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Nk Cells In Cancer Immunotherapy

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Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy Book
Author : Benjamin Bonavida,Anahid Jewett
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-23
ISBN : 0128243961
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Successes and Challenges of NK Immunotherapy: Increasing Anti-tumor Efficacy describes the unique therapeutic applications of NK cells to fight cancers and eliminate the bulk and subset of cancer stem cells responsible for metastasis, relapse and recurrences. The book provides information on the development, engineering, mechanisms of action, response to various preclinical models, and applications in various clinical trials. Sections cover the development of highly engineered cytotoxic NK cells, their mechanisms of action, preclinical and clinical applications, the development and application of CAR-NK cells, and new NK-drug conjugates, also emphasizing that activated NK cells can target and kill highly resistant cancer stem cells. Written by the leading experts on NK immunotherapy worldwide, this is a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians and members of the biomedical field who are interested in understanding novel and efficient therapies to fight cancers. Discusses the unique developmental applications of NK immunotherapy against cancers, which differs greatly from other types of immunotherapies Provides up-to-date and highly relevant information through chapters written by the leading researchers in the field Presents a significant number of schematic diagrams for easy understanding and reproducibility

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cell Based Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Francisco Borrego,Susana Larrucea,Rafael Solana,Raquel Tarazona
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-09-08
ISBN : 2889199347
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that have a significant role in regulating the defenses against cancer development and certain viral infections. They are equipped with an array of activating and inhibitory receptors that stimulate or diminish NK cell activity, respectively. Inhibitory receptors include, among others, the MHC class I ligands killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) in humans, and members of the Ly49 family of receptors in mice, and CD94/NKG2A. Activating receptors include cytokine and chemokine receptors, and those that interact with ligands expressed on target cells, such as the natural cytotoxicity receptors or NCRs (NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46), NKG2D, CD244 and DNAM-1. In addition, NK cells express Fc?RIIIA or CD16, the receptor that exerts antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). NK cells also express the death ligands FasL and TRAIL. The killing or sparing of target cells depends on the integration of distinct signals that originate from NK cell receptors. NK cells spare healthy cells that express normal levels of MHC class I molecules and low amounts of stress-induced self-molecules, whereas they kill target cells that down-regulate MHC class I molecules and/or up-regulate stress-induced self-molecules. The latter are common signatures of virus-infected cells and tumors. All the accumulated knowledge on NK cell biology, along with many clinical observations, is driving multiple efforts to improve the arsenal of NK cell-based therapeutic tools in the fight against malignant diseases. Indeed, NK cell-based immunotherapy is becoming a promising approach for the treatment of many cancers. It is well known that NK cells have a significant role in the anti-tumor effect of therapeutic antibodies that use ADCC as a mechanism of action. In addition to this, administration of autologous and allogeneic NK cells after activation and expansion ex vivo is used in the treatment of cancer. Moreover, adoptive transfer of NK cell lines has been tested in humans, and genetically modified NK cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors are being studied in preclinical models for potential use in the clinic.

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment  Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Erik Wennerberg,Andreas Lundqvist,Yumeng Mao,Dimitrios Mougiakakos
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-08
ISBN : 2889712710
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download NK Myeloid Cell Interactions in the Tumor Microenvironment Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy book written by Erik Wennerberg,Andreas Lundqvist,Yumeng Mao,Dimitrios Mougiakakos, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

NK Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Lynda Addou-Klouche
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells are crucial components of the innate immune system and play critical roles in host immunity against viral infections and cancer. NK cells' activity is controlled by the interaction of a wide range of receptors expressed on their surfaces with cell surface ligands. Opposite signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors tightly regulate NK cells' cytotoxicity. Natural killer cells can discriminate between normal and cancer cells. NK cells are known to directly recognize and kill malignant cells or induce apoptosis. However, tumor cells have the ability to evade those attacks. The main mechanisms involve the lack of expression or downregulation of the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules and secretion of soluble NKG2D ligands by tumor cells. Furthermore, tumors harbor a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs), which can drive tumor progression and therapeutical resistance. This chapter highlights the roles of NK cells in tumor immunosurveillance and their applications for cancer immunotherapy. NK cell biology and function as well as the role of their receptor interactions will be described. We will discuss the therapeutic applications of NK cells in cancer and NK cells targeting CSCs as a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer

Molecular Strategies Aimed to Boost NK Cell based Immunotherapy of Cancer Book
Author : Loredana Cifaldi,Daniel Olive,James Di Santo
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-31
ISBN : 2889638766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Research Topic, we would like to honor the memory of Prof. Vito Pistoia and pay tribute to his scientific contributions to the field of Cancer Immunity and Immunotherapy. Topic Editor Daniel Olive is the co-founder and shareholder of company Imcheck Therapeutics. All other topic editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

Cancer Immunotherapy

Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Sarah S. Donatelli,Julie Y. Djeu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-06-04
ISBN : 0128059052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a unique subset of lymphocytes genetically programmed to locate and destroy cellular malignancies. They accomplish this through unique cell surface receptors that, upon contacting a target cell, transmit either inhibitory or activating intracellular signals, ultimately determining whether the target cell will be killed or spared. Acquisition of the capacity to kill comes only after the NK cell is rendered tolerant to healthy self cells through interaction with naturally expressed MHC I molecules. The resulting functional NK cell is endowed with both repressive and stimulatory receptors that recognize MHC I or MHC I-related proteins, and stress-induced proteins that are not normally expressed by healthy cells, respectively. The respective signaling pathways are generally conserved among receptors; consequently, mechanisms that dysregulate NK-cell surface receptor density may directly impair NK responsiveness towards cancerous cells by affecting the ratio of inhibitory-to-activating signals. Furthermore, activating receptors can be downregulated, suggesting a targeted evasion strategy that specifically converts the NK cell towards an inhibitory phenotype.

Tumor Progression and Therapeutic Resistance

Tumor Progression and Therapeutic Resistance Book
Author : Wafik S. El-Deiry
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents the entire breadth of translational cancer research and brings together members of academia and industry in the expectation of accelerating interactions and progress in the field. A variety of key topics are presented, beginning with discovery of molecular targets and pathways (oncogene, cell survival, tumor suppression, cell death), host-neoplasm interactions (cell adhesion, matrix proteases), early detection, monitoring progression, understanding tumor progression and metastasis, immune surveillance, in vivo molecular imaging, animal models, drug discovery including chemistry, high-throughput assays, mechanism determination, target validation, therapeutic window and some progress in clinical trials for more advanced agents and targets.

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy Book
Author : Krassimir Metodiev
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-04-26
ISBN : 9535131052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is another attempt of InTechOpen to continue the dissemination of international knowledge and experience in the field of immunology. The present book includes a number of modern concepts of specialists and experts in the field of immunotherapy, covering the major topics and analyzing the history, current stage, and future ideas of application of modern immunomodulation. It is always a benefit, but also a compliment, to gather a team of internationally distinguished authors and to motivate them to reveal their expertise for the benefit of medical science and health practice. On behalf of all readers, immunologists, immunogeneticists, biologists, oncologists, microbiologists, virologists, hematologists, chemotherapists, health-care experts, as well as students and medical specialists, also on my personal behalf, I would like to extend my gratitude and highest appreciation to InTechOpen for giving me the unique chance to be the editor of this exclusive book.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells Book
Author : Jacques Zimmer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-01-12
ISBN : 3642023096
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells have been at the forefront of immunology for two decades. During that time, a great amount of information about these cells has been obtained. They are important in antiinfectious and antitumoral defense and shape the adaptive immune response. In addition, they can act as immunoregulatory cells. In recent years, the therapeutic potential of NK cells in cancer immunotherapy has become increasingly evident. This book describes in detail current knowledge about NK cells and covers a broad range of NK cell-related topics, including those that are not frequently reviewed, e.g. NK cells and allergy or NK cells and skin diseases.

Natural Killer Cells

Natural Killer Cells Book
Author : Michael T. Lotze,Angus W. Thomson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-11-12
ISBN : 9780080919294
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural Killer Cells explains the importance of killer cells and how they are produced. It mentions that the most likely explanation for killer cell production is that they serve as a complementary system for T cells as a primary defense against viruses. However, these cells defend against certain viruses only, such as herpes viruses and influenza viruses. The book also explains the primary functions of killer cells, and it discusses how these cells help recognize damaged tissues, limit further damage to tissues, and regenerate damaged tissues. It discusses how these cells mature and develop, and it covers the different isolation, culture, and propagation methods of these cells. Furthermore, it focuses on the different killer cells that are present in various parts of the human body. The book concludes by explaining that natural killer cells are utilized for clinical therapy of malignancies, and that they have led to positive outcomes in the field of biology and medicine. Provides a broad, detailed coverage of the biology and interactions of NK cells for students, fellows, scientists, and practitioners Includes figures, histologic sections, and illustrations of the ontogeny of NK cells

Natural Killer Cells the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy

Natural Killer Cells  the Future of Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : Priyanka Senthil
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-04-20
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cellular therapeutics is an emerging field with significant advances in the engineering of immune effector cells that play a revolutionary role in treatment for cancer. Up until now, most immunomodulatory strategies focus on enhancing T cells, which are lymphocyte immune cells that are important for cell-mediated immunity to fight pathogens and cancer. T cells have proven their ability in successful cellular therapies against leukemia, but may soon face competition. Through several preclinical studies, researchers have discovered new guardian immune cells called chimeric antigen receptor-modified natural killer (CAR NK) cells that have been genetically engineered to produce an artificial T-cell receptor for use in immunotherapy. With chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), CAR NK cells can specifically recognize antigen-expressing tumors and show cytotoxic activity against various solid tumor types. Natural killer (NK) cells target cells that lack expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I like tumors and virus-infected cells. The preclinical evidence suggests that NK cells have the same cancer-homing receptors as T cells and the ability to effectively recognize and kill targets through genetic modification. However, for the cell to be effective, scientists need to provide antigen specificity, for which they have found strategies to introduce CARs into NK cells and cell lines. If scientists can overcome the challenge of properly manufacturing engineered NK cells, CAR NK cells could be safer, cheaper, easier to produce, and more widely applicable than T cells. This book focuses on recent advances in NK cell engineering and discusses how NK cells contribute to new immunotherapeutic approaches for treatment against refractory hematological malignancies.

Clinical Applications of Natural Killer Cells

Clinical Applications of Natural Killer Cells Book
Author : Yui Harada
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural killer (NK) cells are an essential component of the innate immune system, and they play a crucial role in immunity against malignancies. Recent advances in our understanding of NK cell biology have paved the way for new therapeutic strategies based on NK cells for the treatment of various cancers. In this section, we will focus on NK cell immunotherapy, including the enhancement of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, the manipulation of receptor-mediated activation, inclusion criteria based on killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligand mismatches, and adoptive immunotherapy with ex vivo expanded chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered or engager-modified NK cells. In contrast to T lymphocytes, donor NK cells do not attack any recipient tissues based on allogeneic human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), suggesting that NK-mediated antitumor effects may be achieved without the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Despite reports of clinical efficacy, the application of NK cell immunotherapy is limited. Developing strategies for manipulating NK cell products, host factors, and tumor targets are thus current subjects of diligent study. Research into the biology of NK cells has indicated that NK cell immunotherapy has the potential to become the forefront of cancer immunotherapy in the coming years.

Critical Issues in Head and Neck Oncology

Critical Issues in Head and Neck Oncology Book
Author : Jan B. Vermorken,Volker Budach,C. René Leemans,Jean-Pascal Machiels,Piero Nicolai,Brian O’Sullivan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-06-02
ISBN : 3030632342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book discusses the most current issues in head and neck cancer with a focus on current trends such as biomarkers, precision medicine and immunotherapy. New approaches in the diagnosis such as liquid biopsies and imaging biomarkers to predict radiotherapy toxicity as well as approaches in the surgical management of head and neck cancers are discussed. The book discusses medical and surgical approaches in both primary, recurrent and metastatic disease and also covers approaches for rare head neck cancers. Readers will learn about the latest drug developments and epidemiological aspects in cancers ranging from Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer to Nasopharynx cancer. Edited by a team of world leaders in Head and Neck Cancer, this volume serves as an easy reference to the head and neck oncology practitioner and provides a contemporary overview for specialists the field. The chapters are based on the latest data presented at the 7th Trends in Head and Neck Oncology Conference and reflect the most up-to-date information in the field.

Gene and Cellular Immunotherapy for Cancer

Gene and Cellular Immunotherapy for Cancer Book
Author : Armin Ghobadi
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 303087849X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Clinical and preclinical exploration of gene and cellular immunotherapy have seen rapid growth and interest with the development and approval of five Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR-T) products for lymphoma and myeloma and one Bispecific T-Cell Engager (BiTE) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These advances have dramatically improved the management of patients with relapsed refractory lymphoma, myeloma and leukemia. Gene and Cellular Immunotherapy for Cancer offers readers a comprehensive review of current cellular and gene-based immunotherapies. Divided into eighteen cohesive chapters, this book provides an in-depth and detailed look into cellular-based immunotherapies including CAR-T, TCR-T, TIL, Viral CTLs, NK cells in addition to T/NK cell engagers, focusing on their historical perspectives, biology, development and manufacturing, toxicities and more. Edited by two leading experts on gene and cellular immunotherapy, the book will feature chapters written by a diverse collection of recognized and up-and-coming experts and researchers in the field, providing oncologists, immunologists, researchers and clinical and basic science trainees with a bench to bedside view of the latest developments in the field.

The Added Value of Natural Killer Cells in Immunotherapy for Leukemia

The Added Value of Natural Killer Cells in Immunotherapy for Leukemia Book
Author : Eva Lion,Evelien Smits,Viggo Van Tendeloo
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2012-07
ISBN : 9783659156717
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ultimate goal of tumor immunotherapy is the eradication of tumor cells by the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immune responses can contribute to the elimination of tumor cells, with natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes as pivotal players, respectively. Dendritic cells (DC) are the most professional antigen-presenting cells of the immune system, bridging innate and adaptive immune responses through interaction with NK cells and presenting tumor-associated antigens to T cells. A major hurdle in anti-tumor immunity, however, is the low immunogenicity and immunosuppressive character of tumor cells resulting in an immunotolerant environment. Here, the primary scope was to increase the immunogenicity of leukemic cells by introducing a danger signal to break immune tolerance. We clearly demonstrate that transfection of leukemic cells with the synthetic double-stranded RNA agonist poly(I: C) provides a way to overcome immune evasion, evidenced by their enhanced capacity to activate both NK cells and DC. We draw particular attention to the significance of NK cells, advocating for reinforcement of both cytotoxic and regulatory NK cell functions in cancer immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy

Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy Book
Author : Robert C. Rees
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-05-29
ISBN : 0191664553
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Patients are beginning to benefit from antibody based, cellular and vaccine approaches that are effective against genetically diverse and therapy-resistance cancers. BCG immunotherapy is now being used as a first line treatment for human bladder cancer and the introduction of prophylactic vaccination against Hepatitis B and HPV cancers is starting to show positive results. Following recent FDA approval for a vaccination against prostate cancer, and optimistic results in clinical trials for a vaccine targeting cancer antigens in lung cancer, cancer immunotherapy is now significantly impacting patient clinical management. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy provides an up-to-date and comprehensive account of cancer immunity and immunotherapy. It discusses our adaptive and innate immunity to cancer, the mechanisms underpinning our immune response, current approaches to cancer immunotherapy, and how tumour and host responses can circumvent effective anti-cancer immunity. The book examines recent results, publications and current areas of interest including 'immune editing' and the specific issues that are affecting the research and development of vaccines, providing insight into how these problems may be overcome, as viewed by world leaders in the field. Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy will appeal to clinicians working in oncology and cancer immunotherapy, and research scientists including PhD and masters students, post-doctoral researchers and senior investigators.

Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research

Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research Book
Author : Laurence J. N. Cooper,Elizabeth A. Mittendorf,Judy Moyes,Sabitha Prabhakaran
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-05-01
ISBN : 1118123220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to state-of-the-art cancer immunotherapy in translational cancer research A volume in the Translational Oncology series, Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research explores the recent developments in the role that immunotherapy plays in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. The editors present key concepts, illustrative examples, and suggest alternative strategies in order to achieve individualized targeted therapy. Comprehensive in scope, Immunotherapy in Translational Cancer Research reviews the relevant history, current state, and the future of burgeoning cancer-fighting therapies. The book also includes critical information on drug development, clinical trials, and governmental resources and regulatory issues. Each chapter is created to feature: development of the immunotherapy; challenges that have been overcome in order to scale up and undertake clinical trials; and clinical experience and application of research. This authoritative volume is edited by a team of noted experts from MD Anderson Cancer Center, the world’s foremost cancer research and care center and: Offers a comprehensive presentation of state-of-the-art cancer immunotherapy research that accelerates the pace of clinical cancer care Filled with the concepts, examples, and approaches for developing individualized therapy Explores the breath of treatments that reflect the complexity of the immune system itself Includes contributions from a panel international experts in the field of immunotherapy Designed for physicians, medical students, scientists, pharmaceutical executives, public health and public policy government leaders and community oncologists, this essential resource offers a guide to the bidirectional interaction between laboratory and clinic immunotherapy cancer research.

Lymphocytes in Immunotherapy of Cancer

Lymphocytes in Immunotherapy of Cancer Book
Author : Paul Koldovsky,Ursula Koldovsky,Lutwin Beck,Karl-Heinz Vosteen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642742254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the past, research in cancer immunology has produced informa tion important for other medical disciplines. It helped, for example, in formulating the laws of immunogenetics and in achieving a better understanding of the mechanism governing the fate of allotrans planted tissue. Cancer has often been considered a foreign body, and therefore many attempts have been made to cure it on the basis of the immunological principles applicable to parasitic, bacterial, or viral diseases. Vaccination has been investigated clinically for its po tential to prevent cancer [1], and clinical research into the cure of cancer has included active immunization [2], nonspecific stimulation of defense mechanisms [3], and transfer of passive immunity by cells [4] or by antibodies [5]. These experiments have been of limited value and in some cases have even had an adverse effect. The reputation of cancer immunology has suffered, and the concept has often been severely criticized. However, the basic postulate that cancer must originate from the body's own cells, and that the immune system belongs to the principal regulatory mechanisms, remains valid. In recent years new research into clinical cancer immunotherapy has included critical appraisal of all its potential benefits, and also of the risks and limitations. It is dangerous to make unrealistic promises or to speak or think in terms of "miracle weapons" or a "magic bul let.

Expansion of Highly Cytotoxic Human Natural Killer Cells by Osteoclast for Cancer Immunotherapy

Expansion of Highly Cytotoxic Human Natural Killer Cells by Osteoclast for Cancer Immunotherapy Book
Author : So-Hyun Park
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Natural Killer (NK) cells have a crucial role in immune surveillance against a variety of infectious microorganisms and tumors. NK cells are known to mediate direct cytotoxicity as well as antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against a variety of tumor cells. Also, they are known to regulate the functions of other cells by producing key cytokines and chemokines. In the tumor microenvironment, cytotoxic function of NK cells is suppressed by a number of distinct effectors and their secreted factors. It has been shown that many cancer patients have decreased peripheral blood NK cell function, so NK cell-based immunotherapy has been used as a treatment in order to enhance NK cell function. However, limited availability of NK cells and ability to expand has restricted development of NK cell immunotherapy. Overcoming NK cell tolerance against tumors by developing new ways of activating endogenous NK cells that increase the expression of ligands for activating NK cell receptors or that render them more sensitive to NK cell mediated killing is crucial. In this study, we found the novel way to expand NK cells and the functionality of NK cells generated under this condition demonstrated enhanced expression of activating NK receptors. Also, significant cytotoxic killing potential after culture was discovered as well as augmented cytokine secretion. Therefore, these expanded NK cells are highly functional in comparison to primary NK cells. Through the help of cytokines, sAJ2 bacteria and osteoclast, NK cells can be expanded and activated in vitro and furthermore, these expanded NK cells can be used to target tumors in vivo. Expanded NK cells can be used in combination with other treatment modalities, potentially leading to synergistic antitumor activities.

Cancer Immunotherapy and Biological Cancer Treatments

Cancer Immunotherapy and Biological Cancer Treatments Book
Author : Hilal Arnouk
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-11-13
ISBN : 1789848628
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, biological cancer therapies, including immunotherapy, have moved from the bench to mainstream medical treatments of several types of cancer. The success of these treatments relies on innovative approaches to specifically interfere with molecular targets that are involved in the growth, progression, and spread of malignant cells, or to bypass the tumor evasion of the immune system utilizing the latest advances in cancer vaccine development, formulation, and delivery. This book presents an up-to-date overview of novel cancer biological and immunotherapeutic approaches, including cancer vaccines, mimetic vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, adoptive T-cell transfer, chimeric antigen receptor T- cells, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, immune checkpoint inhibitors, laser ablation, and immune stimulating interstitial laser thermotherapy.