Skip to main content

New Pesticides And Soil Sensors

In Order to Read Online or Download New Pesticides And Soil Sensors Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

New Pesticides and Soil Sensors

New Pesticides and Soil Sensors Book
Author : Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-07
ISBN : 0128043709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

New Pesticides and Soil Sensors, a volume in the Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Industry series, is a practical resource that demonstrates how nanotechnology is a highly attractive tool that offers new options for the formulation of ‘nanopesticides’. Recent advances in nanopesticide research is reviewed and divided into several themes, including improvement of the water solubility of poorly soluble pesticide active ingredients to improve bioavailability and the encapsulation of pesticide active ingredients within permeable nanoparticles with the aim of releasing pesticide active ingredients in a controlled or targeted manner, while also protecting active ingredients from premature photo-degradation. Provides examples of pesticide formulations that contain inorganic and organic nanoparticles Includes general principles and the most recent applications of chemical sensors and multisensory systems for the assessment of soils and main soil nutrition component detection Presents the main benefits and drawbacks of chemical sensors and their employment in soil analysis for further applications Describes current issues of pesticide use, environmental contamination, bioaccumulation, and increases in pest resistance which demands a reduction in the quantity of pesticides applied for crop and stored product protection

Nanosensors for Environmental Applications

Nanosensors for Environmental Applications Book
Author : Satish Kumar Tuteja,Divya Arora,Neeraj Dilbaghi,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-28
ISBN : 3030381013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview on the most important types of nanosensor platforms explored and developed in the recent years for efficient detection of environmental/clinical analytes. The chapters cover basic aspects of functioning principles and describe the technologies and challenges of present and future pesticide, metal ions, toxic gases analytical sensing approaches and environmental sensors. Nanosensors are nanoscale miniature devices used for sensing of analyte in ultra-low range. These have gained considerable interest in environmental applications such as environmental chemistry and functionalization approaches, environmental engineering, sustainability, green technology for sensing, environmental health monitoring, pesticide detection, metal and ions detection using electrochemical and wireless sensor.

New Developments in Nanosensors for Pharmaceutical Analysis

New Developments in Nanosensors for Pharmaceutical Analysis Book
Author : Sibel A. Ozkan,Afzal Shah
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-22
ISBN : 012816378X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

New Developments for Nanosensors in Pharmaceutical Analysis presents an overview of developments in nanosensor usage in pharmaceutical analysis, thereby helping pharmaceutical companies attain reliable, precise, and accurate analysis of pharmaceuticals. This book presents very simple, precise, sensitive, selective, fast, and relatively inexpensive methods for pre-treatment, prior to analysis. These methods may be considered for further application in clinical studies and assays. The book includes the manufacturing of sensors for pharmaceutical analysis at nano- or smaller scales, and gives simple and relatable designs for the fabrication of sensors. Twelve chapters cover an introduction to the topic, immobilization techniques, mechanism effect of nanomaterials on structure, optical nanosensors for pharmaceutical detection, chemical nanosensors in pharmaceutical analysis, noble metal nanoparticles in electrochemical analysis of drugs, photo-electrochemical nanosensors for drug analysis, molecularly imprinted polymer based nanosensors for pharmaceutical analysis, nanomaterials for drug delivery systems, nanomaterials enriched nucleic acid-based biosensors, nanosensors in biomarker detection, and nanomaterials-based enzyme biosensors for electrochemical applications. Presents nanosensor types, synthesis, immobilizations and applications in different fields Gives simple repeatable designs for the fabrication of sensors for pharmaceutical analysis Details how to carry out sensitive analysis of pharmaceuticals using nanosensors Describes how to synthesize and immobilize nanosensors, and how nanosensors can be applied in drug assay Proposes innovative ways to optimize pharmaceutical processes with nanosensors

Nanotechnology in the Beverage Industry

Nanotechnology in the Beverage Industry Book
Author : Abdeltif Amrane,Susai Rajendran,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Ashraf Mahdy Sharoba,Aymen Amine Assadi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-05-04
ISBN : 0128199415
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanotechnology in the Beverage industry: Fundamentals and Applications looks at how nanotechnology is being used to enhance water quality, as well as how the properties of nanomaterials can be used to create different properties in both alcoholic and no-alcoholic drinks and enhance the biosafety of both drinks and their packaging. This is an important reference for materials scientists, engineers, food scientists and microbiologists who want to learn more about how nanotechnology is being used to enhance beverage products. As active packaging technology, nanotechnology can increase shelf-life and maintain the quality of beverages. In the field of water treatment, nanomaterials offer new routes to address challenges.

Multifunctional Hybrid Nanomaterials for Sustainable Agri food and Ecosystems

Multifunctional Hybrid Nanomaterials for Sustainable Agri food and Ecosystems Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-03-30
ISBN : 0128213590
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Multifunctional Hybrid Nanomaterials for Sustainable Agrifood and Ecosystems shows how hybrid nanomaterials (HNMs) are being used to enhance agriculture, food and environmental science. The book discusses the synthesis and characterization of HNMs before exploring agrifoods and environmental functions. It shows how novel HNMs are being used for the detection and separation of heavy metal ions, for destroying and sensing of insecticides, in managed release fertilizer and pesticide formulations, plant protection, plant promotions, purification, detection, and to control mycotoxins. Further, the book describes the use of silica-based total nanosystems, carbon nanotubes, nanocellulose-based, and polymer nanohybrids for agricultural and biological applications. This book is an important reference source for materials scientists, engineers and food scientists who want to gain a greater understanding on how multifunctional nanomaterials are being used for a range of agricultural and environmental applications. Outlines the major nanomaterial types that are being used in agriculture Explains why the properties of multifunctional nanomaterials are particularly efficient for use in agriculture Assesses the major challenges of using multifunctional nanomaterials on an industrial scale

Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture

Controlled Release of Pesticides for Sustainable Agriculture Book
Author : Rakhimol K. R.,Sabu Thomas,Tatiana Volova,Jayachandran K.
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-01
ISBN : 3030233960
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book ​presents an introduction to the concept and need of sustainable agriculture, the mechanisms of conventional and controlled release of pesticides, herbicides and plant hormones. It also contains the carriers which supply controlled release including polymers and nanoparticles. A full chapter is devoted to the theory and simulation aspects.

Nanomaterials in Bionanotechnology

Nanomaterials in Bionanotechnology Book
Author : Ravindra Pratap Singh,Kshitij RB Singh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-08-18
ISBN : 1000428397
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanomaterials in Bionanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of nanomaterials in biotechnology from fundamentals to applications, along with their prospects. This book explains the basics of nanomaterial properties, synthesis, biological synthesis, and chemistry and demonstrates how to use nanomaterials to overcome problems in agricultural, environmental, and biomedical applications. Features Covers nanomaterials for environmental analysis and monitoring for heavy metals, chemical toxins, and water pollutant detection Describes nanomaterials-based biosensors and instrumentation and use in disease diagnosis and therapeutics Discusses nanomaterials for food processing and packaging and agricultural waste management Identifies challenges in nanomaterials-based technology and how to solve them This work serves as a reference for industry professionals, advanced students, and researchers working in the discipline of bionanotechnology.

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications Book
Author : Fernando Gomes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 0128235551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications addresses the design, manufacture and applications of a variety of nanomaterials for sensing applications. In particular, the book explores how nanofabrication techniques are used to create more efficient nanosensors, examines their major applications in biomedicine and environmental science, discusses the fundamentals of how nanosensors work, explores different nanofabrication techniques, and comments on toxicity and safety issues relating to the creation of nanosensors using certain nanomaterial classes. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to make materials selection decisions for the creation of new nansensor devices. Summarizes current research and applications of a variety of nanofabrication techniques for the creation of efficient sensing devices Provides readers with an understanding of surfaces and interfaces, a key challenge for those working on hybrid nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, polymers and liquid crystal electro-optical imaging Discusses the variability and sight recognition of biopolymers, such as DNA molecules, which offer a wide range of opportunities for the self-organization of nanostructures into much more complex patterns

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam,Ram Prasad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-04
ISBN : 303013296X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection: Volume 2 continues the important and timely discussion of nanotechnology applications in plant protection and pathology, filling a gap in the literature for nano applications in crop protection. Nanobiopesticides and nanobioformulations are examined in detail and presented as powerful alternatives for eco-friendly management of plant pathogens and nematodes. Leading scholars discuss the applications of nanobiomaterials as antimicrobials, plant growth enhancers and plant nutrition management, as well as nanodiagnostic tools in phytopathology and magnetic and supramagnetic nanostructure applications for plant protection. This second volume includes exciting new content on the roles of biologically synthesized nanoparticles in seed germination and zinc-based nanostructures in protecting against toxigenic fungi. Also included is new research in phytotoxicity, nano-scale fertilizers and nanomaterial applications in nematology and discussions on Botyris grey mold and nanobiocontrol. This book also explores the potential effects on the environment, ecosystems and consumers and addresses the implications of intellectual property for nanobiopesticides. Further discussed are nanotoxicity effects on the plant ecosystem and nano-applications for the detection, degradation and removal of pesticides.

Biogenic Nano Particles and their Use in Agro ecosystems

Biogenic Nano Particles and their Use in Agro ecosystems Book
Author : Mansour Ghorbanpour,Prachi Bhargava,Ajit Varma,Devendra K. Choudhary
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 981152985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Several nano-scale devices have emerged that are capable of analysing plant diseases, nutrient deficiencies and any other ailments that may affect food security in agro-ecosystems. It has been envisioned that smart delivery systems can be developed and utilised for better management of agricultural ecosystems. These systems could exhibit beneficial, multi-functional characteristics, which could be used to assess and also control habitat-imposed stresses to crops. Nanoparticle-mediated smart delivery systems can control the delivery of nutrients or bioactive and/or pesticide molecules in plants. It has been suggested that nano-particles in plants might help determine their nutrient status and could also be used as cures in agro-ecosystems. Further, to enhance soil and crop productivity, nanotechnology has been used to create and deliver nano fertilizers, which can be defined as nano-particles that directly help supply nutrients for plant growth and soil productivity. Nano-particles can be absorbed onto clay networks, leading to improved soil health and more efficient nutrient use by crops. Additionally, fertilizer particles can be coated with nano-particles that facilitate slow and steady release of nutrients, reducing loss of nutrients and enhancing their efficiency in agri-crops. Although the use of nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems is still in its early stages and needs to be developed further, nano-particle-mediated delivery systems are promising solutions for the successful management of agri-ecosystems. In this context, the book offers insights into nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems with reference to biogenic nanoparticles. It highlights the: • occurrence and diversity of Biogenic Nanoparticles • mechanistic approach involved in the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticles • synthesis of nanoparticles using photo-activation, and their fate in the soil ecosystem • potential applications of nanoparticles in agricultural systems • application and biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their characterization • impact of biogenic nanoparticles on biotic stress to plants • mechanistic approaches involved in the antimicrobial effects and cytotoxicity of biogenic nanoparticles • role of biogenic nanoparticles in plant diseases management • relevance of biological synthesized nanoparticles in the longevity of agricultural crops • design and synthesis of nano-biosensors for monitoring pollutants in water, soil and plant systems • applications of nanotechnology in agriculture with special refer to soil, water and plant sciences A useful resource for postgraduate and research students in the field of plant and agricultural sciences, it is also of interest to researchers working in nano and biotechnology.

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications

Emerging Carbon Based Nanocomposites for Environmental Applications Book
Author : Ajay Kumar Mishra,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Shivani Bhardwaj Mishra
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-10-28
ISBN : 1119554861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The 12 chapters comprehensively cover the development and advances on emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for wastewater applications and discuss the following topics: The emerging carbon-based nanocomposites for remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants from wastewater; Functional green carbon nanocomposites for heavy-metal treatment in water; Green nanocomposites and their applications in environmentally-friendly carbon nanomaterials; Carbon-based nanocomposites as heterogeneous catalysts for organic reactions in environment-friendly solvents; Carbonaceous nanomaterials for arsenic and chromium removal from waste water; Biochar-based adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants from aqueous systems; Describes carbon nanomaterials based green nanocomposites; The removal of trihalomethanes from water using nanofiltration membranes and The transformation of wide bandgap semiconductors for visible-light photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes; Nanocomposite materials as electrode materials in microbial fuel cells for the removal of water pollutants; Plasmonic smart nanosensors for the determination of environmental pollutants.

Nanopesticides

Nanopesticides Book
Author : Leonardo F. Fraceto,Vera Lucia S.S. de Castro,Renato Grillo,Daiana Ávila,Halley Caixeta Oliveira,Renata Lima
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-06
ISBN : 3030448738
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book explores the development of nanopesticides and tests of their biological activity against target organisms. It also covers the effects of nanopesticides in the aquatic and terrestrial environments, along with related subjects including fate, behaviour, mechanisms of action and toxicity. Moreover, the book discusses the potential risks of nanopesticides for non-target organisms, as well as regulatory issues and future perspectives.

Nano food Engineering

Nano food Engineering Book
Author : Umesh Hebbar,Shivendu Ranjan,Nandita Dasgupta,Raghvendra Kumar Mishra
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-08-06
ISBN : 3030445526
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This extensive and singular work focuses on current applications of nanotechnology in food systems. The functionality and applicability of food-related nanotechnology is covered in depth, presenting a view on the food processing, packaging,storage and safety assessment of nanotechnology in the food industry. Multiple nanostructures are covered, each with their specific ingredient choice, production strategy, functionality and application in food engineering. Individual chapters focus on current processing methods and applications of nanotechnology in foods. Nano-food Engineering Volume One brings together panels of highly accomplished experts in the field of composites, nanotechnology and chemical engineering and food technology. The work encompasses basic studies and addresses novel issues, covering all engineering aspects, opportunities and challenges and solutions of nano-foods.

Microbial Nanobiotechnology

Microbial Nanobiotechnology Book
Author : Agbaje Lateef
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-08-01
ISBN : 9813347775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download Microbial Nanobiotechnology book written by Agbaje Lateef, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development

Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development Book
Author : Vertika Shukla,Narendra Kumar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-03
ISBN : 9811358893
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The prevailing global environmental crisis is primarily because of non-standardized parameters for environmental regulation. Unplanned expansion of economic activities, consideration for environmental conservation and several associated problems are emerging due to degradation in quality of ambient environment such as clean air, safe drinking water and quality of food, particularly in developing nations. Due to poor/casual execution of EIA protocol, newly developing countries are preferred destination for establishing pollution emitting industries, which results in degradation and depletion of natural resources. Lack of environmental policy intervention is another major attraction for establishing such industries in these nations. In order to ensure sustainable development, the highest priority issues include the monitoring and eradication of environmental problems which arise due to economic development. Initiation of any form of economic development primarily results in loss of forests and thus biodiversity, followed by deterioration in quality of air and contamination of natural resources. The worst impact of non-standardized economic development is the contamination of air, water and soil. Sustainable development ensures responsible interface with the environment to minimize the depletion or degradation of natural resources and ensure long term environmental quality. It involves integrated approaches in understanding the importance of environmental management systems and policy inventions leading to improved environmental performance. The present book is proposed to address the environmental concerns associated with economic development and approaches involved to attain sustainable economic development, which include monitoring of the quality of air, deforestation, quality of water resources, soil erosion and degradation of the natural environment.

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri food and Environmental Applications

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri food and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-14
ISBN : 0128197870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Carbon Nanomaterials for Agri-food and Environmental Applications discusses the characterization, processing and applications of carbon-based nanostructured materials in the agricultural and environmental sectors. Sections discuss the synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes, the technological developments in environmental applications of carbon-based nanomaterials, and agri-food applications. The book also covers the toxic effects of engineered carbon nanoparticles on the environment, and in plants and animals. Finally, quality control and risk management are addressed to assess health and environmental risks. This is an applicable book for graduate students, researchers and those in industrial sectors of science and technology who want to learn more about carbon nanomaterials. Compares a range of carbon-based nanomaterials, showing how they are used for a range of agricultural and environmental applications Discusses the challenges and toxicity of different types of carbon-based nanomaterials for environmental and agricultural applications Explores when different classes of nanomaterial should be used in different environments

Diatom Nanotechnology

Diatom Nanotechnology Book
Author : Dusan Losic
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2017-10-28
ISBN : 1782629327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

A comprehensive overview of the unique porous silica structure of diatoms, their mechanism of formation, properties and applications.

Semi Field Methods for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Soil

Semi Field Methods for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Soil Book
Author : Andreas Schaeffer,Paul J. van den Brink,Fred Heimbach,Simon P. Hoy,Frank M.W. de Jong,Jorg Rombke,Martina Roß-Nickoll,Jose P. Sousa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2011-06-03
ISBN : 1439859817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Based on discussions at the 2007 SETAC Europe PERAS Workshop in Coimbra, Semi-Field Methods for the Environmental Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Soil presents a timely summary of state-of-the-art higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs). Influential regulators, academics, and industry scientists provide a comprehensive, science-based view to guide regulatory authorities and manufacturers in assessing the higher-tier terrestrial risks of PPPs in the environment. The book includes a clear description of how to perform a higher-tier terrestrial risk assessment and provides a single reference on the subject. It examines various types of semi-field methods for soil assessment, including the use of terrestrial model ecosystems for pesticide risk assessment. In addition, the text also explores legislative and regulatory issues and offers technical recommendations. The book provides guidance on how to assess the soil risks of pesticides in the environment and explains how to use semi-field methods to access how pesticides may lead to spatial and temporal changes in soil biological communities and the larger agricultural landscape.

Petrodiesel Fuels

Petrodiesel Fuels Book
Author : Ozcan Konur
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-05-06
ISBN : 100034858X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This third volume of the handbook presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of petrodiesel fuels. Following the substantial public concerns on the adverse impact of the emissions from petrodiesel fuels on the environment and human health, the research has intensified in the areas related to the reduction of these adverse effects. Thus, bioremediation of spills from crude oils and petrodiesel fuels at sea and soils as well as desulfurization of petrodiesel fuels have emerged as publicly important research areas. Similarly, the emissions from diesel fuel exhausts, due to their adverse effects on both human health and environment, have been researched more in recent years. These emissions cover particulate emissions, aerosol emissions, and NOx emissions. Research on the adverse impact of petrodiesel fuel exhaust emissions on human health has primarily progressed along the lines of respiratory illnesses, cancer, and other illnesses, such as cardiovascular illnesses, brain illnesses, and reproductive system illnesses, through human, animal, and in vitro studies. It is clear that these illnesses caused by the petrodiesel fuel exhaust emissions have been one of the most significant reasons to develop alternative biodiesel fuels. Part IX presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of crude oils covering major research fronts. It covers crude oil spills in general, crude oil spills and their cleanup, properties and removal of crude oils, biodegradation of crude oil-contaminated soils, and crude oil recovery besides an overview paper. Part X presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of petrodiesel fuels in general covering major research fronts. It covers combustion of biodiesel fuels in diesel engines, bioremediation of biodiesel fuel-contaminated soils, biodiesel power generation, and desulfurization of diesel fuels besides an overview paper. Part XI presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of emissions from petrodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers diesel emission mitigation, diesel particulate emissions, and diesel NOx emissions, besides an overview paper. Part XII presents a representative sample of the population papers in the field of the health impact of the emissions from petrodiesel fuels covering major research fronts. It covers respiratory illnesses, cancer, cardiovascular, brain, and reproductive system illnesses, besides an overview paper. This book will be useful to academics and professionals in the fields of Energy Fuels, Public Environmental Occupational Health, Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Immunology, Respiratory System, Allergy, and Oncology. Ozcan Konur is both a materials scientist and social scientist by training. He has published around 200 journal papers, book chapters, and conference papers. He has focused on the bioenergy and biofuels in recent years. In 2018, he edited Bioenergy and Biofuels, which brought together the work of over 30 experts in their respective field. He also edited the Handbook of Algal Science, Technology, and Medicine with a strong section on the algal biofuels in 2020.

Nanobiotechnology in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Nanobiotechnology in Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Mahendra Rai,Alka Yadav
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-12-02
ISBN : 3030309304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book focuses on neurodegenerative diseases which have become a major threat to human health. Neurodegenerative diseases are age related disorders and have become increasingly prevalent in the elderly population in recent years. Hence, there is an urgent need to study and develop new strategies and alternative methods for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. This book showcases the promises that nanobiotechnology brings in research, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. It is very beneficial for varied group of readers including nanotechnologists, biotechnologists, pharmacists, medical professionals, bioengineers, biochemists and researchers working in this field. Nanobiotechnology in Neurodegenerative Diseases include various chapters including neurodegeneration and neurodegenerative diseases, nanotechnology for the rescue of neurodegenerative diseases, promising potential of nanomaterials for diagnosis and therapy of neurodegenerative diseases, nanotechnology mediated nose-to-brain drug delivery, and formulation and characterization of intranasal nanoparticles of antiretroviral drugs.