presented for calculating the effect of isotopic substitution on the absorption spectra of atmospheric molecules. * Publishes articles, invited reviews and proceedings of major international conferences and workshops * Written by leading international researchers in quantum and theoretical chemistry * Highlights important interdisciplinary developments

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 1996 Book
Author : M. Kulmala,P.E. Wagner
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1996-08-13
ISBN : 9780080537825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is a collection of papers presented at the 14th International Conference on Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols, Helsinki, 26 - 30 August 1996. The first conference of this series took place in Dublin (1955); second, Basel and Locarno (1956); third, Cambridge (1958); fourth, Frankfurt am Main and Heidelberg (1961); fifth, Clermont-Ferrand and Tolouse (1963); sixth, Albany and University Park (1966); seventh, Prague and Vienna (1969); eighth, Leningrad (1973); ninth, Galway (1977); tenth, Hamburg (1981); eleventh Budapest (1984); twelfth, Vienna (1988); thirteenth, Salt Lake City (1992). The Atmospheric Aerosol conference has been held jointly with the Nucleation Symposium since 1988 in Vienna in order to stimulate contacts between researchers in these closely related fields. The broad nature of the meeting and the scientific program resulted in 32 countries submitting papers for presentation. Covering both experimental and theoretical studies these papers are divided amongst the chapters on Nucleation, Stratospheric Aerosols and Ice Nucleation, Tropospheric Aerosols and Aerosol-Cloud-Climate Interaction. In addition to these contributed papers invitations to present a plenary lecture on topics of particular current interest were accepted by P.J. Crutzen, J. Gras, J.L. Katz, A.A. Lushnikov, D. Oxtoby, J.E. Penner, Th. Peter, F. Raes, S.E. Schwartz, R. Strey and G. Vali. These plenary papers together with the contributed papers provide a well-balanced perspective of the current research over the entire field and highlight some important issues.

Physics of Precipitation

Physics of Precipitation Book
Author : Helmut Weickmann
Publisher : American Geophysical Union
Release : 1960
ISBN : 0875900054
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Low Temperature Microscopy and Analysis

Low Temperature Microscopy and Analysis Book
Author : Patrick Echlin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1992-03-31
ISBN : 9780306439841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive volume explores the preparation, examination, and analysis of organic, hydrated, and biological specimens using cryomicroscopic techniques. More than 200 illustrations supplement the text.

Kinetics of Water Rock Interaction

Kinetics of Water Rock Interaction Book
Author : Susan Brantley,James Kubicki,Art White
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-29
ISBN : 9780387735634
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Geochemical kinetics as a topic is now of importance to a wide range of geochemists in academia, industry, and government, and all geochemists need a rudimentary knowledge of the field. This book summarizes the fundamentals of geochemical kinetics with examples drawn especially from mineral dissolution and precipitation. It also encompasses discussion of high temperature processes and global geochemical cycle modeling. Analysis of textures of rocks, sediments, and mineral surfaces are incorporated throughout and provide a sub-theme of the book.

Water in Confining Geometries

Water in Confining Geometries Book
Author : V. Buch,J Paul Devlin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-04-29
ISBN : 9783540004110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by leading experts in the field, this book gives a wide-ranging and coherent treatment of water in confining geometries. It compiles and relates interdisciplinary work on this hot topic of research important in many areas of science and technology.

Thermodynamics of Clouds

Thermodynamics of Clouds Book
Author : Louis Doufour
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323158374
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermodynamics of Clouds is Volume 6 of the International Geophysics Series. This volume is an attempt to be a single reference of meteorological works of thermodynamical problems in relation to surface tension and adsorption. Numerous applications of various formulas accompany the text for further understanding of the reader to the concepts featured. The book is divided into 13 chapters where Chapters 1-6 serve as the first part of the book and the second part is from Chapter 7 to Chapter 13. The first part generally discusses and establishes the general formulas of the thermodynamics of surfaces. The method used by the authors is the one by Defay and Prigogine of studying systems in a state of partial equilibrium. The second part of the volume applies the general formulas established in Chapters 1-6 into some meteorological problems such as studies of a droplet or ice crystal suspended in the atmosphere. The text can be used by both graduate and undergraduate students with interest in thermodynamics and climate studies. Professionals such as meteorologists can also use this book as reference in solving some meteorological problems.

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000

Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols 2000 Book
Author : Barbara N. Hale,Markku Kulmala
Publisher : American Institute of Physics
Release : 2000-08-11
ISBN : 9781563969584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conference attendees from about 30 countries met to present research results and discuss current issues in the fields of topospheric and stratospheric aerosols and nucleation phenomena. Specifically addressed are aerosol and nucleation mechanisms affecting ice formation, cloud droplet formation and growth, aerosol-cloud interactions, and aerosol related global warming and ozone depletion mechanisms as well as acid rain production and pollution of the earth's atmosphere. The nucleation symposium part of this conference addresses all theoretical and experimental aspects of single and multi-component nucleation, ion induced nucleation and heterogeneous nucleation involving foreign particulates. The conference attracts leading scientists in the aerosol and nucleation communities and the Proceedings provides a technical summary of the current status of research.