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Noradrenergic Signaling And Astroglia

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Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia Book
Author : Nina Vardjan,Robert Zorec
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-13
ISBN : 0128134267
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia integrates what is known about the active role of astroglia in the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system and outlines the most recent advances in the field. It discusses the molecular mechanisms underlying norepinephrine-induced receptor activation in astroglia, cellular metabolism and CNS energy provision, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, gliosignalling and neuronal activity, and astroglial networks, gap junctions, and morphological plasticity. The book also addresses the role of astroglial adrenergic receptor activation in memory formation, cognition, regulation of sleep homeostasis, and lastly in neurological disorders, including trauma (cellular edema), neurodegeneration (Alzheimer’s disease), and neuroinflammation (multiple sclerosis). Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia is a valuable source of new knowledge for a wide audience, including graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in neuroscience, life sciences, and the biological and biomedical sciences. Covers what is currently known about the role of astroglia in the noradrenergic system Provides biochemical and physiological mechanistic data to understand how noradrenergic signals acting on astroglia produce observed effects Includes figures and tables of structures, mechanisms and processes related to astroglia and noradrenergic signaling in CNS

Physiology of Astroglia

Physiology of Astroglia Book
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2015-03-01
ISBN : 1615046739
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Astrocytes can be defined as the glia inhabiting the nervous system with the main function in the maintenance of nervous tissue homeostasis. Classified into several types according to their morphological appearance, many of astrocytes form a reticular structure known as astroglial syncytium, owing to their coupling via intercellular channels organized into gap junctions. Not only do astrocytes establish such homocellular contacts, but they also engage in intimate heterocellular interactions with neurons, most notably at synaptic sites. As synaptic structures house the very core of information transfer and processing in the nervous system, astroglial perisynaptic positioning assures that these glial cells can nourish neurons and establish bidirectional communication with them, functions outlined in the concepts of the astrocytic cradle and multi-partite synapse, respectively. Astrocytes possess a rich assortment of ligand receptors, ion and water channels, and ion and ligand transporters, which collectively contribute to astrocytic control of homeostasis and excitability. Astroglia control glutamate and adenosine homeostasis to exert modulatory actions affecting the real-time operation of synapses. Fluctuations of intracellular calcium can lead to the release of various chemical transmitters from astrocytes through a process termed gliotransmission. Sodium fluctuations are closely associated to those of calcium with both dynamic events interfacing signaling and metabolism. Astrocytes appear fully integrated into the brain cellular circuitry, being an indispensable part of neural networks.

Calcium Signaling in Astroglial Cells

Calcium Signaling in Astroglial Cells Book
Author : Håkan Muyderman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9789162849306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Calcium Signaling in Astroglial Cells book written by Håkan Muyderman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Glia in Health and Disease

Glia in Health and Disease Book
Author : Margaret S. Ho,Alexei Verkhratsky,Shumin Duan,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-08-16
ISBN : 2889458504
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Glia in Health and Disease book written by Margaret S. Ho,Alexei Verkhratsky,Shumin Duan,Vladimir Parpura, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Astrocytic Adrenoceptors A Major Drug Target in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

Astrocytic Adrenoceptors  A Major Drug Target in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considerable attention has recently been paid to astrocyte functions, which are briefly summarized. A large amount of data is available about adrenoceptor expression and function in astrocytes, some of it dating back to the 1970's and some of it very recent. This material is reviewed in the present paper. The brain is innervated by noradrenergic fibers extending from locus coeruleus in the brain stem, which in turn is connected to a network of adrenergic and noradrenergic nuclei in the medulla and pons, contributing to the control of (nor)adrenergic, serotonergic, dopaminergic and cholinergic function, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the periphery. In the CNS astrocytes constitute a major target for noradrenergic innervation, which regulates morphological plasticity, energy metabolism, membrane transport, gap junction permeability and immunological responses in these cells. Noradrenergic effects on astrocytes are essential during consolidation of episodal, long-term memory, which is reinforced by -adrenergic activation. Glycogenolysis and synthesis of glutamate and glutamine from glucose, both of which are metabolic processes restricted to astrocytes, occurs at several time-specific stages during the consolidation. Astrocytic abnormalities are almost certainly important in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and in all probability contribute essentially to inflammation and malfunction in Alzheimer's disease and to mood disturbances in affective disorders. Noradrenergic function in astrocytes is severely disturbed by chronic exposure to cocaine, which also changes astrocyte morphology. Development of drugs modifying noradrenergic receptor activity and/or down-stream signaling is advocated for treatment of several neurological/psychiatric disorders and for neuroprotection. Astrocytic preparations are suggested for study of mechanism(s) of action of antidepressant drugs and pathophysiology of mood disorders.

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention Book
Author : Golnaz Baghdadi,Farzad Towhidkhah,Mojdeh Rajabi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-01
ISBN : 0323909361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention: Computational Models, Physiology, and Disease States describes the brain mechanisms underlying the attention control system, how those mechanisms are examined, how they operate in different disease states, and methods for improving them. Conceptual models of attention further explore their functional operation. Coverage includes the different types of attention, processing paths, brain anatomy, and attention’s role in memory and movement. Factors affecting attention are explored including nutrition, exercise, and genetics. Neurocognitive disorders impacting attention are discussed including autism, ADHD, OCD, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Assessment methods and treatments are uniquely set against the backdrop of current conceptual, computational, and oscillatory-based models to encourage researchers to pursue continued development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Examines brain mechanisms underlying different types of attention Explores how nutrition, exercise, genetics and more impact attention Identifies impact on attention of neurocognitive diseases and disorders Includes therapeutic advances to improve attention Provides computational models via companion website

Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Margaret S. Ho,Robert Zorec,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-03
ISBN : 9811399131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the role of neuroglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroglia are the most abundant cells in the nervous system and consist of several distinct cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,and microglia. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroglia participate in the neurodegenerative process, and as such are essential players in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s. Intended for researchers and students, the book presents recent advances concerning the biology of neuroglia as well as their interaction with neurons during disease progression. In addition, to highlight the function of neuroglia in different types of neurodegenerative disease, it also discusses their mechanisms and effects on protecting or damaging neurons.

Optogenetics

Optogenetics Book
Author : Krishnarao Appasani
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-04-27
ISBN : 1108146090
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discovered little more than a decade ago, optogenetics - a revolutionary technique combining genetic and optical methods to observe and control the function of neurons - is now a widely used research tool. Optogenetics-driven research has led to insights into Parkinson's disease and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. With contributions from leaders and innovators from both academia and industry, this volume explores the discovery and application of optogenetics, from the basic science to its potential clinical use. Chapters cover a range of optogenetics applications, including for brain circuits, plasticity, memory, learning, sleep, vision and neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases. Providing authoritative coverage of the huge potential that optogenetics research carries, this is an ideal resource for researchers and graduate students, as well as for those working in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries and in a clinical setting.

Noradrenergic Mechanisms in Parkinson s Disease

Noradrenergic Mechanisms in Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Mike Briley,M. Marien
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1993-12-16
ISBN : 9780849383915
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Noradrenergic Mechanisms in Parkinson's Disease examines fundamental and clinical evidence explaining the progression of the disease. Featuring contributions from acknowledged international experts in the field, this book defines ideopathic Parkinson's disease and covers such topics as the alterations in Parkinson's disease, norepinephrine-dopamine interactions, noradrenergic control of striatal dopamine release, glial cells as targets of the central noradrenergic systems, and a theory regarding noradrenergic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease. New directions for research on Parkinson's disease are also explored.

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior Book
Author : Vladimir Parpura,Tycho Hoogland
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-06
ISBN : 2889196909
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glial cells are no longer considered passive bystanders in neuronal brain circuits. Not only are they required for housekeeping and brain metabolism, they are active participants in regulating the physiological function and plasticity of brain circuits and the online control of behavior both in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. In invertebrates, glial cells are essential for normal function of sensory organs (C. elegans) and necessary for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity (D. melanogaster). In the mamallian brain, astrocytes are implicated in the regulation of cortical brain rhythms and sleep homeostasis. Disruption of AMPA receptor function in a subset of glial cell types in mice shows behavioral deficits. Furthermore, genetic disruption of glial cell function can directly control behavioral output. Regulation of ionic gradients by glia can underlie bistability of neurons and can modulate the fidelity of synaptic transmission. Grafting of human glial progenitor cells in mouse forebrain results in human glial chimeric mice with enhanced plasticity and improved behavioral performance, suggesting that astrocytes have evolved to cope with information processing in more complex brains. Taken together, current evidence is strongly suggestive that glial cells are essential contributors to information processing in the brain. This Research Topic compiles recent research that shows how the molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell function can be dissected, reviews their impact on plasticity and behavior across species and presents novel approaches to further probe their function.

Modulation of astrocyte neuron interaction in the hypothalamus

Modulation of astrocyte neuron interaction in the hypothalamus Book
Author : Adrienne Brooke Cashion
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Modulation of astrocyte neuron interaction in the hypothalamus book written by Adrienne Brooke Cashion, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Non Neuronal Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Repair After Stroke

Non Neuronal Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Repair After Stroke Book
Author : Jun Chen,John H. Zhang,Xiaoming Hu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-11
ISBN : 3319323377
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research in the role of non-neuronal cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, microglia, and other immune cells in ischemic brain injury and long-term recovery. In these cases, neurodegeneration and brain repair are controlled in a sophisticated system, incorporating interactions between different cell types and cellular systems. Also explored are the therapeutic strategies that target non-neuronal responses after stroke and their translational potentials.

CSA Neurosciences Abstracts

CSA Neurosciences Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download CSA Neurosciences Abstracts book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neuroprotection

Neuroprotection Book
Author : Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang,Yuen-Shan Ho
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-08-28
ISBN : 1789847362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroprotection is a strategy to prevent or delay the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, acute neurological disorders, or even mental disorders. The major aim of this book is to focus on different approaches to achieve neuroprotection. In this book, there are chapters discussing imidazoline ligands and opioid ligands in Alzheimer's disease, the beneficial effects of adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists modulating microglial responses, and different approaches to achieve neuroprotection against aging-associated macular degeneration. This book will give insights to scientists in the field to stimulate their research, medical professionals to review their clinical practices, and others who would like to learn more about different neuroprotective approaches.

The New Mind Body Science of Depression

The New Mind Body Science of Depression Book
Author : Vladimir Maletic,Charles Raison
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release : 2017-06-13
ISBN : 0393708608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The scientific and therapeutic implications of a new way of understanding a common disease. Depression has often been studied, but this multifaceted disease remains far from understood. Here, leading researchers present a major new view of the disorder that synthesizes multiple lines of scientific evidence from neurobiology, mindfulness, and genetics. A comprehensive mind-body approach to understanding, evaluating, and treating this disease.

Biophysically based Computational Models of Astrocyte Neuron Coupling and their Functional Significance

Biophysically based Computational Models of Astrocyte   Neuron Coupling and their Functional Significance Book
Author : John Wade,Scott Kelso,Vincenzo Crunelli, Liam J. McDaid, Jim Harkin
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-03-21
ISBN : 2889191788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroscientists are increasingly becoming more interested in modelling brain functions where capturing the biophysical mechanisms underpinning these functions requires plausible models at the level of neuron cells. However, cell level models are still very much in the embryo stage and therefore there is a need to advance the level of biological realism at the level of neurons/synapses. Recent publications have highlighted that astrocytes continually exchange information with multiple synapses; if we are to fully appreciate this dynamic and coordinated interplay between these cells then more research on bidirectional signalling between astrocytes and neurons is required. A better understanding of astrocyte-neuron cell coupling would provide the building block for studying the regulatory capability of astrocytes networks on a large scale. For example, it is believed that local and global signalling via astrocytes underpins brain functions like synchrony, learning, memory and self repair. This Research Topic aims to report on current research work which focuses on understanding and modelling the interaction between astrocytes and neurons at the cellular level (Bottom up) and at network level (Top down). Understanding astrocytic regulation of neural activity is crucial if we are to capture how information is represented and processed across large neuronal ensembles in humans.

Stroke E Book

Stroke E Book Book
Author : James C. Grotta,Gregory W Albers,Joseph P Broderick,Scott E Kasner,Eng H. Lo,Ralph L Sacco,Lawrence KS Wong,Arthur L. Day
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2021-02-06
ISBN : 032369425X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Authored by the world’s foremost stroke experts, this classic text brings you fully up to date with current research findings and management approaches for cerebrovascular disease. Stroke: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management, 7th Edition, covers every aspect of this fast-moving field, and is an ideal resource for stroke specialists, general neurologists, and other medical professionals with an interest in stroke. You’ll find expert clinical guidance, comprehensive pathophysiology coverage, data from recent trials, advances in diagnostic tests, full-color CT images, pathology slides, and much more, for a complete picture of today’s stroke medicine. Helps you recognize the clinical manifestations of stroke, use the latest laboratory and imaging studies to arrive at a diagnosis, and generate an effective medical and surgical treatment plan. Keeps you abreast of the overwhelming volume of studies and guidelines in this dynamic field, providing clear summaries and practical evaluations of all relevant data. Contains updates throughout, including the latest clinical trials (thrombectomy, DAWN, DEFUSE), genetics research, prevention research, new therapies, and the new guidelines from the ASA. Includes new slides for lectures, covering basic science, case studies, and interventional treatment overviews. Features a Key Points summary at the beginning of each chapter so you can quickly find important information. Provides abundant full-color CT images and pathology slides that help you make efficient and accurate diagnoses.

Perspectives of Stem Cells

Perspectives of Stem Cells Book
Author : Henning Ulrich
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-01-14
ISBN : 9789048133758
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cells are fascinating cell types. They can replicate themselves forever while retaining the potential to generate progeny with speci?c functions. Because of these special properties, stem cells have been subjects of intensive investigation, from understanding basic mechanisms underlying tissue generation, to modeling human diseases, to application for cell replacement therapy. Stem cells come in different forms. For example, mouse embryonic stem cells can general all cell types in a body, either in a dish or when put back into mouse embryos. On the other hand, neural stem cells in the adult brain generate neurons and glia cells that contribute to the brain’s plasticity. Rapid progress has been made in the stem cell ?eld with discov- ies published in a record speed. A quick Pubmed search has returned 2789 hits for “embryonic stem cells” and 815 hits for “adult neural stem cells/neurogenesis” in the year 2008 alone. It remains a taunting task for all who are interested in stem cells to keep up with rapidly accumulating literatures. The “Perspectives of Stem Cells” by a truly international team of experts provides a timely and invaluable highlight of the stem cell ?eld gearing toward future therapeutic applications in the nervous system. Stem cells with neural potentials have attracted a lot of attention because of their promise for cell replacement therapy, ranging from degenerative neurological dis- ders to spinal cord injuries.

Calcium Signaling

Calcium Signaling Book
Author : Md. Shahidul Islam
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-04-19
ISBN : 9400728875
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Calcium signaling contains a unique selection of chapters that cover a wide range of contemporary topics in this ubiquitous and diverse system of cell signaling. This book has the flavor of a primary text book, but it is much more than that. It covers topics ranging from the fundamental aspects of calcium signaling to its clinical implications, in a thoughtful and comprehensive way. It discusses cutting edge researches, and critical issues at depth, and it presents many testable hypotheses for future research. It includes the theoretical and the methodological topics as well as topics related to mathematical modeling, and simulations. If you want to read about calcium signaling in different mammalian cells, oocytes, Zebrafishes, and even in plants, in one and the same book, then this book will not disappoint you. From the beginners to the experts in the field of calcium signaling, everybody will find something useful in this very timely book.

Inter Organellar Ca2 Signaling in Health and Disease Part A

Inter Organellar Ca2  Signaling in Health and Disease   Part A Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-07-09
ISBN : 0128240350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inter-Organellar Ca2+ Signaling in Health and Disease - Part A, Volume 362, the latest release in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters. Each chapter is written by an international board of authors. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology series Updated release includes the latest information on the topic of Inter-Organellar Ca2+ Signaling in Health and Disease - Part A