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Neuroscience Of Preference And Choice

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Neuroscience of Preference and Choice

Neuroscience of Preference and Choice Book
Author : Raymond J. Dolan,Tali Sharot
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0123814316
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the most pressing questions in neuroscience, psychology and economics today is how does the brain generate preferences and make choices? With a unique interdisciplinary approach, this volume is among the first to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating the generation of the preferences that guide choice. From preferences determining mundane purchases, to social preferences influencing mating choice, through to moral decisions, the authors adopt diverse approaches to answer the question. Chapters explore the instability of preferences and the common neural processes that occur across preferences. Edited by one of the world's most renowned cognitive neuroscientists, each chapter is authored by an expert in the field, with a host of international contributors. Emphasis on common process underlying preference generation makes material applicable to a variety of disciplines - neuroscience, psychology, economics, law, philosophy, etc. Offers specific focus on how preferences are generated to guide decision making, carefully examining one aspect of the broad field of neuroeconomics and complementing existing volumes Features outstanding, international scholarship, with chapters written by an expert in the topic area

Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience

Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience Book
Author : Jerry J. Buccafusco
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-08-29
ISBN : 1420041819
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Using the most well-studied behavioral analyses of animal subjects to promote a better understanding of the effects of disease and the effects of new therapeutic treatments on human cognition, Methods of Behavior Analysis in Neuroscience provides a reference manual for molecular and cellular research scientists in both academia and the pharmaceutic

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics Book
Author : Andrew Caplin,Andrew Schotter
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2010-06-25
ISBN : 9780199890118
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Foundations of Positive and Normative Economics: A Handbook is the first book in a new series by Andrew Caplin and Andrew Schotter. There is currently no guide available on the rapidly changing methodological frontiers of the field of economics. Economists have been introducing new theories and new sources of data at a remarkable rate in recent years, and there are widely divergent views both on how productive these expansions have been in the past, and how best to make progress in the future. The speed of these changes has left economists ill at ease, and has created a backlash against new methods. The series will debate these critical issues, allowing proponents of a particular research method to present proposals in a safe yet critical context, with alternatives being clarified. This first volume, written by some of the most prominent researchers in the discipline, reflects the challenges that are opened by new research opportunities. The goal of the current volume and the series it presages, is to formally open a dialog on methodology. The editors' conviction is that such a debate will rebound to the benefit of social science in general, and economics in particular. The issues under discussion strike to the very heart of the social scientific enterprise. This work is of tremendous importance to all who are interested in the contributions that academic research can make not only to our scientific understanding, but also to matters of policy.

The Paradox of Choice

The Paradox of Choice Book
Author : Barry Schwartz
Publisher : Harper Collins
Release : 2009-10-13
ISBN : 0061748994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Whether we're buying a pair of jeans, ordering a cup of coffee, selecting a long-distance carrier, applying to college, choosing a doctor, or setting up a 401(k), everyday decisions—both big and small—have become increasingly complex due to the overwhelming abundance of choice with which we are presented. As Americans, we assume that more choice means better options and greater satisfaction. But beware of excessive choice: choice overload can make you question the decisions you make before you even make them, it can set you up for unrealistically high expectations, and it can make you blame yourself for any and all failures. In the long run, this can lead to decision-making paralysis, anxiety, and perpetual stress. And, in a culture that tells us that there is no excuse for falling short of perfection when your options are limitless, too much choice can lead to clinical depression. In The Paradox of Choice, Barry Schwartz explains at what point choice—the hallmark of individual freedom and self-determination that we so cherish—becomes detrimental to our psychological and emotional well-being. In accessible, engaging, and anecdotal prose, Schwartz shows how the dramatic explosion in choice—from the mundane to the profound challenges of balancing career, family, and individual needs—has paradoxically become a problem instead of a solution. Schwartz also shows how our obsession with choice encourages us to seek that which makes us feel worse. By synthesizing current research in the social sciences, Schwartz makes the counter intuitive case that eliminating choices can greatly reduce the stress, anxiety, and busyness of our lives. He offers eleven practical steps on how to limit choices to a manageable number, have the discipline to focus on those that are important and ignore the rest, and ultimately derive greater satisfaction from the choices you have to make.

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research Book
Author : Gigi Foster
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-02-08
ISBN : 0128130938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biophysical Measurement in Experimental Social Science Research: Theory and Practice demonstrates the use of biophysical measurement in laboratory-based experimental social science research and the ways biophysical measures can inform analyses of human behavior. Noting the practical limitations of laboratory-based biophysical measurement, its contributors provide hands-on guidance about biophysical measurement devices. Its Introductory and concluding chapters address ethics, measurement options, and historical and scientific contexts. Highlighting examples of device adoption in experimental social science lab settings, this book makes these tools understandable and accessible to all. Demonstrates the strengths and limitations of tools in both research objectives and practicality Provides hands-on guidance for device usage and data implementation, integration and assessment Compares and contrasts the uses of biophysical data in research objectives and disciplines

The Marketplace of Attention

The Marketplace of Attention Book
Author : James G. Webster
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2016-09-02
ISBN : 0262529890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How do media find an audience when there is an endless supply of content but a limited supply of public attention? Feature films, television shows, homemade videos, tweets, blogs, and breaking news: digital media offer an always-accessible, apparently inexhaustible supply of entertainment and information. Although choices seems endless, public attention is not. How do digital media find the audiences they need in an era of infinite choice? In The Marketplace of Attention, James Webster explains how audiences take shape in the digital age. Webster describes the factors that create audiences, including the preferences and habits of media users, the role of social networks, the resources and strategies of media providers, and the growing impact of media measures—from ratings to user recommendations. He incorporates these factors into one comprehensive framework: the marketplace of attention. In doing so, he shows that the marketplace works in ways that belie our greatest hopes and fears about digital media. Some observers claim that digital media empower a new participatory culture; others fear that digital media encourage users to retreat to isolated enclaves. Webster shows that public attention is at once diverse and concentrated—that users move across a variety of outlets, producing high levels of audience overlap. So although audiences are fragmented in ways that would astonish midcentury broadcasting executives, Webster argues that this doesn't signal polarization. He questions whether our preferences are immune from media influence, and he describes how our encounters with media might change our tastes. In the digital era's marketplace of attention, Webster claims, we typically encounter ideas that cut across our predispositions. In the process, we will remake the marketplace of ideas and reshape the twenty-first century public sphere.

Can You Learn to Be Lucky

Can You Learn to Be Lucky  Book
Author : Karla Starr
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2018-08-14
ISBN : 069813981X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“I don't know when I've been so wowed by a new author” –Chip Health, co-author of The Power of Moments and Switch A talented journalist reveals the hidden patterns behind what we call "luck" -- and shows us how we can all improve outcomes despite life’s inevitable randomness. "Do you believe in luck?" is a polarizing question, one you might ask on a first date. Some of us believe that we make our own luck. Others see inequality everywhere and think that everyone’s fate is at the whim of the cosmos. Karla Starr has a third answer: unlucky, "random" outcomes have predictable effects on our behavior that often make us act in self-defeating ways without even realizing it. In this groundbreaking book, Starr traces wealth, health, and happiness back to subconscious neurological processes, blind cultural assumptions, and tiny details you're in the habit of overlooking. Each chapter reveals how we can cultivate personal strengths to overcome life’s unlucky patterns. For instance: • Everyone has free access to that magic productivity app—motivation. The problem? It isn’t evenly distributed. What lucky accidents of history explain patterns behind why certain groups of people are more motivated in some situations than others? • If you look like an underperforming employee, your resume can't override the gut-level assumptions that a potential boss will make from your LinkedIn photo. How can we make sure that someone’s first impression is favorable? • Just as people use irrelevant traits to make assumptions about your intelligence, kindness, and trustworthiness, we also make inaccurate snap judgments. How do these judgments affect our interactions, and what should we assume about others to maximize our odds of having lucky encounters? We don’t always realize when the world's invisible biases work to our advantage or recognize how much of a role we play in our own lack of luck. By ending the guessing game about how luck works, Starr allows you to improve your fortunes while expending minimal effort.

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation

Recent Developments in Neuroscience Research on Human Motivation Book
Author : Sung-il Kim,Johnmarshall Reeve,Mimi Bong
Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
Release : 2016-12-13
ISBN : 1786354748
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides new insight into motivation theory by integrating noteworthy neuroscience research findings on motivation. This volume is dedicated to advancing our understanding of brain mechanisms of underlying motivational phenomena, including reward, approach, autonomy, intrinsic motivation, learning, effort, curiosity, and self-control.

The Index Number Problem

The Index Number Problem Book
Author : Sydney Afriat
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2014-02-27
ISBN : 019164952X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A theft amounting to £1 was a capital offence in 1260 and a judge in 1610 affirmed the law could not then be applied since £1 was no longer what it was. Such association of money with a date is well recognized for its importance in very many connections. Thus arises the need to know how to convert an amount at one date into the right amount at another date: in other words, a price index. The longstanding question concerning how such an index should be constructed is known as 'The Index Number Problem'. The ordinary consumer price index represents a practical response to this need. However the search for a true price index has given rise to extensive thought and theory to which an impressive number of economists have each contributed a word, or volume. However, there have been hold-ups at a basic level, which are addressed in this book. The approach brings the subject into involvement with utility construction on the basis of finite data, in a form referred to as 'Afriat's Theorem' but now with utility subject to constant (and also possibly approximate) returns.

Samuelsonian Economics and the Twenty First Century

Samuelsonian Economics and the Twenty First Century Book
Author : Distinguished Professor of Economics Lubin Business School Michael Szenberg,Michael Szenberg,Lall Ramrattan,Aron A. Gottesman
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2006-08-24
ISBN : 0199298823
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The underlying notion in this volume is to spotlight, critically assess, and illuminate Paul A. Samuelson's extraordinarily voluminous, diverse, and groundbreaking contributions that encompass the entire field of economics through the lens of most eminent scholars. All this in honor of his ninetieth birthday celebrated on May 15, 2005 in Fairmont Hotel in Boston in the company of hundreds of scholars and their spouses."--Pref.

Neurobiology of Choice

Neurobiology of Choice Book
Author : Daeyeol Lee,Paul Glimcher,Julia Trommershaeuser
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 2889190110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on economic decision-making seeks to understand how subjects choose between plans of action (lotteries, gambles, prospects) that have economic consequences. The key difficulty in making such decisions is that typically no plan of action available to the decision-maker guarantees a specific outcome, rather, consequences are risky or uncertain. More recently, researchers in psychology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and psychology have started to apply these theoretical principles to studying choice behavior and its neural basis in the laboratory, for instance in electrophysiological studies of animals making choices for primary reward such as juice and neuroimaging studies of humans making choices for money. Moreover, researchers across all these fields are, in parallel, studying how decisions are guided by learning and how the computations relevant to decisions and choices are represented neurally. This emerging field of theoretically grounded decision neuroscience is now known as "neuroeconomics." With this Research Topic, we aim to solicit contributions from researchers from the fields of neurobiology, behavioral and computational neuroscience and economics which discuss the neural computations underlying decision-making and adaptive behavior.

Neuroeconomics

Neuroeconomics Book
Author : Paul W. Glimcher,Ernst Fehr
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-08-13
ISBN : 0123914698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the years since it first published, Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain has become the standard reference and textbook in the burgeoning field of neuroeconomics. The second edition, a nearly complete revision of this landmark book, will set a new standard. This new edition features five sections designed to serve as both classroom-friendly introductions to each of the major subareas in neuroeconomics, and as advanced synopses of all that has been accomplished in the last two decades in this rapidly expanding academic discipline. The first of these sections provides useful introductions to the disciplines of microeconomics, the psychology of judgment and decision, computational neuroscience, and anthropology for scholars and students seeking interdisciplinary breadth. The second section provides an overview of how human and animal preferences are represented in the mammalian nervous systems. Chapters on risk, time preferences, social preferences, emotion, pharmacology, and common neural currencies—each written by leading experts—lay out the foundations of neuroeconomic thought. The third section contains both overview and in-depth chapters on the fundamentals of reinforcement learning, value learning, and value representation. The fourth section, “The Neural Mechanisms for Choice, integrates what is known about the decision-making architecture into state-of-the-art models of how we make choices. The final section embeds these mechanisms in a larger social context, showing how these mechanisms function during social decision-making in both humans and animals. The book provides a historically rich exposition in each of its chapters and emphasizes both the accomplishments and the controversies in the field. A clear explanatory style and a single expository voice characterize all chapters, making core issues in economics, psychology, and neuroscience accessible to scholars from all disciplines. The volume is essential reading for anyone interested in neuroeconomics in particular or decision making in general. Editors and contributing authors are among the acknowledged experts and founders in the field, making this the authoritative reference for neuroeconomics Suitable as an advanced undergraduate or graduate textbook as well as a thorough reference for active researchers Introductory chapters on economics, psychology, neuroscience, and anthropology provide students and scholars from any discipline with the keys to understanding this interdisciplinary field Detailed chapters on subjects that include reinforcement learning, risk, inter-temporal choice, drift-diffusion models, game theory, and prospect theory make this an invaluable reference Published in association with the Society for Neuroeconomics—www.neuroeconomics.org Full-color presentation throughout with numerous carefully selected illustrations to highlight key concepts

Society Organizations and the Brain building towards a unified cognitive neuroscience perspective

Society  Organizations and the Brain  building towards a unified cognitive neuroscience perspective Book
Author : Carl Senior,Nick Lee,Sven Braeutigam
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-02
ISBN : 2889195805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This e-book brings together scholars in both the neurosciences and organizational sciences who have adopted various approaches to study the cognitive mechanisms mediating the social behavior that we see within organizations. Such an approach has been termed by ourselves, and others, as ‘organisational cognitive neuroscience’. In recent years there has been a veritable increase in studies that have explored the cognitive mechanisms driving such behaviors, and much progress has been made in understanding the neural underpinnings of processes such as financial exchange, risk awareness and even leadership. However, while these studies are informative and add to our understanding of human cognition they fall short of providing evidence-based recommendations for practice. Specifically, we address the broader issue of how the neuroscientific study of such core social behaviors can be used to improve the very way that we work. To address these gaps in our understanding the chapters in this book serve as a platform that allows scholars in both the neurosciences and the organizational sciences to highlight the work that spans across these two fields. The consolidation of these two fields also serves to highlight the utility of a singular organizational cognitive neuroscience. This is a fundamentally important outcome of the book as the application of neuroscience to address economically relevant behaviors has seen a variety of fields evolve in their own right, such as neuromarketing, neuroeconomics and so forth. The use of neuro-scientific technologies,in particular fMRI, has indeed led to a bewildering (and somewhat suffocating) proliferation of new approaches, however, the speed of such developments demands that we must proceed carefully with such ventures or risk some fundamental mistakes. The book that you now hold will consolidates these new neuroscience based approaches and in doing so highlight the importance of this approach in helping us to understand human social behavior in general. Taken together the chapters provide a framework for scholars within the neurosciences who wish to explore the further the opportunities that the study of organisational behavior may provide.

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease

Advanced Brain Neuroimaging Topics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Dorina Papageorgiou,George Christopoulos,Stelios Smirnakis
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2014-05-31
ISBN : 9535112031
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain is the most complex computational device we know, consisting of highly interacting and redundant networks of areas, supporting specific brain functions. The rules by which these areas organize themselves to perform specific computations have only now started to be uncovered. Advances in non-invasive neuroimaging technologies have revolutionized our understanding of the functional anatomy of cortical circuits in health and disease states, which is the focus of this book. The first section of this book focuses on methodological issues, such as combining functional MRI technology with other brain imaging modalities. The second section examines the application of brain neuroimaging to understand cognitive, visual, auditory, motor and decision-making networks, as well as neurological diseases. The use of non-invasive neuroimaging technologies will continue to stimulate an exponential growth in understanding basic brain processes, largely as a result of sustained advances in neuroimaging methods and applications.

21st Century Economics A Reference Handbook

21st Century Economics  A Reference Handbook Book
Author : Rhona C. Free
Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release : 2010-05-14
ISBN : 145226631X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Interest in economics is at an all-time high. Among the challenges facing the nation is an economy with rapidly rising unemployment, failures of major businesses and industries, and continued dependence on oil with its wildly fluctuating price. Economists have dealt with such questions for generations, but they have taken on new meaning and significance. Tackling these questions and encompassing analysis of traditional economic theory and topics as well as those that economists have only more recently addressed, 21st Century Economics: A Reference Handbook is a must-have reference resource. Key Features Provides highly readable summaries of theory and models in key areas of micro and macroeconomics, helpful for students trying to get a "big picture" sense of the field Includes introductions to relevant theory as well as empirical evidence, useful for readers interested in learning about economic analysis of an issue as well for students embarking on research projects Features chapters focused on cutting-edge topics with appeal for economists seeking to learn about extensions of analysis into new areas as well as new approaches Presents models in graphical format and summarizes empirical evidence in ways that do not require much background in statistics or econometrics, so as to maximize accessibility to students

Findings and Current Opinion in Cognitive Neuroscience

Findings and Current Opinion in Cognitive Neuroscience Book
Author : Larry R. Squire,Stephen M. Kosslyn,Stephen Michael Kosslyn
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1998
ISBN : 026269204X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume, which contains forty-six review articles from recent issues of CurrentOpinion in Neurobiology, provides easy access to the current state of theory and findings in thefield.

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory An Introduction

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory   An Introduction Book
Author : Howard Eichenbaum Library of Cognitive Neurobiology Boston University
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2002-02-07
ISBN : 0198032463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This clear and accessible textbook introduces students to the brain's remarkable capacity for memory. It begins with a history of thinking and research on the biological bases of memory, highlighting discoveries about the brain made in a "Golden Era" of neuroscience around the turn of the 20th century. This is followed by presentation of our current understanding of the neurobiology of memory, organized into sections corresponding to the book's four major themes. The first is Connection, and it considers how memory is based on alterations in the communication between nerve cells. Research on the physiology and biochemistry of neurons has revealed a cascade of molecular events and structural changes that enhance or weaken the connectivity of nerve cells in support of memory. The second theme is Cognition, which considers the psychological structure of memory. Early work on this topic involved controversy over the basic cognitive processes that underlie memory, and modern research has shown that these characterizations reflect distinctions among qualitatively different forms of memory. The third theme is Compartmentalization, the notion that the different forms of memory are accomplished by distinct brain systems. Recent research has revealed parallel memory systems that separately mediate our ability for conscious recollection, our capacity to acquire skills and habits, and our acquisition of emotional attachments and aversions. The fourth theme is Consolidation, the process by which memories are transformed from a labile trace into a permanent store. Scientists have shown that there are two distinct stages in memory consolidation, one involving cellular mechanisms that underlie a fixation of changes in the neuronal connection strengths and the other involving a reorganization and restruction of the circuits that store and retrieve memories. The book assumes little background knowledge from biology or psychology, and is intended as a text for use in undergraduate courses on memory and cognitive science, and for early graduate students in neuroscience, cognitive science, or biology. It encapsulates the major concepts in the field, and makes this area of research accessible to students who pursue a variety of related disciplines.

Neuroeconomics Hype or Hope

Neuroeconomics  Hype or Hope  Book
Author : Caterina Marchionni,Jack Vromen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-06-11
ISBN : 131797736X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Is neuroeconomics a flimsy fad likely to pass without leaving a discernible trace in economics? Or is it a promising new field with the potential to enrich and improve economic theory? Neuroeconomics brings together a unique mix of perspectives ranging from philosophy of science to neuroeconomics practice to reflect on the promises and limitations of neuroeconomics for the future of economics. The analyses collected in the volume suggest that although neuroeconomics raises methodological worries that ought to be dealt with, it might contribute to economics in various ways, some perhaps more promising than others. One thing comes out clearly, though: a complete insulation of economics from neuroscience and psychology is likely to do economics more harm than good. This book was originally published as a special issue of Journal of Economic Methodology.

The Influential Mind

The Influential Mind Book
Author : Tali Sharot
Publisher : Henry Holt and Company
Release : 2017-09-19
ISBN : 162779266X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A cutting-edge, research-based inquiry into how we influence those around us and how understanding the brain can help us change minds for the better. In The Influential Mind, neuroscientist Tali Sharot takes us on a thrilling exploration of the nature of influence. We all have a duty to affect others—from the classroom to the boardroom to social media. But how skilled are we at this role, and can we become better? It turns out that many of our instincts—from relying on facts and figures to shape opinions, to insisting others are wrong or attempting to exert control—are ineffective, because they are incompatible with how people’s minds operate. Sharot shows us how to avoid these pitfalls, and how an attempt to change beliefs and actions is successful when it is well-matched with the core elements that govern the human brain. Sharot reveals the critical role of emotion in influence, the weakness of data and the power of curiosity. Relying on the latest research in neuroscience, behavioral economics and psychology, the book provides fascinating insight into the complex power of influence, good and bad.

Behavior Analysis and Learning

Behavior Analysis and Learning Book
Author : W. David Pierce,Carl D. Cheney
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-08-21
ISBN : 1135071500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Behavior Analysis and Learning, Fifth Edition is an essential textbook covering the basic principles in the field of behavior analysis and learned behaviors, as pioneered by B. F. Skinner. The textbook provides an advanced introduction to operant conditioning from a very consistent Skinnerian perspective. It covers a range of principles from basic respondent and operant conditioning through applied behavior analysis into cultural design. Elaborating on Darwinian components and biological connections with behavior, the book treats the topic from a consistent worldview of selectionism. The functional relations between the organism and the environment are described, and their application in accounting for old behavior and generating new behavior is illustrated. Expanding on concepts of past editions, the fifth edition provides updated coverage of recent literature and the latest findings. There is increased inclusion of biological and neuroscience material, as well as more data correlating behavior with neurological and genetic factors. The chapter on verbal behavior is expanded to include new research on stimulus equivalence and naming; there is also a more detailed and updated analysis of learning by imitation and its possible links to mirror neurons. In the chapter on applied behavior analysis (ABA), new emphasis is given to contingency management of addiction, applications to education, ABA and autism, and prevention and treatment of health-related problems. The material presented in this book provides the reader with the best available foundation in behavior science and is a valuable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in psychology or other behavior-based disciplines. In addition, a website of supplemental resources for instructors and students makes this new edition even more accessible and student-friendly (www.psypress.com/u/pierce).