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Modern Developments in X Ray and Neutron Optics

Modern Developments in X Ray and Neutron Optics Book
Author : Alexei Erko,Mourad Idir,Thomas Krist,Alan G. Michette
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-04-14
ISBN : 3540745602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation. It also covers recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the x-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in x-ray and neutron optics, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002-2006.

Neutron and X ray Optics

Neutron and X ray Optics Book
Author : Jay Theodore Cremer, Jr.
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-02-18
ISBN : 0124071597
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering a wide range of topics related to neutron and x-ray optics, this book explores the aspects of neutron and x-ray optics and their associated background and applications in a manner accessible to both lower-level students while retaining the detail necessary to advanced students and researchers. It is a self-contained book with detailed mathematical derivations, background, and physical concepts presented in a linear fashion. A wide variety of sources were consulted and condensed to provide detailed derivations and coverage of the topics of neutron and x-ray optics as well as the background material needed to understand the physical and mathematical reasoning directly related or indirectly related to the theory and practice of neutron and x-ray optics. The book is written in a clear and detailed manner, making it easy to follow for a range of readers from undergraduate and graduate science, engineering, and medicine. It will prove beneficial as a standalone reference or as a complement to textbooks. Supplies a historical context of covered topics. Detailed presentation makes information easy to understand for researchers within or outside the field. Incorporates reviews of all relevant literature in one convenient resource.

X Ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction

X Ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction Book
Author : André Authier,Stefano Lagomarsino,Brian Tanner
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-10-24
ISBN : 9781461376965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume collects the proceedings of the 23rd International Course of Crystallography, entitled "X-ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction, Theory and Applications," which took place in the fascinating setting of Erice in Sicily, Italy. It was run as a NATO Advanced Studies Institute with A. Authier (France) and S. Lagomarsino (Italy) as codirectors, and L. Riva di Sanseverino and P. Spadon (Italy) as local organizers, R. Colella (USA) and B. K. Tanner (UK) being the two other members of the organizing committee. It was attended by about one hundred participants from twenty four different countries. Two basic theories may be used to describe the diffraction of radiation by crystalline matter. The first one, the so-called geometrical, or kinematical theory, is approximate and is applicable to small, highly imperfect crystals. It is used for the determination of crystal structures and describes the diffraction of powders and polycrystalline materials. The other one, the so-called dynamical theory, is applicable to perfect or nearly perfect crystals. For that reason, dynamical diffraction of X-rays and neutrons constitutes the theoretical basis of a great variety of applications such as: • the techniques used for the characterization of nearly perfect high technology materials, semiconductors, piezoelectric, electrooptic, ferroelectric, magnetic crystals, • the X-ray optical devices used in all modem applications of Synchrotron Radiation (EXAFS, High Resolution X-ray Diffractometry, magnetic and nuclear resonant scattering, topography, etc. ), and • X-ray and neutron interferometry.

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-10-22
ISBN : 0123978149
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special volume of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics details the current theory, experiments, and applications of neutron and x-ray optics and microscopy for an international readership across varying backgrounds and disciplines. Edited by Dr. Ted Cremer, these volumes attempt to provide rapid assimilation of the presented topics that include neutron and x-ray scatter, refraction, diffraction, and reflection and their potential application. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Neutron and X Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V

Neutron and X Ray Studies of Advanced Materials V Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In 2012 the diffraction community will celebrate 100 years since the prediction of X-ray diffraction by M. Laue, and following his suggestion the first beautiful diffraction experiment by W. Friedrich and P. Knipping. The significance of techniques based on the analysis of the diffraction of X-rays, neutrons, electrons and Mossbauer photons discovered later, has continued to increase in the past 100 years. The aim of this symposium is to provide a forum for discussion of using state-of-the-art neutron and X-ray scattering techniques for probing advanced materials. These techniques have been widely used to characterize materials structures across all length scales, from atomic to nano, meso, and macroscopic scales. With the development of sample environments, in-situ experiments, e.g., at temperatures and applied mechanical load, are becoming routine. The development of ultra-brilliant third-generation synchrotron X-ray sources, together with advances in X-ray optics, has created intense X-ray microbeams, which provide the best opportunities for in-depth understanding of mechanical behavior in a broad spectrum of materials. Important applications include ultra-sensitive elemental detection by X-ray fluorescence/absorption and microdiffraction to identify phase and strain with submicrometer spatial resolution. X-ray microdiffraction is a particularly exciting application compared with alternative probes of crystalline structure, orientation and strain. X-ray microdiffraction is non-destructive with good strain resolution, competitive or superior spatial resolution in thick samples, and with the ability to probe below the sample surface. Advances in neutron sources and instrumentation also bring new opportunities in neutron scattering research. In addition to characterizing the structures, neutrons are also a great tool for elucidating the dynamics of materials. Because neutrons are highly penetrating, neutrons have been used to map stress in engineering systems. Neutrons have also played a vital role in our understanding of the magnetism and magnetic properties. Specialized instruments have been built to gain physical insights of the fundamental mechanisms governing phase transformation and mechanical behaviors of materials. The application of those techniques, in combination with theoretical simulations and numerical modeling, will lead to major breakthroughs in materials science in the foreseeable future that will contribute to the development of materials technology and industrial innovation.

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-08-14
ISBN : 9780123969699
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special volume of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics details the current theory, experiments, and applications of neutron and x-ray optics and microscopy for an international readership across varying backgrounds and disciplines. Edited by Dr. Ted Cremer, these volumes attempt to provide rapid assimilation of the presented topics that include neutron and x-ray scatter, refraction, diffraction, and reflection and their potential application. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics Book
Author : Jay Theodore Cremer, Jr.
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0123944228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special volume of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics details the current theory, experiments, and applications of neutron and x-ray optics and microscopy for an international readership across varying backgrounds and disciplines. Edited by Dr. Ted Cremer, these volumes attempt to provide rapid assimilation of the presented topics that include neutron and x-ray scatter, refraction, diffraction, and reflection and their potential application. Contributions from leading authorities Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field

Neutron and X ray Microscopy

Neutron and X ray Microscopy Book
Author : Jay Theodore Cremer (Jr.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This special volume of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics details the current theory, experiments, and applications of neutron and x-ray optics and microscopy for an international readership across varying backgrounds and disciplines. Edited by Dr. Ted Cremer, these volumes attempt to provide rapid assimilation of the presented topics that include neutron and x-ray scatter, refraction, diffraction, and reflection and their potential application.* Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends.

X Ray and Neutron Diffraction

X Ray and Neutron Diffraction Book
Author : G. E. Bacon
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-03
ISBN : 1483158292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction describes the developments of the X-ray and the various research done in neutron diffraction. Part I of the book concerns the principles and applications of the X-ray and neutrons through their origins from classical crystallography. The book explains the use of diffraction methods to show the highly regular arrangement of atoms that forms a continuous pattern in three-dimensional space. The text evaluates the limitations and benefits of using the different types of radiation sources, whether these are X-rays, neutrons, or electrons. Part II is a collection of reprints discussing the development of techniques that includes a modification of the Bragg method, which is a method of X-ray crystal analysis. One paper presents an improved numerical method of two-dimensional Fourier synthesis for crystals. This method uses a greatly reduced process of arrangement of sets of figures found in the two-dimensional Fourier series. The book also notes the theoretical considerations and the practical details, and then addresses precautions against possible inclusions of errors in this method. The text deals as well with the magnetic scattering of neutrons, and one paper presents a simple method of gathering information about the magnetic moment of the neutron besides the traditional Stern-Gerlach method. Nuclear scientists and physicists, atomic researchers, and nuclear engineers will greatly appreciate the book.

X Ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction

X Ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction Book
Author : André Authier,Stefano Lagomarsino,Brian K. Tanner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461558794
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume collects the proceedings of the 23rd International Course of Crystallography, entitled "X-ray and Neutron Dynamical Diffraction, Theory and Applications," which took place in the fascinating setting of Erice in Sicily, Italy. It was run as a NATO Advanced Studies Institute with A. Authier (France) and S. Lagomarsino (Italy) as codirectors, and L. Riva di Sanseverino and P. Spadon (Italy) as local organizers, R. Colella (USA) and B. K. Tanner (UK) being the two other members of the organizing committee. It was attended by about one hundred participants from twenty four different countries. Two basic theories may be used to describe the diffraction of radiation by crystalline matter. The first one, the so-called geometrical, or kinematical theory, is approximate and is applicable to small, highly imperfect crystals. It is used for the determination of crystal structures and describes the diffraction of powders and polycrystalline materials. The other one, the so-called dynamical theory, is applicable to perfect or nearly perfect crystals. For that reason, dynamical diffraction of X-rays and neutrons constitutes the theoretical basis of a great variety of applications such as: • the techniques used for the characterization of nearly perfect high technology materials, semiconductors, piezoelectric, electrooptic, ferroelectric, magnetic crystals, • the X-ray optical devices used in all modem applications of Synchrotron Radiation (EXAFS, High Resolution X-ray Diffractometry, magnetic and nuclear resonant scattering, topography, etc. ), and • X-ray and neutron interferometry.

Diffraction Optics of Complex Structured Periodic Media

Diffraction Optics of Complex Structured Periodic Media Book
Author : Vladimir Vladimir I.
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461243963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Probing matter with beams of photons, neutrons and electrons provides the main source of information about both the microscopic and macroscopic structure of materials. This is particularly true of media, such as crystals and liquid crystals, that have a periodic structure. This book discusses the interaction of waves (which may represent x-rays, gamma rays, electrons, or neutrons) with various kinds of ordered media. After two chapters dealing with exact and approximate solutions to the scattering problem in periodic media in general, the author discusses: the diffraction of Mößbauer radiation in magnetically ordered crystals; the optics of chiral liquid crystals; the radiation of fast particles in regular media (Cherenkov radiation); nonlinear optics of periodic media; neutron scattering in magnetically ordered media; polarization phenomena in x-ray optics; magnetic x-ray scattering; and Mößbauer filtration of synchrotron radiation.

Neutron Stars Black Holes and Binary X Ray Sources

Neutron Stars  Black Holes and Binary X Ray Sources Book
Author : H. Gursky,Remo Ruffini
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 9401017670
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains a set of articles based on a session of the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science held in San Francisco in February, 1974. The reason for the meeting arose from the need to communicate to the largest possible scientific community the dramatic advances which have been made in recent years in the understanding of collapsed objects: neutron stars and black holes. Thanks to an unprecedented resonance between X-ray, y-ray, radio and optical astronomy and important new theoretical developments in relativistic astro physics, a new deep understanding has been acquired of the physical processes oc curring in the late stages of evolution of stars. This knowledge may be one of the greatest conquests of man's understanding of nature in this century. This book aims to give an essential and up-to-date view in this field. The analysis of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and black holes is here attacked from both theoretical and experimental points of view. In the experimental field we range from the reviews and catalogues of galactic X-ray sources (R. Gursky and E. Schreier) and pulsars (E. Groth) to the observations of the optical counter part of X-ray sources (P. Boynton) to finally the recently discovered gamma-ray bursts (I. Strong) and pulse astronomy R. B. Partridge).

Soft X ray Optics

Soft X ray Optics Book
Author : Eberhard Spiller
Publisher : SPIE Press
Release : 1994
ISBN : 9780819416544
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text describes optics mainly in the 10 to 500 angstrom wavelength region. These wavelengths are 50 to 100 times shorter than those for visible light and 50 to 100 times longer than the wavelengths of medical x rays or x-ray diffraction from natural crystals. There have been substantial advances during the last 20 years, which one can see as an extension of optical technology to shorter wavelengths or as an extension of x-ray diffraction to longer wavelengths. Artificial diffracting structures like zone plates and multilayer mirrors are replacing the natural crystals of x-ray diffraction. Some of these structures can now be fabricated to have diffraction-limited resolution. The new possibilities are described in a simple, tutorial way.

Diffraction Optics of Complex Structured Periodic Media

Diffraction Optics of Complex Structured Periodic Media Book
Author : Khokhlov Vladimir I.
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-02-25
ISBN : 9781461243977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Probing matter with beams of photons, neutrons and electrons provides the main source of information about both the microscopic and macroscopic structure of materials. This is particularly true of media, such as crystals and liquid crystals, that have a periodic structure. This book discusses the interaction of waves (which may represent x-rays, gamma rays, electrons, or neutrons) with various kinds of ordered media. After two chapters dealing with exact and approximate solutions to the scattering problem in periodic media in general, the author discusses: the diffraction of Mößbauer radiation in magnetically ordered crystals; the optics of chiral liquid crystals; the radiation of fast particles in regular media (Cherenkov radiation); nonlinear optics of periodic media; neutron scattering in magnetically ordered media; polarization phenomena in x-ray optics; magnetic x-ray scattering; and Mößbauer filtration of synchrotron radiation.

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X ray Scattering

Complementarity Between Neutron and Synchrotron X ray Scattering Book
Author : Albert Furrer
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9789810235581
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

I. Theoretical principles of neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering. Neutron- and synchrotron X-ray scattering (the theoretical principles) / W. E. Fischer -- II. Structure determination. Structure determination by powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction / A. N. Fitch -- Structure determination by powder neutron diffraction / E. Gray and E. Kisi -- Seminar on "structure" / K. Yvon -- III. Magnetism. Magnetic neutron and synchrotron X-ray scattering / W. G Stirling -- Magnetic excitations through the eye of the neutron / W. J. L. Buyers -- Topological excitations in low dimensional magnets / H. B. Braun -- Seminar on "magnetism" / G. H. Lander -- IV. Correlated electron systems. Elastic and inelastic X-ray scattering from correlated electrons: A theoretical perspective / M. Altarelli -- SANS measurements on vortices in superconductors. What can we learn? / V. B. Geshkenbein -- Seminar on "electronic structures" / J. Mesot -- V. Multilayers. From thin films to superlattices studied with X-rays and neutrons / D. E. McMorrow -- Seminar on "multilayers" / S. K. Sinha -- VI. Other topics in condensed matter research. From entropy driven motion to reptation - Large scale dynamics in polymer melts / D. Richter -- Small-angle and surface scattering from porous and fractal materials / S. K. Sinha -- Hot topics in condensed matter physics / H. R. Ott -- Seminar on "dynamics" / B. Dorner -- VII. Beam optics. Neutron beam optics / P. Boni -- Synchrotron X-ray beam optics / A. Freund -- VIII. Summary. Summary lecture: Some features of the scattering and absorption of beams of neutrons and beams of X-rays / S. W. Lovesey

X ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization

X ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization Book
Author : Challa S.S.R. Kumar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-13
ISBN : 3662486067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fifth volume of a 40 volume series on nanoscience and nanotechnology, edited by the renowned scientist Challa S.S.R. Kumar. This handbook gives a comprehensive overview about X-ray and Neutron Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization. Modern applications and state-of-the-art techniques are covered and make this volume an essential reading for research scientists in academia and industry.

International Workshop on X Ray and Neutron Phase Imaging with Gratings

International Workshop on X Ray and Neutron Phase Imaging with Gratings Book
Author : Atsushi Momose,Wataru Yashiro
Publisher : Amer Inst of Physics
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9780735410725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the discovery of X-rays, transmission imaging has been used extensively for a variety of fields, taking advantage of the high penetrating power of X-rays. However, because it uses X-ray absorption to generate image contrast, X-ray transmission imaging has a drawback that its sensitivity is poor to weakly absorbing objects consisting mainly of light elements, such as polymers and biological soft tissues. Since the 1990s, X-ray phase imaging, which relies on the measurement of the X-ray phase shift (or X-ray refraction) caused by a sample, has attracted attention, because weakly absorbing objects could be imaged. Particularly in this decade, X-ray phase imaging based on grating optics has been studied actively thanks to its practical advantage that laboratory X- ray sources are usable, while other earlier techniques of X-ray phase imaging were developed and performed mainly in synchrotron radiation facilities. Therefore, grating-based X-ray phase imaging has attracted special attentions from the medical and industrial fields. Moreover, a similar technique is expanding to neutron phase imaging field for various other materials including metal. This proceedings volume contains 47 papers presented at the first workshop held in Tokyo to provide an opportunity for discussion and to promote new collaborations in this rapidly growing field.

Hard X ray gamma ray and Neutron Optics Sensors and Applications

Hard X ray gamma ray and Neutron Optics  Sensors  and Applications Book
Author : Richard B. Hoover,F. Patrick Doty,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers
Publisher : SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Hard X ray gamma ray and Neutron Optics Sensors and Applications book written by Richard B. Hoover,F. Patrick Doty,Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

X ray and Optical Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars and Black Holes and the Construction and Testing of the Stellar X ray Polarimeter

X ray and Optical Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars and Black Holes and the Construction and Testing of the Stellar X ray Polarimeter Book
Author : John Allen Tomsick
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download X ray and Optical Observations of Accreting Neutron Stars and Black Holes and the Construction and Testing of the Stellar X ray Polarimeter book written by John Allen Tomsick, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Advances in Computational Methods for X ray and Neutron Optics

Advances in Computational Methods for X ray and Neutron Optics Book
Author : Manuel Sánchez del Río
Publisher : Society of Photo Optical
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of SPIE present the original research papers presented at SPIE conferences and other high-quality conferences in the broad-ranging fields of optics and photonics. These books provide prompt access to the latest innovations in research and technology in their respective fields. Proceedings of SPIE are among the most cited references in patent literature.