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Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

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Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : David L. Price,Felix Fernandez-Alonso
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066474
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This introductory chapter provides a self-contained survey of the merits, strengths, and conceptual framework underpinning the use of neutrons as a probe of the structure and dynamics of materials. We also take the opportunity to illustrate important concepts using examples taken from the scientific literature, as well as establish the basic notation that will be used throughout, and listed in more detail in the List of Commonly Used Symbols.

Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : Masatoshi Arai
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066490
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, neutron experimental techniques are described. The chapter covers the basics of neutron scattering, neutron source characteristics, diffraction techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, instruments for semi-macroscopic structure analysis, detectors, optics, choppers, and some concepts for instrument design. Techniques for both steady and pulsed sources are described, with more emphasis on the latter in view of the recent worldwide trend toward pulsed sources, generally pulsed spallation sources. The source character, even within the class of pulsed sources, has a significant influence on instrument design. Inelasticity effects in the total scattering technique are clearly specified in the chapter. Some details of chopper instruments, including resolution effects, are described, since this class of instruments has recently received considerable innovative development and use over a wide range of science. Recent developments in scintillation detectors are discussed as an alternative technology to more conventional 3He detectors. Optical components are becoming more and more important not only for neutron transport but also for background reduction. Neutron spin-echo techniques are presented as an example of the exploitation of polarized neutrons.

Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : Mark R. Johnson,Gordon J. Kearley
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066520
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this chapter is to show how inelastic and quasielastic neutron scattering can be used to study dynamics in a range of materials varying from simple model systems to complex systems that are close to those used in technologically important applications. After a brief overview of the theoretical and instrumental concepts, we use examples to show how different types of atomic and molecular motions can be understood using neutron scattering experiments, frequently in combination with atomistic modeling methods. We cover aspects of physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science, but with the main focus on functional materials.

Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : Francisco J. Bermejo,Fernando Sordo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066482
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter reviews the most significant developments that have taken place in the design, construction, and operation of new neutron sources as well as the refurbishment programs of others already serving the neutron-scattering community. Such advances in neutron production devices are to be considered in conjunction with impressive achievements in the optimization of neutron delivery systems as well as in neutron instrumentation which overall resulted in a truly remarkable improvement in neutron count rates. As a result, the capabilities of experimental neutron sources are nowadays larger than ever before, despite there being fewer sources available. It is also worth remarking the coming into line of compact, accelerator-driven neutron sources as well as work carried out at small research reactors which, as exemplified during the past decade, have played an important role in helping the large, user-based facilities to carry out development work geared toward the achievement of full performance.

Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : Jeffrey Penfold,Ian M. Tucker
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Large-scale structures encompass a broad area of science involving soft matter, biomaterials, and nanotechnology, defined by relatively weak interactions and length scales that extend from nanometer to micrometer. The key features of such systems that require characterization and quantification are surfaces and interfaces, adsorption, thin films, and self-assembly and hierarchical structures in solution and the solid phase. The neutron scattering techniques of neutron reflectivity and small-angle neutron scattering have emerged over the past two decades as important probes of these characteristic features of large-scale structures. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the two techniques are described in detail and the important experimental aspects summarized. Their application over a broad range of science is presented, in a way that highlights their unique properties and their important contribution to the field.

Neutron Scattering Fundamentals

Neutron Scattering     Fundamentals Book
Author : Silvia C. Capelli
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0128066504
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Investigating the structure of a material is the first essential step in understanding its macroscopic properties. Getting insights of the interatomic and inter/intra-molecular interactions that influence the stability and the chemical behavior of a given compound allows its application in the best possible conditions and opens the way to design new materials with tailored properties. Neutron diffraction is a fundamental tool in structural characterization. Few examples concerning chemical crystallography, will be given to illustrate the properties that make neutrons the ideal probe for locating light atoms in the presence of heavy, electron-rich ones, and accurately determine atomic position and displacement parameters.

Neutron Scattering

Neutron Scattering Book
Author : Felix Fernandez-Alonso
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780123983749
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work covers in some detail the application of neutron scattering to different fields of physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, the earth sciences and engineering. Its goal is to enable researchers in a particular area to identify aspects of their work in which neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required to carry them out, write a successful proposal for one of the major user facilities, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. The authors of the various chapters take account of the advances in experimental techniques over the past 25 years--for example, neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy and techniques for probing the dynamics of complex materials and biological systems. Furthermore, with the third-generation spallation sources recently constructed in the United States and Japan and in the advanced planning stage in Europe, there is an increasing interest in time-of-flight techniques and short wavelengths. Correspondingly, the improved performance of cold moderators at both reactors and spallation sources has extended the long-wavelength capabilities. Chapter authors are pre-eminent in their field Seminal experiments are presented as examples Provides guidance on how to plan, execute and analyse experiments

Neutron Scattering Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena

Neutron Scattering   Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-11-29
ISBN : 0128020938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neutron Scattering - Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena provides detailed coverage of the application of neutron scattering in condensed matter research. The book's primary aim is to enable researchers in a particular area to identify the aspects of their work where neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required to carry them out, write a successful proposal for one of the major user facilities, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. An earlier series edited by Kurt Sköld and David L. Price, and published in the 1980s by Academic Press as three volumes in the series Methods of Experimental Physics, was very successful and remained the standard reference in the field for several years. This present work has similar goals, taking into account the advances in experimental techniques over the past quarter-century, for example, neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy, and techniques for probing the dynamics of complex materials of technological relevance. This volume complements Price and Fernandez-Alonso (Eds.), Neutron Scattering - Fundamentals published in November 2013. Covers the application of neutron scattering techniques in the study of quantum and magnetic phenomena, including superconductivity, multiferroics, and nanomagnetism Presents up-to-date reviews of recent results, aimed at enabling the reader to identify new opportunities and plan neutron scattering experiments in their own field Provides a good balance between theory and experimental techniques Provides a complement to Price and Fernandez-Alonso (Eds.), Neutron Scattering - Fundamentals published in November 2013

Neutron Applications in Earth Energy and Environmental Sciences

Neutron Applications in Earth  Energy and Environmental Sciences Book
Author : Liyuan Liang,Romano Rinaldi,Helmut Schober
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-11
ISBN : 9780387094168
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences offers a comprehensive overview of the wide ranging applications of neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the fundamental materials properties at the nano-, micro- and meso-scale, which underpin research in the related fields of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences. Introductions to neutron scattering fundamentals and instrumentation are paired with a thorough review of the applications to a large variety of scientific and technological problems, written through the direct experience of leading scientists in each field. Tailored to a wide audience, this volume provides the novice with an inspiring introduction and stimulates the expert to consider these non-conventional problem solving techniques in his/her field of interest. Earth and environmental scientists, engineers, researchers and graduate students involved with materials science will find Neutron Applications in Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences a valuable ready-to-use reference.

Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science

Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science Book
Author : Peter Staron,Andreas Schreyer,Helmut Clemens,Svea Mayer
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-01-03
ISBN : 3527684506
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Retaining its proven concept, the second edition of this ready reference specifically addresses the need of materials engineers for reliable, detailed information on modern material characterization methods. As such, it provides a systematic overview of the increasingly important field of characterization of engineering materials with the help of neutrons and synchrotron radiation. The first part introduces readers to the fundamentals of structure-property relationships in materials and the radiation sources suitable for materials characterization. The second part then focuses on such characterization techniques as diffraction and scattering methods, as well as direct imaging and tomography. The third part presents new and emerging methods of materials characterization in the field of 3D characterization techniques like three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy. The fourth and final part is a collection of examples that demonstrate the application of the methods introduced in the first parts to problems in materials science. With thoroughly revised and updated chapters and now containing about 20% new material, this is the must-have, in-depth resource on this highly relevant topic.

Neutron Scattering Applications in Biology Chemistry and Materials Science

Neutron Scattering     Applications in Biology  Chemistry  and Materials Science Book
Author : Felix Fernandez-Alonso,David L Price
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-06-14
ISBN : 0128092300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neutron Scattering: Applications in Chemistry, Materials Science and Biology, Volume 49, provides an in-depth overview of the applications of neutron scattering in the fields of physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, the earth sciences, and engineering. The book describes the tremendous advances in instrumental, experimental, and computational techniques over the past quarter-century. Examples include the coming-of-age of neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy, the advent of brighter accelerator-based neutron facilities and associated techniques in the United States and Japan over the past decade, and current efforts in Europe to develop long-pulse, ultra-intense spallation neutron sources. It acts as a complement to two earlier volumes in the Experimental Methods in the Physical Science series, Neutron Scattering: Fundamentals(Elsevier 2013) and Neutron Scattering: Magnetic and Quantum Phenomena (Elsevier 2015). As a whole, the set enables researchers to identify aspects of their work where neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required, write a successful proposal for one of the major facilities around the globe, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. Completes a three-volume set, providing extensive coverage on emerging and highly topical applications of neutron scattering Addresses the increasing use of neutrons by chemists, life scientists, material scientists, and condensed-matter physicists Presents up-to-date reviews of recent results, enabling readers to identify new opportunities and plan neutron scattering experiments in their own field

Geothermal Fluids

Geothermal Fluids Book
Author : Keith Nicholson
Publisher : Springer Verlag
Release : 1993-01-01
ISBN : 9780387560175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Geothermal Fluids book written by Keith Nicholson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics Book
Author : Elmer E. Lewis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-01-18
ISBN : 9780080560434
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation . It provides a clear, general overview of atomic physics from the standpoint of reactor functionality and design, including the sequence of fission reactions and their energy release. It provides in-depth discussion of neutron reactions, including neutron kinetics and the neutron energy spectrum, as well as neutron spatial distribution. It includes ample worked-out examples and over 100 end-of-chapter problems. Engineering students will find this applications-oriented approach, with many worked-out examples, more accessible and more meaningful as they aspire to become future nuclear engineers. A clear, general overview of atomic physics from the standpoint of reactor functionality and design, including the sequence of fission reactions and their energy release In-depth discussion of neutron reactions, including neutron kinetics and the neutron energy spectrum, as well as neutron spatial distribution Ample worked-out examples and over 100 end-of-chapter problems Full Solutions Manual

Advances in Neutron Optics

Advances in Neutron Optics Book
Author : Maria L. Calvo,Ramon F. Alvarez-Estrada
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-12-05
ISBN : 1000727602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neutron optics studies the interactions of a beam of slow neutrons with matter. This book updates various advances on neutron optics. There will be a focus on the very active topics of neutron imaging (NI) and neutron spin optics (NSO). The book will also present applications of neutron beams in biomedicine, such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and related techniques. Features: Discusses diffraction and interference of slow neutrons, including computational approaches Reviews neutron imaging (NI) and neutron spin optics (NSO) Treats two major sources of slow neutron beams: (1) fission reactions at nuclear reactors and (2) collisions in particle accelerators (small ones, spallation sources) of charged particle beams with targets of heavy atoms Selects subjects on fundamental quantum aspects of slow neutrons and on confined propagation and waveguiding thereof Updates slow neutron beams and BNCT

Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science

Neutrons and Synchrotron Radiation in Engineering Materials Science Book
Author : Walter Reimers,Anke Rita Kaysser-Pyzalla,Andreas Schreyer,Helmut Clemens
Publisher : Wiley-VCH
Release : 2008-06-25
ISBN : 3527621938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Besides its coverage of the four important aspects of synchrotron sources, materials and material processes, measuring techniques, and applications, this ready reference presents both important method types: diffraction and tomography. Following an introduction, a general section leads on to methods, while further sections are devoted to emerging methods and industrial applications. In this way, the text provides new users of large-scale facilities with easy access to an understanding of both the methods and opportunities offered by different sources and instruments.

Neutron Interferometry Experiments at NIST

Neutron Interferometry Experiments at NIST Book
Author : Keary Schoen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this thesis four coherent neutron scattering length experiments utilizing neutron interferometry are described; in addition, theoretical calculations relating to the scattering length are discussed. In the first chapter, the history leading up to the development of the neutron interferometer is given, and the fundamentals of dynamical diffraction are discussed. In the second chapter, the theory of dynamical diffraction is applied to the neutron interferometer to describe its function. Following this, the third chapter describes the equipment and laboratory in which the experiments were performed. The first two scattering length experiments are described in Chapter 4. These experiments were high-precision measurements of the coherent neutron scattering lengths of gas phase molecular hydrogen and deuterium using neutron interferometry. Upon correction for molecular binding and multiple scattering, the results of the experiments are b n-p = -3.7384 ± 0.0020 fm and b n-d = 6.6649 ± 0.0040 fm. These are both in agreement with the world average of previous measurements, b n-p = -3.7410 ± 0.0010 fm and b n-d = 6.6727 ± 0.0045 fm. When these results are taken into account, the new world averages become b n-p = -3.7405 ± 0.0009 fm and b n-d = 6.6683 ± 0.0030 fm. The third scattering length experiment is discussed in Chapter 5. This was a precision neutron interferomeric measurement of the n- 3 He coherent scattering length. It was essentially performed in the same manner as the experiments for hydrogen and deuterium, although the high absorption caused by the large imaginary part of the scattering length of 3He necessitated significantly more measurements of the phase shift to reduce the statistical uncertainty. The result, b c = 5.8572 ± 0.0072 fm, improves the measured precision of b c by a factor of six. Taking this measurement into account, the previous world average, b c = 5.74 ± 0.04 fm, becomes b n-p = 5.853 ± 0.007 fm. The fourth scattering length experiment was an attempt to measure the neutron-electron scattering length, and it is described in Chapter 6. The experiment used a perfect silicon crystal in the neutron interferometer to cause a phase shift due to dynamical diffraction. From this measured dynamical phase shift, it is possible to extract the value of the neutron-electron scattering length. Unfortunately, due to flaws in the crystal and lack of precision in knowledge of the crystal rotation, an accurate measurement was not possible. However, the viability of the experiment as a means to measure the neutron-electron scattering length was confirmed. In Chapter 7, corrections to the coherent scattering length arising from multiple scattering and molecular binding are discussed in the context of the hydrogen measurement. In Chapter 8, a Monte Carlo beam line simulation is described, and the results are presented.

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Diffractometry of Materials Book
Author : Brent Fultz,James Howe
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-10-13
ISBN : 3642297617
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explains concepts of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD) that are important for the characterization of materials. The fourth edition adds important new techniques of TEM such as electron tomography, nanobeam diffraction, and geometric phase analysis. A new chapter on neutron scattering completes the trio of x-ray, electron and neutron diffraction. All chapters were updated and revised for clarity. The book explains the fundamentals of how waves and wavefunctions interact with atoms in solids, and the similarities and differences of using x-rays, electrons, or neutrons for diffraction measurements. Diffraction effects of crystalline order, defects, and disorder in materials are explained in detail. Both practical and theoretical issues are covered. The book can be used in an introductory-level or advanced-level course, since sections are identified by difficulty. Each chapter includes a set of problems to illustrate principles, and the extensive Appendix includes laboratory exercises.

Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II Fundamentals physical methods theoretical analysis and case studies

Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II  Fundamentals  physical methods  theoretical analysis  and case studies Book
Author : Jon A. McCleverty,Thomas J. Meyer,Alfred Beverley Philip Lever
Publisher : Pergamon
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9780080443249
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Comprehensive Coordination Chemistry II Fundamentals physical methods theoretical analysis and case studies book written by Jon A. McCleverty,Thomas J. Meyer,Alfred Beverley Philip Lever, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neutron Scattering

Neutron Scattering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 0123983851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work covers in some detail the application of neutron scattering to different fields of physics, materials science, chemistry, biology, the earth sciences and engineering. Its goal is to enable researchers in a particular area to identify aspects of their work in which neutron scattering techniques might contribute, conceive the important experiments to be done, assess what is required to carry them out, write a successful proposal for one of the major user facilities, and perform the experiments under the guidance of the appropriate instrument scientist. The authors of the various chapters take account of the advances in experimental techniques over the past 25 years--for example, neutron reflectivity and spin-echo spectroscopy and techniques for probing the dynamics of complex materials and biological systems. Furthermore, with the third-generation spallation sources recently constructed in the United States and Japan and in the advanced planning stage in Europe, there is an increasing interest in time-of-flight techniques and short wavelengths. Correspondingly, the improved performance of cold moderators at both reactors and spallation sources has extended the long-wavelength capabilities. Chapter authors are pre-eminent in their field Seminal experiments are presented as examples Provides guidance on how to plan, execute and analyse experiments