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Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2020-12-07
ISBN : 9264888853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge Book
Author : Oecd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-12-21
ISBN : 9789264452442
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9789264901025
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Non Exhaust Emissions

Non Exhaust Emissions Book
Author : Fulvio Amato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-02
ISBN : 0128117516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Non exhaust Traffic Related Emissions Brake and Tyre Wear PM

Non exhaust Traffic Related Emissions   Brake and Tyre Wear PM Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traffic related sources are a significant contributor of particulate matter, particularly in urban environments and major cities. Traffic related particles can be distinguished into: exhaust traffic related particles, which are emitted as a result of incomplete fuel combustion and lubricant volatilization during the combustion procedure, and non-exhaust traffic related particles, which are either generated from non-exhaust traffic related sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the environment as deposited material and become resuspended due to traffic induced turbulence. It is estimated that exhaust and non-exhaust sources contribute almost equally to total traffic-related PM10 emissions. However, as exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources to traffic related emissions will increasingly become more significant. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding particulate emissions resulting from non-exhaust sources and particularly from brake and tyre wear. For this reason several different literature sources such as peer reviewed papers, research project reports, technical publications, as well as licentiate and doctoral theses were examined and the most significant findings in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, EFs and possible adverse health effects are discussed.

Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic

Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic Book
Author : Tim J. Barlow,TRL Limited,Great Britain. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9781846088438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic book written by Tim J. Barlow,TRL Limited,Great Britain. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries

Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries Book
Author : Kupiainen, K ,Denby, B.R ,Gustafsson, M ,Johansson, C
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2017-01-27
ISBN : 9289348003
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nordic countries suffer from periodic worsening of the air quality during spring with high peak PM10 concentrations (airborne particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm or 0.01 mm). Characteristic for the high springtime PM10 concentrations are high shares of coarse particles (with diameters between 2.5 and 10µm), a signature of non-exhaust traffic dust formed via abrasion and wear of pavement, traction control materials, vehicle brakes and tyres. This Policy Brief summarizes the current understanding of the road dust system and presents the mitigation measures and policies currently in place in the Nordic countries. It has been compiled as part of the NORTRIP project funded by the Climate and air pollution working group of the Nordic Council of Ministers by researchers from 11 Nordic institutes studying different aspects of traffic non-exhaust emissions and road dust.

Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles

Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles Book
Author : R M Harrison,R E Hester
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2017-06-16
ISBN : 1782628924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first concerns that come to mind in relation to pollution from road vehicles are direct emissions of carbon dioxide and toxic air pollutants. These are, of course, important but the impacts of road traffic are altogether more substantial. This volume of the Issues in Environmental Science and Technology Series takes a broader view of the effects on the environment and human health, excluding only injury due to road traffic accidents. By looking across the environmental media, air, water and soil, and taking account also of noise pollution, the volume addresses far more than the conventional atmospheric issues. More importantly, however, it examines present and future vehicle technologies, the implications of more extensive use of batteries in electric vehicles and the consequences of recycling vehicles at the end of use. Finally, examples of life-cycle analysis as applied to road vehicles are reviewed. This book is a comprehensive source of authoritative information for students studying pollution, and for policy-makers concerned with vehicle emissions and road traffic impacts more generally.

Emissions of Air Pollutants

Emissions of Air Pollutants Book
Author : Rainer Friedrich,Stefan Reis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 3662070154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a wealth of new information that enables environmental scientists and authorities to design methods for measuring and modelling emission rates related to specific pollution sources, and thus to generate improved emission inventories and reduction strategies. The text shows how to carry out experiments to verify emission data, including tunnel and open motorway studies, comprehensive city experiments and tracer experiments.

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions Book
Author : Toni Feißel,David Hesse,Klaus Augsburg,Sebastian Gramstat
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions book written by Toni Feißel,David Hesse,Klaus Augsburg,Sebastian Gramstat, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Energy and Environment

Energy and Environment Book
Author : Michel André,Zissis Samaras
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-06-15
ISBN : 1119307759
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transport systems are facing an impossible dilemma: satisfy an increasing demand for mobility of people and goods, while decreasing their fossil-energy requirements and preserving the environment. Additionally, transport has an opportunity to evolve in a changing world, with new services, technologies but also new requirements (fast delivery, reliability, improved accessibility). In this book, recent research works are reported around the triptych: “transport, energy and environment”, which demonstrates that vehicle technologies and fuels can still improve, but it is necessary to prepare their implementation (e.g. electro-mobility), to think of new services, and to involve all actors, particularly enterprises, who will be the drivers of innovation. Mitigation strategies are studied to promote innovative, multimodal and clean transports and services. Research progress is reported on air pollution, vibrations and noise, their mitigation and assessment methodologies.

Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle

Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Book
Author : Marcel Mathissen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle book written by Marcel Mathissen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXVI

Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXVI Book
Author : Clemens Mensink,Wanmin Gong,Amir Hakami
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-23
ISBN : 3030220559
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current developments in air pollution modeling are explored as a series of contributions from researchers at the forefront of their field. This newest contribution on air pollution modeling and its application is focused on local, urban, regional and intercontinental modeling; emission modeling and processing; data assimilation and air quality forecasting; model assessment and evaluation; atmospheric aerosols. Additionally, this work also examines the relationship between air quality and human health and the effects of climate change on air quality. This work is a collection of selected papers presented at the 36th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modeling and its Application, held in Ottawa, Canada, May 14-18, 2018. The book is intended as reference material for students and professors interested in air pollution modeling at the graduate level as well as researchers and professionals involved in developing and utilizing air pollution models.

Advances in Environmental Engineering

Advances in Environmental Engineering Book
Author : Adriana Estokova,Magdalena Balintova
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2018-08-09
ISBN : 3038970018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Advances in Environmental Engineering" that was published in Environments

Airborne Particulate Matter

Airborne Particulate Matter Book
Author : R M Harrison,R E Hester,Xavier Querol
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2016-08-18
ISBN : 1782626581
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The estimated health impacts and associated economic costs resulting from airborne particulate matter are substantial. Exposure to airborne fine particles ranks highly amongst preventable causes of disease. This book reviews the sources and atmospheric processes affecting airborne particulate matter and consequent impacts upon human health. Examining the latest information on the sources of particles in the atmosphere, both through direct emissions and atmospheric formation, the book also explores the methods which are used to estimate the contributions of different sources to airborne concentrations. Featuring case studies from recent assessments in Europe, the USA, China and India, the book provides a global overview of source apportionment. The health effects are reviewed in the context of the influence of sources, chemical composition and particle size upon relative toxicity. This comprehensive book is an important reference for policymakers and consultants working with pollution and human health, as well as academics working in atmospheric chemistry.

Air Pollution XXV

Air Pollution XXV Book
Author : D. Almorza Gomar,J.W.S. Longhurst,C.A. Brebbia,J. Barnes
Publisher : WIT Press
Release : 2017-08-07
ISBN : 1784661732
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Encompassing papers presented at the 25th International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, this book is the latest from a successful conference series. International academics and air pollution experts address various aspects of air pollution and provide an insight into the science and policy frameworks. The management of air pollution is one of the most challenging problems facing the international community. The need to balance concern for the environment with the demand for generating economic growth makes air pollution a particularly challenging issue, requiring global attention and cooperation. Science can help us identify the nature and scale of air pollution impacts and it has become essential in guiding government decisions regarding the most appropriate and effective regulations. This book presents advances in our knowledge of the science of air pollution. The Air Pollution series of conferences has consistently recognised that science remains the key to identifying the nature and scale of air pollution impacts and reaffirmed that science is essential in the formulation of policy relevant information for regulatory decision making. The conference series also acknowledged, at a very early stage, that science alone will not improve a polluted atmosphere. Scientific knowledge derived from well-designed studies needs to be allied with additional technical and economic studies in order to ensure cost effective and efficient mitigation. Leading research originating all over the world is included and covers the subsequent topics: Air pollution modelling; Monitoring and measuring; Air quality management; Indoor air pollution; Aerosols and particles; Industrial and travel emissions; Exposure and health effects; Economics of air pollution control; Innovative technologies; Challenges for the future; Strategic and project assessment; Green technologies and techniques; Stationary and mobile emissions; Social economic issues; Environmental impact assessment; Air pollution and climate change; Air quality forecasting.

Federal Register

Federal Register Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1974-05
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Federal Register book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Urban Transport Systems

Urban Transport Systems Book
Author : G. Passerini,C. Borrego
Publisher : WIT Press
Release : 2020-04-02
ISBN : 1784663697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Better urban transport systems are needed to achieve a healthier environment and as a result, a wide range of research has originated from many different countries. These studies highlight the importance of innovative systems, new approaches and original ideas, which need to be thoroughly tested and critically evaluated before they can be implemented in practice. To address the need to solve important pollution problems the papers included in this book focus on the relationship with urban transport. There is also a growing need for integration with telecommunications systems and IT applications in order to improve safety, security and efficiency. The variety of topics covered in this volume reflects the complex interaction of the urban transport systems with their environment and the need to establish integrated strategies. The aim is to arrive at optimal socio-economic solutions while reducing the negative environmental impacts of current transportation systems.

Real time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems

Real time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems Book
Author : Ravi Shankar Viyyuri
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main objective of this experimental thesis was to present a comprehensive analysis of exhaust emissions from transit buses during daily routine operations. The pollutants monitored in this study are Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, CO2, and HC released from three different buses with different exhaust control systems such as NON-EGR bus, EGR- bus with EGR+DPF+DOC and hybrid bus with EGR+DPF+DOC+SCR. All these buses were tested on the same route each day. To further categorize and elaborate our findings, the runtime was divided into both idle and running conditions. With a specific end goal to accomplish extensive outcomes, the idle condition was additionally divided into two distinct cases, i.e., cold idle and hot idle conditions. The running conditions were also divided into acceleration, deceleration, variable speed, and intersections. The NOx, CO2 and HC emission were gathered and analyzed for every one of the conditions and modes depicted above. The particulate emission was collected and analyzed in idle conditions. In idle condition NOx, CO2 and HC decrease with time and stay constant after they reach 15 minutes of idle time. The cold idle emissions are observed to be very high when compared to the hot idle condition, this is because the hot idle emissions are collected after the bus gets back to the garage from its daily route with a hot engine and this delivers the appropriate amount of fuel into the engine for complete combustion. Whereas cold idle mode does not run at its optimum temperature that leads to incomplete combustion and increases in emission formation. The NOx and HC emissions decreased from NON-EGR to EGR to the hybrid bus because of the emission control systems: SCR, DOC, and EGR, Whereas CO2 emissions, increase by using the same emissions control systems from NONEGR to EGR to the hybrid bus. The study shows that hybrid bus emits less amount of NOx when compared to EGR and NON- EGR buses, this is because of the exhaust control system SCR. SCR was used to minimize NOx emissions in the exhaust gas by using ammonia (NH3) as the reductant. This exhaust/ammonia mixture passes through the SCR catalyst, where the oxides of nitrogen are turned into nitrogen and water. Moreover, CO2 emissions were high in the hybrid bus then compared to EGR and NON-EGR buses. This was because of chemical reaction that takes place in SCR and DOC releasing CO2 as a product. Whereas, the amount of HC emitted from EGR and hybrid buses were almost in the same range, but very low when compared to the NON-EGR bus. This study also shows that NOx, CO2, and HC are directly proportional to speed (RPM) of the bus. The collected NOx, CO2, and HC are analyzed to develop a statistical regression model using Lasso and Extra Tree Regression techniques that can predict the pollutant concentrations of the exhaust emissions, with respect to different running modes and idle modes for transit buses equipped with EGR+DPF+DOC, EGR+SCR+UREA systems, and a NON-EGR bus. This regression analysis identified the relation and impact of engine variables on pollutant levels. In this study, Extra Tree Regression and Lasso Regression techniques were used to testify the data. The parameters used for prediction of CO2, HC, and NOx emissions in the idle mode were engine temperature and time. Whereas, in running mode rpm was used to predict exhaust emissions. Therefore, Extra Tree Regression was proved as the best regression technique because of its accuracy and low RMSE values when compared to Lasso. Particulate Matter analysis was conducted on all three buses using a catch can instrument and quartz filter papers. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was performed on the particulate matter. In EDS analysis, it was observed that the NON-EGR bus samples seem to have a high carbon content detected when compared to EGR bus and Hybrid bus. This was expected because of lack of EGR and DPF systems on NON-EGR bus. Moreover, EGR and Hybrid buses recorded literally the same amount of carbon content, this could be because of having the same exhaust control systems: EGR and DPF. This study and analysis of exhaust emissions for different exhaust control system equipped buses, will assist the manufacturers and regulators of air pollution in selecting the appropriate exhaust control system equipped bus for emission control strategies in their area.

Urban Air Quality in Europe

Urban Air Quality in Europe Book
Author : Mar Viana
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-06-13
ISBN : 364238451X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.