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Nk Cells In Cancer Immunotherapy

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NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Francisco Borrego,Susana Larrucea,Rafael Solana,Raquel Tarazona
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-09-08
ISBN : 2889199347
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Lynda Addou-Klouche
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Successes and Challenges

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy  Successes and Challenges Book
Author : Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 9780128226209
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NK cells in cancer immunotherapy: Successes and Challenges explains the latest immunotherapeutic strategies focusing on NK cells to allow the best and precise combination treatment to be offered to cancer patients. It provides existing background knowledge in the field of immunotherapy and discusses the future areas of research required to carry out cutting edge validated therapies for patients. Immunotherapy is fast becoming the method of choice for cancer therapy. Although remarkable advances have been made in the field of immunotherapy, there are significant challenges and difficulties ahead since many of the current immunotherapeutic strategies do not provide long-lasting treatment strategies, and therefore are not very effective. This book provides recent advances in the immunotherapeutic strategies, in particular the use of NK cells with and without T cell therapy in the treatment of cancer and discusses the problems and challenges that are facing the field and the practitioners. The book is a valuable resource for cancer researchers, oncologists, graduate students and several members of biomedical field who are interested in learning more about novel strategies to treat cancer patients. Covers CAR/T and CAR/NK and adoptive NK cell therapy with and without T cell therapies Discusses basic biology of NK cells and mouse models of human cancers, and the role of NK cells in metastatic cancer and in cancer stem cells Encompasses information on combination therapies using check point inhibition, adoptive transfer of cytotoxic effector cells, chemotherapeutic drugs and activating and inhibitory antibodies

NKT Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NKT Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Tonya J. Webb,Paolo Dellabona,Weiming Yuan,Everett Meyer
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-08-07
ISBN : 2889639339
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer Book
Author : Loredana Cifaldi,Daniel Olive,James Di Santo
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-31
ISBN : 2889638766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Research Topic, we would like to honor the memory of Prof. Vito Pistoia and pay tribute to his scientific contributions to the field of Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy. Topic Editor Daniel Olive is the co-founder and shareholder of company Imcheck Therapeutics. All other topic editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

The Memory Activation of NK Cells New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy

The Memory Activation of NK Cells  New Methods in Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Gheorghita Isvoranu
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer remains a main cause of mortality, despite the research efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms and for developing personalized targeted therapies with acceptable side effects. In cancer, both players, the aggressor (tumor cells) and the endogenous defenders (immune cells), are key therapeutic targets. Immunotherapy is nowadays considered the fourth therapeutical approach in cancer, complementing and sometimes replacing surgery and chemo- and radiotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells, generally considered part of the innate immune system, play a critical role in defense against pathogens and tumors. Immunological memory is a hallmark of the adaptive immune system. However, NK cells have been shown to mediate Ag-specific recall responses and acquire immunological memory in a manner similar to that of T and B cells. This chapter summarizes evidence for NK cell immunotherapy, evidence and characteristics of NK cell memory and mechanisms involved in the generation and survival of these cells. There is no doubt that NK cells have major role in cancer treatments and viral infections, and in the future, NK cell immunotherapy from "a new hope" may become "a reality" for malignant diseases.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells Book
Author : Jacques Zimmer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-01-12
ISBN : 9783642023095
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells have been at the forefront of immunology for two decades. During that time, a great amount of information about these cells has been obtained. They are important in antiinfectious and antitumoral defense and shape the adaptive immune response. In addition, they can act as immunoregulatory cells. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly evident. This book describes in detail current knowledge about NK cells and covers a broad range of NK cell-related topics, including those that are not frequently reviewed, e.g. NK cells and allergy or NK cells and skin diseases.

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Book
Author : Robert C. Rees
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2014-05-20
ISBN : 0199676860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Patients are beginning to benefit from antibody based, cellular and vaccine approaches that are effective against genetically diverse and therapy-resistance cancers. BCG immunotherapy is now being used as a first line treatment for human bladder cancer and the introduction of prophylactic vaccination against Hepatitis B and HPV cancers is starting to show positive results. Following recent FDA approval for a vaccination against prostate cancer, and optimistic results in clinical trials for a vaccine targeting cancer antigens in lung cancer, cancer immunotherapy is now significantly impacting patient clinical management. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of cancer immunity and immunotherapy. It discusses our adaptive and innate immunity to cancer, the mechanisms underpinning our immune response, current approaches to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumour and host responses can circumvent effective anti-cancer immunity. The book examines recent results, publications and current areas of interest including 'immune editing' and the specific issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines, providing insight into how these problems may be overcome, as viewed by world leaders in the field. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy will appeal to clinicians working in oncology and cancer immunotherapy, and research scientists including PhD and masters students, post-doctoral researchers and senior investigators.

Natural Killer Cells the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy

Natural Killer Cells  the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Priyanka Senthil
Publisher :
Release : 2020-04-20
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular therapeutics is an emerging field with significant advances in the engineering of immune effector cells that play a revolutionary role in treatment for cancer. Up until now, most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cells, which are lymphocyte immune cells that are important for cell-mediated immunity to fight pathogens and cancer. T cells have proven their ability in successful cellular therapies against leukemia, but may soon face competition. Through several preclinical studies, researchers have discovered new guardian immune cells called chimeric antigen receptor-modified natural killer (CAR NK) cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. With chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), CAR NK cells can specifically recognize antigen-expressing tumors and show cytotoxic activity against various solid tumor types. Natural killer (NK) cells target cells that lack expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I like tumors and virus-infected cells. The preclinical evidence suggests that NK cells have the same cancer-homing receptors as T cells and the ability to effectively recognize and kill targets through genetic modification. However, for the cell to be effective, scientists need to provide antigen specificity, for which they have found strategies to introduce CARs into NK cells and cell lines. If scientists can overcome the challenge of properly manufacturing engineered NK cells, CAR NK cells could be safer, cheaper, easier to produce, and more widely applicable than T cells. This book focuses on recent advances in NK cell engineering and discusses how NK cells contribute to new immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment against refractory hematological malignancies.

Cancer Immunotherapy in Urology An Issue of Urologic Clinics E Book

Cancer Immunotherapy in Urology  An Issue of Urologic Clinics  E Book Book
Author : Sujit S Nair,Ashutosh Tewari
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2020-10-15
ISBN : 0323754996
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Guest Editors of this issue of Urologic Clinics of North America have put together a comprehensive collection of articles that provides the current knowledge on urologic cancer immunotherapy. Expert authors have contributed clinical review articles on the following topics: Era of personalized vaccines for GU cancers; TCR and dendritic vaccine platforms for GU cancers; Neo-adjuvant platforms for GU cancer immunotherapy; Immune-editing in Cancer: Role of tumor microenvironment and immune-suppressive pathways in localized and aggressive disease; Clinical integration of neo-adjuvant platforms for prostate cancer immunotherapy; Immunotherapy for muscle and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: BCG and beyond; Immunotherapy for metastatic bladder cancer; Immunotherapy options for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer; Role of tissue infiltrating lymphocytes: Understanding TCR; Therapeutic platforms for IPSC-derived CAR-T; Immune-suppression in prostate cancer: Underlying causes and influence on response to immunotherapy; and Racial disparity in response to immunotherapy. Urologists will come away with the most current information they need to improve outcomes in the urologic cancer patient.

Cancer Immunotherapy Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity Engineering Immune Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials

Cancer Immunotherapy  Mechanisms of Cancer Immunity  Engineering Immune  Based Therapies and Developing Clinical Trials Book
Author : Jianxun Song
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2015-04-16
ISBN : 1681080486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinicians, patients and scientists, alike, have been battling cancer for over several decades; however, patient outcomes have not significantly improved over the years with conventional therapies. In recent years, this has caused researchers to look for a change in the status quo, and, the awareness of the human immune system, which has an intrinsic mechanism to control microbial pathogens and dysfunctional self-tissues, has triggered scientists to look for new modes of cancer therapy. Cancer Immunotherapy has become a major research field as a result of these efforts, gaining some recognition for notable breakthroughs in cancer patient prognosis. Frontiers in Cancer Immunology collectively presents the methods which have been studied and used in cancer immunotherapy based on the different components of human immune system. The series will give clinicians and immunologists a roadmap of current trends in all branches of cancer immunology. This volume lists the major immune system components (such as T cells and NK cells and associated antigens/antibodies) which have been demonstrated to limit the growth of or kill tumor cells. Relevant applications in cancer therapy are also included in addition to a general introduction to engineered as well as targeted cancer immunotherapies (cancer vaccines).

Cancer Immunology

Cancer Immunology Book
Author : Nima Rezaei
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release :
ISBN : 3030502872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : George C. Prendergast,Elizabeth M. Jaffee
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-04-28
ISBN : 9780080521855
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There has been major growth in understanding immune suppression mechanisms and its relationship to cancer progression and therapy. This book highlights emerging new principles of immune suppression that drive cancer and it offers radically new ideas about how therapy can be improved by attacking these principles. Following work that firmly establishes immune escape as an essential trait of cancer, recent studies have now defined specific mechanisms of tumoral immune suppression. It also demonstrates how attacking tumors with molecular targeted therapeutics or traditional chemotherapeutic drugs can produce potent anti-tumor effects in preclinical models. This book provides basic, translational, and clinical cancer researchers an indispensable overview of immune escape as a critical trait in cancer and how applying specific combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to attack this trait may radically improve the treatment of advanced disease. * Offers a synthesis of concepts that are useful to cancer immunologists and pharmacologists, who tend to work in disparate fields with little cross-communication * Drs Prendergast and Jaffee are internationally recognized leaders in cancer biology and immunology who have created a unique synthesis of fundamental and applied concepts in this important new area of cancer research * Summarizes the latest insights into how immune escape defines an essential trait of cancer * Includes numerous illustrations including: how molecular-targeted therapeutic drugs or traditional chemotherapy can be combined with immunotherapy to improve anti-tumor efficacy; and how reversing immune suppression by the tumor can cause tumor regression

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy Book
Author : Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 9780128243756
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the very novel and unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and, primarily, eliminate both the bulk and the subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. It provides up to date information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and current applications in various clinical trials. The book covers the state of the art on the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, as well as new NK-drug conjugates in order to potentiate their anti-tumor activities. In addition, the book emphasizes that, unlike other immunotherapeutic approaches, the activated NK cells can also target and kill the highly resistant cancer stem cells that are responsible for the relapses and recurrences by all other therapeutic treatments. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and members of biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental application of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Book
Author : Glenn Dranoff
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-11
ISBN : 9783642141362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The interplay between tumors and their immunologic microenvironment is complex, difficult to decipher, but its understanding is of seminal importance for the development of novel prognostic markers and therapeutic strategies. The present review discusses tumor-immune interactions in several human cancers that illustrate various aspects of this complexity and proposes an integrated scheme of the impact of local immune reactions on clinical outcome. Current active immunotherapy trials have shown durable tumor regressions in a fraction of patients. However, clinical efficacy of current vaccines is limited, possibly because tumors skew the immune system by means of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, inflammatory type 2 T cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs), all of which prevent the generation of effector cells. To improve the clinical efficacy of cancer vaccines in patients with metastatic disease, we need to design novel and improved strategies that can boost adaptive immunity to cancer, help overcome Tregs and allow the breakdown of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.