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Non Exhaust Emissions

Non Exhaust Emissions Book
Author : Fulvio Amato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-04
ISBN : 9780128117705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport An Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge Book
Author : OECD
Publisher : OECD Publishing
Release : 2020-12-07
ISBN : 9264888853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge

Non Exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport an Ignored Environmental Policy Challenge Book
Author : Oecd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-12-21
ISBN : 9789264452442
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-exhaust emissions of particulate matter constitute a little-known but rising share of emissions from road traffic and have significant negative impacts on public health. This report synthesizes the current state of knowledge about the nature, causes, and consequences of non-exhaust particulate emissions. It also projects how particulate matter emissions from non-exhaust sources may evolve in future years and reflects on policy instrument mixes that can address this largely ignored environmental issue.

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport

Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 9789264501195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Non exhaust Particulate Emissions from Road Transport book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Non exhaust Traffic Related Emissions Brake and Tyre Wear PM

Non exhaust Traffic Related Emissions   Brake and Tyre Wear PM Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traffic related sources are a significant contributor of particulate matter, particularly in urban environments and major cities. Traffic related particles can be distinguished into: exhaust traffic related particles, which are emitted as a result of incomplete fuel combustion and lubricant volatilization during the combustion procedure, and non-exhaust traffic related particles, which are either generated from non-exhaust traffic related sources such as brake, tyre, clutch and road surface wear or already exist in the environment as deposited material and become resuspended due to traffic induced turbulence. It is estimated that exhaust and non-exhaust sources contribute almost equally to total traffic-related PM10 emissions. However, as exhaust emissions control become stricter, relative contributions of non-exhaust sources to traffic related emissions will increasingly become more significant. The aim of the present literature review study is to present the state-of-the-art of the different aspects regarding particulate emissions resulting from non-exhaust sources and particularly from brake and tyre wear. For this reason several different literature sources such as peer reviewed papers, research project reports, technical publications, as well as licentiate and doctoral theses were examined and the most significant findings in terms of importance, physicochemical characteristics, EFs and possible adverse health effects are discussed.

Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries

Road dust and PM10 in the Nordic countries Book
Author : Kupiainen, K ,Denby, B.R ,Gustafsson, M ,Johansson, C
Publisher : Nordic Council of Ministers
Release : 2017-01-27
ISBN : 9289348003
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nordic countries suffer from periodic worsening of the air quality during spring with high peak PM10 concentrations (airborne particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm or 0.01 mm). Characteristic for the high springtime PM10 concentrations are high shares of coarse particles (with diameters between 2.5 and 10µm), a signature of non-exhaust traffic dust formed via abrasion and wear of pavement, traction control materials, vehicle brakes and tyres. This Policy Brief summarizes the current understanding of the road dust system and presents the mitigation measures and policies currently in place in the Nordic countries. It has been compiled as part of the NORTRIP project funded by the Climate and air pollution working group of the Nordic Council of Ministers by researchers from 11 Nordic institutes studying different aspects of traffic non-exhaust emissions and road dust.

Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic

Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic Book
Author : Tim J. Barlow,TRL Limited,Great Britain. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9781846088438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Non exhaust Particulate Matter Emissions from Road Traffic book written by Tim J. Barlow,TRL Limited,Great Britain. Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Non Exhaust Emissions

Non Exhaust Emissions Book
Author : Fulvio Amato
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-02
ISBN : 0128117516
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-Exhaust Emissions: An Urban Air Quality Problem for Public Health comprehensively summarizes the most recent research in the field, also giving guidance on research gaps and future needs to evaluate the health impact and possible remediation of non-exhaust particle emissions. With contributions from some of the major experts and stakeholders in air quality, this book comprehensively defines the state-of-the-art of current knowledge, gaps and future needs for a better understanding of particulate matter (PM) emissions, from non-exhaust sources of road traffic to improve public health. PM is a heterogeneous mix of chemical elements and sources, with road traffic being the major source in large cities. A significant part of these emissions come from non-exhaust processes, such as brake, tire, road wear, and road dust resuspension. While motor exhaust emissions have been successfully reduced by means of regulation, non-exhaust emissions are currently uncontrolled and their importance is destined to increase and become the dominant urban source of particle matter by 2020. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the non-exhaust emissions is still limited. This is an essential book to researchers and advanced students from a broad range of disciplines, such as public health, toxicology, atmospheric sciences, environmental sciences, atmospheric chemistry and physics, geochemistry, epidemiology, built environment, road and vehicle engineering, and city planning. In addition, European and local authorities responsible for air quality and those in the industrial sectors related to vehicle and brake manufacturing and technological remediation measures will also find the book valuable. Acts as the first book to explore the health impacts of non-exhaust emissions Authored by experts from several sectors, including academia, industry and policy Gathers the relevant body of literature and information, defining the current knowledge, gaps and future needs

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions

Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions Book
Author : Toni Feißel,David Hesse,Klaus Augsburg,Sebastian Gramstat
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Measurement of Vehicle Related Non exhaust Particle Emissions Under Real Driving Conditions book written by Toni Feißel,David Hesse,Klaus Augsburg,Sebastian Gramstat, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle

Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle Book
Author : Marcel Mathissen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Experimental Methods to Investigate Non exhaust Particle Emissions from a Light Duty Vehicle book written by Marcel Mathissen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Boreal Environment Research

Boreal Environment Research Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Boreal Environment Research book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol Diesel Blends

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol Diesel Blends Book
Author : W. E. Mitchell,P. M. Merritt,R. L. McCormick,K. J. Baumgard,V. Ulmet
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent). Benzene emissions were reduced by up to 50 percent with the ethanol-blended fuels. Emissions of 1,3-butadiene were also substantially decreased, with reductions ranging from 24 to 82 percent. Isolated trends were noted for certain PAHs. There was a decrease in 1-nitropyrene with use of ethanol in all cases. Particulate phase 1-nitropyrene was reduced from 18 to 62 percent. There was also a general increase in the proportion of heavy PAHs in the particulate phase with ethanol use, and although less pronounced, a general decrease in light PAHs in the particulate phase.

Real time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems

Real time Exhaust Gas Emission Analysis on Public Transport Buses Equipped with Different Exhaust Control Systems Book
Author : Ravi Shankar Viyyuri
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main objective of this experimental thesis was to present a comprehensive analysis of exhaust emissions from transit buses during daily routine operations. The pollutants monitored in this study are Particulate Matter (PM), NOx, CO2, and HC released from three different buses with different exhaust control systems such as NON-EGR bus, EGR- bus with EGR+DPF+DOC and hybrid bus with EGR+DPF+DOC+SCR. All these buses were tested on the same route each day. To further categorize and elaborate our findings, the runtime was divided into both idle and running conditions. With a specific end goal to accomplish extensive outcomes, the idle condition was additionally divided into two distinct cases, i.e., cold idle and hot idle conditions. The running conditions were also divided into acceleration, deceleration, variable speed, and intersections. The NOx, CO2 and HC emission were gathered and analyzed for every one of the conditions and modes depicted above. The particulate emission was collected and analyzed in idle conditions. In idle condition NOx, CO2 and HC decrease with time and stay constant after they reach 15 minutes of idle time. The cold idle emissions are observed to be very high when compared to the hot idle condition, this is because the hot idle emissions are collected after the bus gets back to the garage from its daily route with a hot engine and this delivers the appropriate amount of fuel into the engine for complete combustion. Whereas cold idle mode does not run at its optimum temperature that leads to incomplete combustion and increases in emission formation. The NOx and HC emissions decreased from NON-EGR to EGR to the hybrid bus because of the emission control systems: SCR, DOC, and EGR, Whereas CO2 emissions, increase by using the same emissions control systems from NONEGR to EGR to the hybrid bus. The study shows that hybrid bus emits less amount of NOx when compared to EGR and NON- EGR buses, this is because of the exhaust control system SCR. SCR was used to minimize NOx emissions in the exhaust gas by using ammonia (NH3) as the reductant. This exhaust/ammonia mixture passes through the SCR catalyst, where the oxides of nitrogen are turned into nitrogen and water. Moreover, CO2 emissions were high in the hybrid bus then compared to EGR and NON-EGR buses. This was because of chemical reaction that takes place in SCR and DOC releasing CO2 as a product. Whereas, the amount of HC emitted from EGR and hybrid buses were almost in the same range, but very low when compared to the NON-EGR bus. This study also shows that NOx, CO2, and HC are directly proportional to speed (RPM) of the bus. The collected NOx, CO2, and HC are analyzed to develop a statistical regression model using Lasso and Extra Tree Regression techniques that can predict the pollutant concentrations of the exhaust emissions, with respect to different running modes and idle modes for transit buses equipped with EGR+DPF+DOC, EGR+SCR+UREA systems, and a NON-EGR bus. This regression analysis identified the relation and impact of engine variables on pollutant levels. In this study, Extra Tree Regression and Lasso Regression techniques were used to testify the data. The parameters used for prediction of CO2, HC, and NOx emissions in the idle mode were engine temperature and time. Whereas, in running mode rpm was used to predict exhaust emissions. Therefore, Extra Tree Regression was proved as the best regression technique because of its accuracy and low RMSE values when compared to Lasso. Particulate Matter analysis was conducted on all three buses using a catch can instrument and quartz filter papers. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was performed on the particulate matter. In EDS analysis, it was observed that the NON-EGR bus samples seem to have a high carbon content detected when compared to EGR bus and Hybrid bus. This was expected because of lack of EGR and DPF systems on NON-EGR bus. Moreover, EGR and Hybrid buses recorded literally the same amount of carbon content, this could be because of having the same exhaust control systems: EGR and DPF. This study and analysis of exhaust emissions for different exhaust control system equipped buses, will assist the manufacturers and regulators of air pollution in selecting the appropriate exhaust control system equipped bus for emission control strategies in their area.

Emissions from Vehicles Tailpipe and Vehicle Re entrained Road Dust

Emissions from Vehicles  Tailpipe and Vehicle Re entrained Road Dust Book
Author : Dongzi Zhu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9781124020402
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emissions from transportation are some of the largest sources of urban air pollution. Transportation emissions originate from both the engine-through combustion processes and non-tailpipe re-suspended road dust emissions induced by vehicle travel on unpaved and paved roads. Gaseous and particulate emissions from transportation sources have negative impacts on human health, visibility and may influence the global radiation balance. Fugitive dust emissions originating from vehicle travel on paved and unpaved roads constitute a significant fraction of the PM10 in many areas of the western US impacting their attainment status of National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The research used three novel instrument platforms developed at the Desert Research Institute. The In-Plume Emissions Test Stand (IPETS) was designed to provide characterization of exhaust emissions from in-use individual vehicles or engines by analyzing air as close as 1 m from the exhaust port. Real-world emission factors can be quantified by in-plume measurements and provide more realistic measures for emission inventories, source modeling, and receptor modeling than certification measurements. The Testing Re-entrained Aerosol Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) provides an effective alternate approach to the EPA AP-42 road dust emissions estimation techniques by sampling 1000s of km of roads versus isolated 3 m sections. The Portable Deposition Monitoring Platform (PDMP incorporates PM and meteorological instruments to characterize the downwind change in particle concentrations to define depositional losses in different environments. The research outcome provides important knowledge for understanding diesel engine emissions, road dust emissions and aerosol deposition process near road sources.

NORTRIP

NORTRIP Book
Author : Bruce Rolstad Denby
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download NORTRIP book written by Bruce Rolstad Denby, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Characterization of the Atmospheric Chemistry in Southern San Joaquin Valley

Characterization of the Atmospheric Chemistry in Southern San Joaquin Valley Book
Author : Allen H. Goldstein,Ronald C. Cohen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Characterization of the Atmospheric Chemistry in Southern San Joaquin Valley book written by Allen H. Goldstein,Ronald C. Cohen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development and Assembly of a Sampling Device and a Di lution System for Brake Particle Measurements in Test Drives

Development and Assembly of a Sampling Device and a Di lution System for Brake Particle Measurements in Test Drives Book
Author : Alberto Guerra Pérez
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Due to the reduction of exhaust emissions in the last years, the percentage of particulate matter emitted by non-exhaust sources has increased. Brakes play an important role emitting more than half of this type of emissions.1 The FZD department is carrying a research in order to reach a better understanding of the behavior of brake particle emissions and reduce them. For this purpose, real-drive tests have been conducted in previous works and development of new setups to collect particles must be achieved. The aim of this Bachelor thesis is to develop concepts for measurements in test drives. It is necessary to minimize losses of particles and take representative samples of particulate matter. With the intention of accomplishing these necessities, a study of aerosol losses has been done. The objective of this study is to optimize aerosol transport through sampling tubes. Two concepts, a full brake enclosure device and a rim shell device, have been developed and their basic operation system is explained. In the first concept, a full sealed shell around the brake is used to minimize particles losses. This could be think to act in a similar way as the sealed chamber used in dynamometer tests and the results should be similar. For that reason, this concept has been rejected. The second concept tries to reach a realistic behavior of particles taking realistic flow conditions due to the airstream entering to the collecting shell through an air scoop and the interaction of particles with the inner surfaces of the rim. Due to the turbulent regime generated and the limited time to manufacture and assembly the setup, its construction has been discarded. In the study of transport losses different mechanisms have been studied. These mechanisms are diffusional deposition, gravitational settling deposition in horizontal tubes and inclined tubes and inertial deposition in bends. For each one its efficiency has been calculated for a size range of particles and tube lengths. Furthermore, efficiency has been calculated for a particle transport system similar to one that could be used in a test car. With this study, a general approach to the magnitude of transport efficiency has been reached. It has been possible to conclude that losses are much higher for large particles than for small particles. Finally, some considerations to optimize the transport of particles have been presented.

Hybrid electric Road Vehicles Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measurements

Hybrid electric Road Vehicles  Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measurements Book
Author : British Standards Institution
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hybrid electric Road Vehicles Exhaust Emissions and Fuel Consumption Measurements book written by British Standards Institution, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Malfunctioning Non catalyst and Oxidation Catalyst Gasoline Automobiles

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Malfunctioning Non catalyst and Oxidation Catalyst Gasoline Automobiles Book
Author : Charles Urban,Southwest Research Institute,United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Mobile Source Air Pollution Control. Emission Control Technology Division
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1980
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report describes the laboratory effort to characterize regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions from non-catalyst and oxidation catalyst-equipped gasoline automobiles operating under malfunction conditions. One non-catalyst and four catalyst-equipped automobiles were evaluated over three driving schedules in the unmodified and in four engine and/or emission control system malfunction configurations. Exhaust emission constituents measured, in addition to the currently regulated emissions, include: particulates, sulfates, aldehydes, sulfides, amines, metals and several additional elements and compounds.