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Noradrenergic Signaling And Astroglia

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Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia Book
Author : Nina Vardjan,Robert Zorec
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-13
ISBN : 0128134267
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia integrates what is known about the active role of astroglia in the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system and outlines the most recent advances in the field. It discusses the molecular mechanisms underlying norepinephrine-induced receptor activation in astroglia, cellular metabolism and CNS energy provision, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, gliosignalling and neuronal activity, and astroglial networks, gap junctions, and morphological plasticity. The book also addresses the role of astroglial adrenergic receptor activation in memory formation, cognition, regulation of sleep homeostasis, and lastly in neurological disorders, including trauma (cellular edema), neurodegeneration (Alzheimer’s disease), and neuroinflammation (multiple sclerosis). Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia is a valuable source of new knowledge for a wide audience, including graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in neuroscience, life sciences, and the biological and biomedical sciences. Covers what is currently known about the role of astroglia in the noradrenergic system Provides biochemical and physiological mechanistic data to understand how noradrenergic signals acting on astroglia produce observed effects Includes figures and tables of structures, mechanisms and processes related to astroglia and noradrenergic signaling in CNS

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia Book
Author : Nina Vardjan,Robert Zorec
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-20
ISBN : 9780128050880
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia integrates what is known about the active role of astroglia in the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system and outlines the most recent advances in the field. It discusses the molecular mechanisms underlying norepinephrine-induced receptor activation in astroglia, cellular metabolism and CNS energy provision, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, gliosignalling and neuronal activity, and astroglial networks, gap junctions, and morphological plasticity. The book also addresses the role of astroglial adrenergic receptor activation in memory formation, cognition, regulation of sleep homeostasis, and lastly in neurological disorders, including trauma (cellular edema), neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease), and neuroinflammation (multiple sclerosis). Noradrenergic Signaling and Astroglia is a valuable source of new knowledge for a wide audience, including graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in neuroscience, life sciences, and the biological and biomedical sciences. Covers what is currently known about the role of astroglia in the noradrenergic system Provides biochemical and physiological mechanistic data to understand how noradrenergic signals acting on astroglia produce observed effects Includes figures and tables of structures, mechanisms and processes related to astroglia and noradrenergic signaling in CNS

Astrocytes Ca2 Signaling in the Modulation of Neural Networks Excitability and Synaptic Transmissions

Astrocytes Ca2  Signaling in the Modulation of Neural Networks Excitability and Synaptic Transmissions Book
Author : Wannan Tang,Leonid Savtchenko,Yu-Wei Wu,Rolf Sprengel
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-05-04
ISBN : 2889761010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Astrocytes Ca2 Signaling in the Modulation of Neural Networks Excitability and Synaptic Transmissions book written by Wannan Tang,Leonid Savtchenko,Yu-Wei Wu,Rolf Sprengel, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Physiology of Astroglia

Physiology of Astroglia Book
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Biota Publishing
Release : 2015-03-01
ISBN : 1615046739
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Astrocytes can be defined as the glia inhabiting the nervous system with the main function in the maintenance of nervous tissue homeostasis. Classified into several types according to their morphological appearance, many of astrocytes form a reticular structure known as astroglial syncytium, owing to their coupling via intercellular channels organized into gap junctions. Not only do astrocytes establish such homocellular contacts, but they also engage in intimate heterocellular interactions with neurons, most notably at synaptic sites. As synaptic structures house the very core of information transfer and processing in the nervous system, astroglial perisynaptic positioning assures that these glial cells can nourish neurons and establish bidirectional communication with them, functions outlined in the concepts of the astrocytic cradle and multi-partite synapse, respectively. Astrocytes possess a rich assortment of ligand receptors, ion and water channels, and ion and ligand transporters, which collectively contribute to astrocytic control of homeostasis and excitability. Astroglia control glutamate and adenosine homeostasis to exert modulatory actions affecting the real-time operation of synapses. Fluctuations of intracellular calcium can lead to the release of various chemical transmitters from astrocytes through a process termed gliotransmission. Sodium fluctuations are closely associated to those of calcium with both dynamic events interfacing signaling and metabolism. Astrocytes appear fully integrated into the brain cellular circuitry, being an indispensable part of neural networks.

Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neuroglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Margaret S. Ho,Robert Zorec,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-03
ISBN : 9811399131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the role of neuroglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroglia are the most abundant cells in the nervous system and consist of several distinct cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,and microglia. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroglia participate in the neurodegenerative process, and as such are essential players in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s. Intended for researchers and students, the book presents recent advances concerning the biology of neuroglia as well as their interaction with neurons during disease progression. In addition, to highlight the function of neuroglia in different types of neurodegenerative disease, it also discusses their mechanisms and effects on protecting or damaging neurons.

Bottom up and Top down Molecules and Circuits that Underlie Chemosensory Behaviors

Bottom up and Top down  Molecules and Circuits that Underlie Chemosensory Behaviors Book
Author : Markus Rothermel,Pablo Chamero,Shaina M. Short,Jeremy C. McIntyre,Julian P. Meeks
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-02-03
ISBN : 288971442X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Bottom up and Top down Molecules and Circuits that Underlie Chemosensory Behaviors book written by Markus Rothermel,Pablo Chamero,Shaina M. Short,Jeremy C. McIntyre,Julian P. Meeks, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lactate as a Major Signaling Molecule for Homeostasis

Lactate as a Major Signaling Molecule for Homeostasis Book
Author : Karen Lambert,Bisbal Catherine,Philippe Connes,Luc Pellerin
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-07-01
ISBN : 2889764745
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Topic Editor Dr. Philippe Connes has received a grant from HARTIS Pharma (Switzerland-France). All other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System

Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System Book
Author : Robert Malenka
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-05-22
ISBN : 0123785723
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Intercellular communication is part of a complex system of communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their environment is the basis of growth and development, tissue repair, and immunity as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancer, autoimmunity, diabetes, and neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is substantial drug development concentrating on this and intercellular communication is the basis of much of neuropharmacology. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be yielded. Neurotransmitters/receptors, synaptic structure and organization, gap junctions, neurotrophic factors and neuropeptides are all explored in this volume, as are the ways in which signaling controls neuroendocrinology, neuroimmunology and neuropharmacology. Intercellular Communication in the Nervous System provides a valuable desk reference for all scientists who consider signaling. * Chapters offer impressive scope with topics addressing neurotransmitters/receptors, synaptic structure and organization, neuropeptides, gap junctions, neuropharmacology and more * Richly illustrated in full color with over 200 figures * Contributors represent the most outstanding scholarship in the field, with each chapter providing fully vetted and reliable expert knowledge

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide

The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide Book
Author : Yogesh Dwivedi
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-06-25
ISBN : 143983881X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With recent studies using genetic, epigenetic, and other molecular and neurochemical approaches, a new era has begun in understanding pathophysiology of suicide. Emerging evidence suggests that neurobiological factors are not only critical in providing potential risk factors but also provide a promising approach to develop more effective treatment and prevention strategies. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide discusses the most recent findings in suicide neurobiology. Psychological, psychosocial, and cultural factors are important in determining the risk factors for suicide; however, they offer weak prediction and can be of little clinical use. Interestingly, cognitive characteristics are different among depressed suicidal and depressed nonsuicidal subjects, and could be involved in the development of suicidal behavior. The characterization of the neurobiological basis of suicide is in delineating the risk factors associated with suicide. The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide focuses on how and why these neurobiological factors are crucial in the pathogenic mechanisms of suicidal behavior and how these findings can be transformed into potential therapeutic applications.

Glia in Health and Disease

Glia in Health and Disease Book
Author : Margaret S. Ho,Alexei Verkhratsky,Shumin Duan,Vladimir Parpura
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-08-16
ISBN : 2889458504
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This eBook is a collection of articles from a Frontiers Research Topic. Frontiers Research Topics are very popular trademarks of the Frontiers Journals Series: they are collections of at least ten articles, all centered on a particular subject. With their unique mix of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Frontiers Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author by contacting the Frontiers Editorial Office: frontiersin.org/about/contact.

Brain Glycogen Metabolism

Brain Glycogen Metabolism Book
Author : Mauro DiNuzzo,Arne Schousboe
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-31
ISBN : 3030274802
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to provide a state-of-the-art summary of what is currently known about brain glycogen metabolism, detailing the recent advances in our understanding of why glycogen is so critical for normal brain function. The role of glycogen in cellular neurophysiology remains largely unclear and its specific contribution to the energy demand of brain cells is still elusive.Glycogen is the sole cerebral glucose reserve and is emerging as a fundamental component of brain energy metabolism. Pharmacological or genetic manipulation of glycogen metabolism in the brain impairs memory formation and increases susceptibility to epileptic seizures and cortical spreading depression. Glycogen is also directly implicated in abnormal neuronal excitability and mental retardation that characterize brain disorders like Lafora disease and Pompe disease.

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology Book
Author : Alexei Verkhratsky,Arthur Butt
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-01-31
ISBN : 1118402057
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells. Coverae includes: the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it. An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system Describes the role og glial cells in neuropathology Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts Companion website with downloadable figures and slides

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention Book
Author : Golnaz Baghdadi,Farzad Towhidkhah,Mojdeh Rajabi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-16
ISBN : 0323909361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention: Computational Models, Physiology, and Disease States describes the brain mechanisms underlying the attention control system, how those mechanisms are examined, how they operate in different disease states, and methods for improving them. Conceptual models of attention further explore their functional operation. Coverage includes the different types of attention, processing paths, brain anatomy, and attention’s role in memory and movement. Factors affecting attention are explored including nutrition, exercise, and genetics. Neurocognitive disorders impacting attention are discussed including autism, ADHD, OCD, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Assessment methods and treatments are uniquely set against the backdrop of current conceptual, computational, and oscillatory-based models to encourage researchers to pursue continued development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Examines brain mechanisms underlying different types of attention Explores how nutrition, exercise, genetics and more impact attention Identifies impact on attention of neurocognitive diseases and disorders Includes therapeutic advances to improve attention Provides computational models via companion website

Astrocytes in Patho Physiology of the Nervous System

Astrocytes in  Patho Physiology of the Nervous System Book
Author : Vladimir Parpura,Philip G. Haydon
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-11
ISBN : 9780387794921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Astrocytes were the original neuroglia that Ramón y Cajal visualized in 1913 using a gold sublimate stain. This stain targeted intermediate filaments that we now know consist mainly of glial fibrillary acidic protein, a protein used today as an astrocytic marker. Cajal described the morphological diversity of these cells with some ast- cytes surrounding neurons, while the others are intimately associated with vasculature. We start the book by discussing the heterogeneity of astrocytes using contemporary tools and by calling into question the assumption by classical neuroscience that neurons and glia are derived from distinct pools of progenitor cells. Astrocytes have long been neglected as active participants in intercellular communication and information processing in the central nervous system, in part due to their lack of electrical excitability. The follow up chapters review the “nuts and bolts” of ast- cytic physiology; astrocytes possess a diverse assortment of ion channels, neu- transmitter receptors, and transport mechanisms that enable the astrocytes to respond to many of the same signals that act on neurons. Since astrocytes can detect chemical transmitters that are released from neurons and can release their own extracellular signals there is an increasing awareness that they play physiological roles in regulating neuronal activity and synaptic transmission. In addition to these physiological roles, it is becoming increasingly recognized that astrocytes play critical roles during pathophysiological states of the nervous system; these states include gliomas, Alexander disease, and epilepsy to mention a few.

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Uday Kishore
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-05-15
ISBN : 9535110888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights the pathophysiological complexities of the mechanisms and factors that are likely to be involved in a range of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, other Dementia, Parkinson Diseases and Multiple Sclerosis. The spectrum of diverse factors involved in neurodegeneration, such as protein aggregation, oxidative stress, caspases and secretase, regulators, cholesterol, zinc, microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, etc, have been discussed in the context of disease progression. In addition, novel approaches to therapeutic interventions have also been presented. It is hoped that students, scientists and clinicians shall find this very informative book immensely useful and thought-provoking.

Optogenetics

Optogenetics Book
Author : Krishnarao Appasani
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-04-27
ISBN : 1107053013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides applications for the revolutionary technique of optogenetics, which combines genetic and optical methods to observe the function of neurons.

Astrocytes in Psychiatric Disorders

Astrocytes in Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Baoman Li,Vladimir Parpura,Alexei Verkhratsky,Caterina Scuderi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-12-09
ISBN : 3030773752
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This contributed volume discusses the multiple roles of astrocytes, which determine the progression and outcome of neuropsychiatric diseases. This emerging area of study examines the ways in which astrocytes are involved in various aspects of disease initiation, progression and resolution. This monograph aims to integrate the body of information that has accumulated in recent years revealing the active role of astrocytes in neuropsychiatric pathology and in psychiatric disorders. Understanding roles of astrocytes in pathology will provide new targets for medical intervention and aid the development of much needed therapeutics. This book will be valuable for researchers and workers in the fields of neurobiology, neurology, and psychiatry, as well as fill the need for a textbook used in advanced courses/graduate seminars in glial pathophysiology.

Brain Energy Metabolism

Brain Energy Metabolism Book
Author : Johannes Hirrlinger,Helle S. Waagepetersen
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2014-09-16
ISBN : 9781493910588
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain Energy Metabolism addresses its challenging subject by presenting diverse technologies allowing for the investigation of brain energy metabolism on different levels of complexity. Model systems are discussed, starting from the reductionist approach like primary cell cultures which allow assessing of the properties and functions of a single brain cell type with many different types of analysis, however, at the expense of neglecting the interaction between cell types in the brain. On the other end, analysis in animals and humans in vivo is discussed, maintaining the full complexity of the tissue and the organism but making high demands on the methods of analysis. Written for the popular Neuromethods series, chapters include the kind of detailed description and key implementation advice that aims to support reproducible results in the lab. Meticulous and authoritative, Brain Energy Metabolism provides an ideal guide for researchers interested in brain energy metabolism with the hope of stimulating more research in this exciting and very important field.

Handbook of Neurochemistry

Handbook of Neurochemistry Book
Author : Abel Lajtha
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Handbook of Neurochemistry book written by Abel Lajtha, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior

The Role of Glia in Plasticity and Behavior Book
Author : Vladimir Parpura,Tycho Hoogland
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-06
ISBN : 2889196909
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glial cells are no longer considered passive bystanders in neuronal brain circuits. Not only are they required for housekeeping and brain metabolism, they are active participants in regulating the physiological function and plasticity of brain circuits and the online control of behavior both in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. In invertebrates, glial cells are essential for normal function of sensory organs (C. elegans) and necessary for the circadian regulation of locomotor activity (D. melanogaster). In the mamallian brain, astrocytes are implicated in the regulation of cortical brain rhythms and sleep homeostasis. Disruption of AMPA receptor function in a subset of glial cell types in mice shows behavioral deficits. Furthermore, genetic disruption of glial cell function can directly control behavioral output. Regulation of ionic gradients by glia can underlie bistability of neurons and can modulate the fidelity of synaptic transmission. Grafting of human glial progenitor cells in mouse forebrain results in human glial chimeric mice with enhanced plasticity and improved behavioral performance, suggesting that astrocytes have evolved to cope with information processing in more complex brains. Taken together, current evidence is strongly suggestive that glial cells are essential contributors to information processing in the brain. This Research Topic compiles recent research that shows how the molecular mechanisms underlying glial cell function can be dissected, reviews their impact on plasticity and behavior across species and presents novel approaches to further probe their function.