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Club Drugs and Novel Psychoactive Substances

Club Drugs and Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Owen Bowden-Jones,Dima Abdulrahim
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-10-08
ISBN : 1911623095
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emerging illicit drugs pose a significant clinical challenge. This handbook offers an engaging, concise guide to managing these challenges.

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Ornella Corazza,Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-10-10
ISBN : 1351655523
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) provides a comprehensive overview of the challenges that clinicians face when dealing with NPS and discusses how the profile of patients and their socio-demographic characteristics frame the serious public health concern that NPS pose. It presents various clinical cases, as well as detailed accounts of symptoms, psychopathology, toxicity, and overall clinical management that NPS require. This handbook brings together a unique collection of chapters written by leading experts in the field, who have felt the need to share their knowledge and experience to improve the clinical practice on NPS and the wellbeing of their patients.

Novel Psychoactive Substances

Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Paul Dargan,David Wood
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-06
ISBN : 0124159117
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Novel Psychoactive Substances: Classification, Pharmacology and Toxicology provides readers with background on the classification, detection, supply and availability of novel psychoactive substances, otherwise known as "legal highs." This book also covers individual classes of novel psychoactive substances that have recently emerged onto the recreational drug scene and provides an overview of the pharmacology of the substance followed by a discussion of the acute and chronic harm or toxicity associated with the substance. Written by international experts in the field, this multi-authored book is a valuable reference for scientists, clinicians, academics, and regulatory and law enforcement professionals. Includes chapters written by international experts in the field. Provides a comprehensive look at the classification, detection, availability and supply of novel psychoactive substances, in addition to the pharmacology and toxicology associated with the substance. Offers a single source for all interested parties working in this area, including scientists, academics, clinicians, law enforcement and regulatory agencies. Provides a full treatment of novel psychoactive substances that have recently emerged onto the recreational drug scene including mephedrone and the synthetic cannabinoid receptors in ‘spice’ / ‘K2’.

Novel Psychoactive Drugs

Novel Psychoactive Drugs Book
Author : Liana Fattore,Aviv Weinstein
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-06-05
ISBN : 2889458644
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An increasing number of novel psychoactive drugs are currently available and sold as 'legal highs' or 'research chemicals'. These New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitute a broad range of hundreds of natural and synthetic drugs, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, synthetic opioids and other classes, which use has resulted in a significantly growing number of intoxication and mortality, as reported by emergency and poison centres from all over the world. Definition of “NPS” includes any substance that has recently become available and has been designed purposely to replace illegal drugs, although not necessarily of new synthesis. Use of NPS is dramatically increased in the last decade and represents a serious risk for the public health. Their ever-evolving chemical structure, the possibility to distribute in real time through the Internet and social networks information about their use and effects have dramatically challenged public health and drug policies internationally. NPS recently attracted great attention, but most are still unregulated and proposed online as legal alternatives to traditional illicit drugs. Unfortunately, this area is still poorly investigated and very limited information are available so far on their nature and potential risks. The phenomenon of NPS requires multi-national and multi-disciplinary collaborations to improve our knowledge on this changing drug market, to share information and define good practices at a global level. Political and educational efforts are indispensable to regulate this mutable scenario and to inform the public about health consequences of NPS use. Clinicians and emergency staff should be aware that NPS may cause severe health consequences and unexpected adverse effects, and be informed on how to recognized and treat specific intoxication cases. Considering the widespread use of NPS and paucity of information about their toxicology and pharmacology, this Research Topic will be useful to understand the new trends in the scenario of drug use, abuse and addiction to inform professionals and general public about the health problems caused by NPS and to help drug-control policies to adopt suitable control measures.

Novel Psychoactive Substances

Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Christophe Soussan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9789170638282
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Novel Psychoactive Substances book written by Christophe Soussan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Novel Psychoactive Substances

Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Joseph Ritchie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Novel Psychoactive Substances book written by Joseph Ritchie, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Novel Psychoactive Substances

Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Ornella Corazza,Andres Roman-Urrestarazu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-09
ISBN : 331960600X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In light of the recent emergence of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) on a global scale, this book provides a timely analysis of the social and economic impact of the NPS phenomenon, and of the global policy and regulatory responses to it. It presents the first comprehensive overview of the international regulation, policy and market structure of the NPS phenomenon, offering a guide to inform legislative discussions and demonstrating from a comparative perspective the different approaches used to address the rise of NPS to date. It covers topics such as organized crime, drug markets, clinical evidence on NPS, and different regulatory approaches also in less explored settings such as prisons and sport environments. Overall, this highly informative and well-structured repository of different experiences with NPS policy, law and regulation offers an essential primary source of evidence for anyone interested in the area of drug and NPS policy, health economics and p ublic health.

Novel Psychoactive Drugs The Saga Continues

Novel Psychoactive Drugs   The Saga Continues    Book
Author : Aviv M Weinstein,Liana Fattore
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-04-05
ISBN : 2889666611
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Novel Psychoactive Drugs The Saga Continues book written by Aviv M Weinstein,Liana Fattore, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Young People s Perceptions of Novel Psychoactive Substances

Young People s Perceptions of Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Jodie Freeman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Young People s Perceptions of Novel Psychoactive Substances book written by Jodie Freeman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mental Illness Reinvented The Impact of Novel Psychoactive Substances

Mental Illness Reinvented  The Impact of Novel Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Filipa Viegas
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Objectives:To conduct a non-systematic literature review on novel psychoactive substances use and their potential impacts in mental health.Background:With the explosion of designer drug industry, there has been a major increase in the number of new drugs of abuse over the past decade.These substances, designated as u201cnovel psychoactive substancesu201d (NPS), comprise a vast range of compounds, and their psychoactive effects depend on their u201cparent drugu201d and its actions on cognitive processes, mood, and behaviour.The aim of this work is to explore the impact of NPS use in mental health.Materials and Methods:We proceed to a non-systematic literature review, throughout electronic databases using combinations of terms related to novel psychoactive substance and mental healh.Results and Conclusions:NPS represent a new chapter in substance use and addition areas and represents a complex public health problem, raising issues in what concern legal regulations and on the consequences of their use.Literature suggest a wide range of adverse effects, from transient depressive mood alterations, suicide ideation to drug-induced psychotic states. Among the population with severe mental illness, literature suggests that they seem more likely to use NPS and that this use could modify clinical features of the illness, but the evidence is still poor. More evidence is needed to establish the impact and connexion between NPS and mental illness, in terms of type of psychiatric symptoms, course of illness and short- and long-term impact of their use.

Synthetic Cathinones

Synthetic Cathinones Book
Author : Jolanta B. Zawilska
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-04-16
ISBN : 3319787071
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last decade, and particularly during the recent five years, a rapidly increasing number of novel psychoactive substance (NPSs), often marketed as “designer drugs”, “legal highs”, “herbal highs”, “research or intermediate chemicals” and “laboratory reagents”, has appeared on the drug market in an effort to bypass controlled substance legislation. NPSs encompass a wide range of different compounds and drug classes but had been dominated by synthetic cannabinomimetics and psychostimulatory synthetic cathinones, so-called β-keto amphetamines. Compounds from the later class were first detected in Europe in 2004, and since then 103 new cathinones have been identified and reported to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, with 57 during the last two years. Synthetic cathinones – novel addictive and stimulatory psychoactive substances is the first publication of this kind that provides readers with background on chemical structures, detection, prevalence and motivation of use of the very popular group of NPSs. This book also presents comprehensive overview of the mechanisms of action, pharmacological activity, and main metabolic pathways of synthetic cathinones, followed by a detailed discussion of the acute and chronic toxicity associated with the use of these substances. Written by international experts in the field, this multi-authored book is a valuable reference not only for scientists, clinicians and academics, but also for readers representing different professional background who are involved in educational-prophylactic activities directed to harm reduction of psychoactive compounds.

11 E DESIGNER DRUGS NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN LIQUIDS FOR E CIGARETTES

11   E DESIGNER DRUGS   NOVEL PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES IN LIQUIDS FOR E CIGARETTES Book
Author : Milena Majchrzak
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Introduction: Classic e-liquids for vaporizers and e-cigarettes contain nicotine in a propylene glycol solution. A new phenomenon on the drug market is the intentional addition of novel psychoactive substances to liquids for e-cigarettes.Objectives: Our objective was drawing attention to a new health problem, so called drug vaping.Methods: Analysis of two cases from the expert practice of the authors, one with survival of the victim, and one lethal.Results: In the first case, the father of a 17-year-old girl has provided to the toxicological analysis e-cigarettes with the content of viscous liquid that she used. After burning, she began to behave strangely and experienced epileptic seizures. In the analyzed sample from evidence material, the presence of a substance characterized by a pseudomolecular ion with a value of m/z = 375 and the retention time corresponding to the furanylfentanyl (an opioid analgesic, also known as Fu-F) pattern was demonstrated. In the second case, an adult man was supposed to smoke an e-cigarette, to which he added cannabinols, before his death. In the analyzed blood sample the presence of a substance characterized by a pseudomolecular ion with a value of m/z = 378 and a retention time consistent with the standard of 5F-ADB (an indazole-based synthetic cannabinoid, also known as 5F-MDMB-PINACA) was demonstrated. Additionally, in the analyzed urine sample two metabolites of 5F-ADB have been found.Conclusions: The use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration is a real new danger for health and even live of abusers.

New Trends of Substance Abuse Looking for New Psychotropic Effects of Chem Sex Drugs Cognitive Enhancers and New Psychoactive Substances

New Trends of Substance Abuse  Looking for New Psychotropic Effects of Chem Sex Drugs  Cognitive Enhancers  and New Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Simona Zaami,Simona Pichini,Marta Torrens,Norbert Leo Scherbaum
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-01-08
ISBN : 2889663663
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download New Trends of Substance Abuse Looking for New Psychotropic Effects of Chem Sex Drugs Cognitive Enhancers and New Psychoactive Substances book written by Simona Zaami,Simona Pichini,Marta Torrens,Norbert Leo Scherbaum, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Essential Guide to Psychoactive Drugs in Canada Second Edition

The Essential Guide to Psychoactive Drugs in Canada  Second Edition Book
Author : Rick Csiernik
Publisher : Canadian Scholars’ Press
Release : 2019-11-19
ISBN : 1773381601
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of the formerly titled Just Say Know: A Counsellor’s Guide to Psychoactive Drugs, this indispensable counselling resource provides a practical understanding of psychoactive drug pharmacology and physiology. Rick Csiernik unpacks the risks and therapeutic applications of the most commonly used and misused drug families, including depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens, and psychotherapeutics. This new edition features a wide range of updated research and content addressing the recent rise of opioid, fentanyl, cannabis, novel psychoactive substances, and antipsychotic medication use, as well as the impacts of drug use on sleep and mental health. Two new appendixes are featured summarizing the effects of drugs on pregnancy and interactions drugs may have with certain brain chemicals. The Essential Guide to Psychoactive Drugs in Canada is the perfect addition to any addiction or mental health-related course. User-friendly and highly readable, this resource serves as a guide for service providers to deliver evidence-based care. This text is crucial for counsellors, therapists, instructors, and students looking to acquire an in-depth practical understanding of drug use, medication, and addiction in disciplines such as social work, sociology, pharmacology, health studies, nursing, psychology, and addiction studies.

Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances NPS

Neuropharmacology of New Psychoactive Substances  NPS  Book
Author : Michael H. Baumann,Richard A. Glennon,Jenny L. Wiley
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-04-13
ISBN : 3319524445
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Designer drugs, or new psychoactive substances (NPS), are synthetic chemicals that mimic the effects of classic drugs of abuse. There has been an alarming worldwide increase in the abuse of NPS in recent years. NPS are cheap, easy to obtain, and often legally available. In this volume, leading experts summarize the latest studies regarding the molecular mechanisms of action, behavioral effects, and adverse consequences of popular NPS. Specific chapters clarify the differences between various types of NPS, namely: stimulants, cannabinoids and hallucinogens. Thus, this volume broadens our understanding of NPS and provides insight into the rapidly evolving “new drug” phenomenon.

Psychobiological Issues in Substance Use and Misuse

Psychobiological Issues in Substance Use and Misuse Book
Author : Philip N. Murphy
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2020-12-30
ISBN : 1000336417
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book, Murphy brings together a team of international experts to review cutting-edge scientific literature from the field of psychobiology and related disciplines which addresses important questions and broadens our understanding of substance use behaviours. The reader is introduced to the multi-faceted nature of substance use and misuse, and its growing need to be discussed across diverse disciplines and perspectives. The book also addresses important questions regarding public policy and professional practice in the context of different social and cultural environments, and comments on the methodological and ethical issues in substance use and misuse. Chapters explore a spectrum of substances, which include: cocaine, alcohol, ecstasy (MDMA), methamphetamine, synthetic cannabinoids, tobacco, ketamine, novel psychoactive substances, and vaping products. The use of these substances poses important questions for science and for society. This book is written to help academics, practitioners, and students in a variety of academic and professional disciplines answer those questions while staying up to date with the psychobiological literature. This is a vital resource for professionals and upper-level undergraduate and postgraduate students undertaking research in areas related to biological psychology, biology, health studies, and medicine.

An insight into the metabolism of New Psychoactive Substances

An insight into the metabolism of New Psychoactive Substances Book
Author : Jakob Wallgren
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2020-09-09
ISBN : 9179298036
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) is an umbrella term covering hundreds of substances across different drug groups. Many of these substances were originally developed for therapeutic use but have later appeared on the recreational drug market. The use of NPS has been associated with many outbreaks leading to hospitalizations and has been implicated in numerous fatalities worldwide. To be able to analytically detect drugs in a forensic setting is vital in the fight against the abuse of NPS. One of the most notable challenges in detection of NPS is the identification of major urinary metabolites for use as biomarkers. Furthermore, given the lack of reference standards in most metabolism studies, the major urinary metabolites can often only be tentatively determined. This thesis describes the synthesis and analysis of potential metabolites used to identify the exact structures of major metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid AKB-48, fentanyl and five fentanyl analogues in authentic human urine samples and/or hepatocyte incubations. Synthetic targets were chosen based on previous metabolism studies by our research group. Subsequently, synthetic routes were developed to produce numerous potential metabolites across the studied NPS. The synthesized reference standards were analyzed by LC-QTOF-MS alongside hepatocyte drug incubations and authentic human urine samples. Comparison of the resulting analytical data was used to determine the exact structures of many metabolites. This includes urinary metabolites of AKB-48 with a single hydroxyl group situated on a secondary carbon of the adamantane moiety, or position 3 or 5 of the pentyl side chain. For the studied fentanyls, the ?-OH and the 4’-OH metabolites were abundant metabolites identified in hepatocyte incubations while the 4’-OH, 4’-OH-3’-OMe and 3’,4’-diOH were the favored metabolic motifs among the metabolites identified in urine. Additionally, a concise synthetic route to produce synthetic cannabinoid metabolites with the 4-OH-5F pentyl side chain motif was developed and demonstrated for four synthetic cannabinoids. These findings and the developed synthetic routes can be used to provide forensic toxicology laboratories with urinary biomarkers for drug detection. Moreover, the synthesized reference standards of major metabolites can be studied to better understand the toxicity of their parent drugs. Nya psykoaktiva substanser (NPS) är det officiella namnet för den grupp droger som tidigare har kallats för designerdroger, nätdroger eller internetdroger. NPS definieras som droger som utgör ett likvärdigt hot mot folkhälsan som droger som återfinns på Förenta Nationernas narkotikakonventioner men som själva inte återfinns under dessa konventioner. Det finns hundratals olika rapporterade NPS spridda över olika droggrupper, såsom syntetiska cannabinoider och syntetiska opioider. Vissa av dessa droger syntetiserades ursprungligen i forskningssyfte, men tog sig senare in på den illegala drogmarknaden. De mer nyligen framtagna NPS är ofta designade att efterlikna effekterna av etablerade droger, såsom morfin eller ?9-THC, vilket är den huvudsakliga psykoaktiva substansen i cannabis. Användandet av NPS har associerats till många kluster av intoxikationer som har lett till hospitaliseringar. Många har även dött till följd av användandet av NPS. Inte minst i USA där en grupp av NPS kallad för fentanylanaloger är högst delaktig i den pågående opioidkrisen. Den ständiga inströmningen av nya NPS leder till att detektion av och diskriminering mellan dem utgör en svår utmaning för forensiska toxikologilaboratorier. Tillgången av lämpliga referenssubstanser möter inte deras efterfrågan, delvis på grund av att vilka biomarkörer som är optimala för drogdetektion inte alltid är uppenbart. Till exempel så är metabolismen av syntetiska cannabinoider i regel både snabb och omfattande. Av den anledningen kan användandet av modersubstansen som biomarkör vid analys av urin leda till falskt negativa resultat. Urin som biologisk matris har många fördelar jämfört med blod. Till exempel så har urin ett längre detektionsfönster och högre drogkoncentrationer. För att kunna identifiera optimala biomarkörer för droganalys av urinprover så måste drogernas metabolism utredas. De flesta metabolismstudier använder sig av humana levermikrosomer eller hepatocyter som inkuberas tillsammans med droger för att generera metaboliter in vitro. Urinprover från individer i vilkas blod det har återfunnits droger används också men tillgången är tyvärr begränsad. Dessa metaboliter separeras sedan med hjälp av kromatografiska tekniker och deras kemiska strukturer bestäms med hjälp av masspektrometri. Dock så är utvärderingen av masspektrometridata komplicerad och det är heller inte möjligt att skilja på vissa positionsisomerer genom att enbart analysera masspektrometridata. För att kunna möjliggöra exakt strukturutredning så krävs referensstandarder. Därför var målet med denna avhandling att addera syntes och analys av referensstandarder till de etablerade tillvägagångssätten att studera metabolismen av NPS. Ett stort antal potentiella metaboliter av AKB-48 och andra syntetiska cannabinoider samt av fentanyl och fentanylanaloger syntetiserades. Genom att använda dessa referensstandarder i metabolismstudier så kunde de exakta kemiska strukturerna för många metaboliter bestämmas. Dessutom så identifierades mönster i de metaboliska profilerna bland fentanyl och fentanylanaloger. Dessa mönster kan användas för att förbättra predikteringen av metaboliter för andra nuvarande och kommande fentanylanaloger. Dessa resultat samt de utvecklade syntesvägarna kan nyttjas i framställningen av referenssubstanser i syfte att användas som biomarkörer för att i urin kunna detektera drogmissbruk. Referenssubstanserna kan även användas för att studera metaboliternas farmakologiska egenskaper vilket kan leda till en djupare förståelse kring toxiciteten hos modersubstanserna.

In Silico Target Prediction

In Silico Target Prediction Book
Author : Fazlin Binti Mohd Fauzi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download In Silico Target Prediction book written by Fazlin Binti Mohd Fauzi, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.