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Neuronal Networks In Brain Function Cns Disorders And Therapeutics

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Neuronal Networks in Brain Function CNS Disorders and Therapeutics

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function  CNS Disorders  and Therapeutics Book
Author : Carl Faingold,Hal Blumenfeld
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-12-26
ISBN : 0124158641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics, edited by two leaders in the field, offers a current and complete review of what we know about neural networks. How the brain accomplishes many of its more complex tasks can only be understood via study of neuronal network control and network interactions. Large networks can undergo major functional changes, resulting in substantially different brain function and affecting everything from learning to the potential for epilepsy. With chapters authored by experts in each topic, this book advances the understanding of: How the brain carries out important tasks via networks How these networks interact in normal brain function Major mechanisms that control network function The interaction of the normal networks to produce more complex behaviors How brain disorders can result from abnormal interactions How therapy of disorders can be advanced through this network approach This book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in networks, as well as clinicians in neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychiatry dealing with neurobiological disorders. Utilizes perspectives and tools from various neuroscience subdisciplines (cellular, systems, physiologic), making the volume broadly relevant Chapters explore normal network function and control mechanisms, with an eye to improving therapies for brain disorders Reflects predominant disciplinary shift from an anatomical to a functional perspective of the brain Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

A Paradigm for Autonomous Targeted Interaction with Biological Neuronal Networks

A Paradigm for Autonomous Targeted Interaction with Biological Neuronal Networks Book
Author : Sreedhar Saseendran Kumar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Targeted interaction with networks in the brain holds immense therapeutic potential as a clinical technique for the treatment of neurological disorders like epilepsy and Parkinson's Disease. Aided by technological advances, electrical stimulation of the brain is increasingly explored as a therapeutic strategy. Most current approaches involve continuous stimulation with heuristically chosen parameter settings -- the open loop paradigm -- where the influence of ongoing neuronal activity on stimulation outcome is discounted. Consequently, they fail to achieve targeted interaction and may even contribute to stimulus-induced side-effects. To fully leverage electrical stimulation as a therapeutic, augmentative or research tool, there is a need to re-imagine it in a closed-loop setting, where the stimulator is able to respond appropriately to the current `state' of the network. Closed-loop control of neuronal network activity is, however, a highly non-trivial problem. Control strategies typically rely on a suitable dynamical model of the system. However, a broadly accepted mathematical theory for the collective ongoing activity of large neuronal populations is unavailable. The interaction between external stimuli and ongoing activity is also poorly understood and is characterized by irregular and complex dynamics (stochastic, non-linear and non-stationary). Further, in a clinical context, it is often not feasible to specify explicit responses or output patterns a priori, unlike in conventional regulation and tracking problems. Factors like these make it cumbersome to define tractable control problems for biological neuronal networks. How can the closed-loop methodology be exploited to approach neurobiological control problems? In this thesis we propose a novel autonomous paradigm using methods of Reinforcement Learning (RL) to address this challenge. We implemented the technical framework of the paradigm and experimentally assessed its ability to optimize stimulation strategies and adapt to temporal heterogeneities in neuronal network activity. RL emphasizes learning from direct interaction with the system without relying on exemplary supervision or complete models. To develop the concept and algorithms, we established the technical framework of the paradigm with generic neuronal networks in vitro as a model system. These networks retain the richness of cellular level processes and networked neurophysiological mechanisms characteris ...

Thinking about Cognition Concepts Targets and Therapeutics

Thinking about Cognition  Concepts  Targets and Therapeutics Book
Author : C.G. Kruse,H.Y. Meltzer,C. Sennef
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2006-12-19
ISBN : 1607502186
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

100 Years after the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease, neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders represent the largest and fastest growing unmet medical market with 2 billion affected people worldwide. Life expectancy of humans continues to increase, and the world population is aging. Advanced age may lead to deterioration of cognitive functions of the brain. There seems to be consensus that on the background of aging, several factors may render humans prone to dementia. Psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or Parkinson’s disease may contribute to development of dementia. More people today are looking for help regarding their learning and memory capabilities. Although increasing knowledge on neuronal networks is transforming our view of the human brain and its function and we understand psychiatric and neurological diseases better today than ever before, novel therapies are needed to respond to the growing demand of patients for assistance with memory loss and learning impairment. In fact, it is expected that novel therapies aiming at the processing of amyloid, or at activation of glutamatergic or nicotinergic systems will demonstrate adequate efficacy in improving learning and memory disturbances. This publication stands as a comprehensive overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive impairment. It integrates discoveries concerning dementia, such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease associated dementia, vascular dementia, retardation syndromes, and psychiatric and neurological disorders related cognitive impairments. This book will be useful to physicians, biologists, and those pursuing an interest or concerned with memory impairment. 100 Years after the discovery of Alzheimer’s disease, neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders represent the largest and fastest growing unmet medical market with 2 billion affected people worldwide. Life expectancy of humans continues to increase, and the world population is aging. Advanced age may lead to deterioration of cognitive functions of the brain. There seems to be consensus that on the background of aging, several factors may render humans prone to dementia. Psychiatric and neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or Parkinson’s disease may contribute to development of dementia. More people today are looking for help regarding their learning and memory capabilities. Although increasing knowledge on neuronal networks is transforming our view of the human brain and its function and we understand psychiatric and neurological diseases better today than ever before, novel therapies are needed to respond to the growing demand of patients for assistance with memory loss and learning impairment. In fact, it is expected that novel therapies aiming at the processing of amyloid, or at activation of glutamatergic or nicotinergic systems will demonstrate adequate efficacy in improving learning and memory disturbances. This publication stands as a comprehensive overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cognitive impairment. It integrates discoveries concerning dementia, such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease associated dementia, vascular dementia, retardation syndromes, and psychiatric and neurological disorders related cognitive impairments. This book will be useful to physicians, biologists, and those pursuing an interest or concerned with memory impairment.

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury Book
Author : Kim Heidenreich
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-09-27
ISBN : 0128027010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention of Secondary Brain Damage and Enhancement of Repair and Regeneration explores traumatic brain injury (TBI), a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. The delayed nature of the secondary injury phase suggests that there is a therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions or other approaches to prevent progressive tissue damage and improve functional outcomes. It is now apparent that therapeutic interventions should entail both protective and repair/regeneration strategies depending on the phase of brain injury. This book describes emerging experimental strategies for the treatment of TBI, including new anti-inflammatory or anti-apoptotic therapeutics that limit brain damage, and novel or repurposed drugs that enhance repair or regeneration of the brain after injury. Comprehensive overview of basic approaches and translational development of new therapies for TBI Edited by a prominent TBI researcher that includes contributions by leading global researchers in the field Presents a great resource for researchers and practitioners to learn more about the many evolving preclinical studies and clinical trials currently underway, and the challenges of bringing translational studies in TBI to the clinic

Two photon Calcium Imaging Sequence Analysis Pipeline

Two photon Calcium Imaging Sequence Analysis Pipeline Book
Author : Raoul-Emil Roger Khouri
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Investigating the development of neuronal networks can help us to identify new therapies and treatments for conditions that affect the brain, such as autism and Alzheimer’s disease. Two-photon calcium imaging has been a powerful tool for the investigation of the development of neuronal networks. However, one of the major challenges of working with two-photon calcium images is processing the large data sets, which often requires manual analysis by a skilled researcher. Here, we introduce a machine learning (ML) pipeline for the analysis of two-photon calcium image sequences. This semi-autonomous ML pipeline includes proposed methods for automatically identifying neurons, signal extraction, signal processing, event detection, feature extraction, and analysis. We run our ML pipeline on a dataset of two-photon calcium image sequences extracted by our team. This dataset includes two-photon calcium image sequences of spontaneous network activity from primary cortical cultures of Mecp2-deficient and wild-type mice. Loss-of-function mutation in the MECP2 gene, causes 95% of Rett syndrome cases and some cases of autism. We evaluate our ML pipeline using this dataset. Our ML pipeline reduces the time required to analyze two-photon calcium images from over 10 minutes to about 30 seconds per sample. Our goal is to accelerate the analysis of neuronal network function to aid in our understanding of neurological disorders and the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy Book
Author : Asla Pitkänen,Paul Buckmaster, DVM, PhD,Aristea S Galanopoulou,Solomon L. Moshé
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-06-14
ISBN : 012804067X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy, Second Edition, is a valuable, practical reference for investigators who are searching for the most appropriate laboratory models to address key questions in the field. The book also provides an important background for physicians, fellows, and students, offering insight into the potential for advances in epilepsy research as well as R&D drug development. Contents include the current spectrum of models available to model different epilepsy syndromes, epilepsy in transgenic animals, comorbidities in models of epilepsy, and novel technologies to study seizures and epilepsies in animals. Provides a comprehensive reference detailing animal models of epilepsy and seizure Offers insights on the use of novel technologies that can be applied in experimental epilepsy research Edited by leading experts in the field that provide not only technical reviews of these models but also conceptual critiques Comments on the strengths and limitations of various models, including their relationship to clinical phenomenology and their value in developing better understanding and treatments

The Physics of the Mind and Brain Disorders

The Physics of the Mind and Brain Disorders Book
Author : Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-01
ISBN : 3319296744
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers recent advances in the understanding of brain structure, function and disorders based on the fundamental principles of physics. It covers a broad range of physical phenomena occurring in the brain circuits for perception, cognition, emotion and action, representing the building blocks of the mind. It provides novel insights into the devastating brain disorders of the mind such as schizophrenia, dementia, autism, aging or addictions, as well as into the new devices for brain repair. The book is aimed at basic researchers in the fields of neuroscience, physics, biophysics and clinicians in the fields of neurology, neurosurgery, psychology, psychiatry.

Tinnitus Imaging Endovascular and Surgical Approaches An issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America E Book

Tinnitus  Imaging  Endovascular and Surgical Approaches  An issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America  E Book Book
Author : Prashant Raghavan,Dheeraj Gandhi
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2016-07-27
ISBN : 0323444741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Neuroimaging Clinics of North America focuses on Imaging of Tinnitus. Articles will include: Neuroscience of Tinnitus; Clinical Evaluation of the Patient with Tinnitus; Arterial Abnormalities Leading to Tinnitus; Paragangliomas and Other Vascular Skull Base Tumors; Dural AV Fistulae: Imaging and Management; Venous Abnormalities Leading to Tinnitus: Imaging Evaluation; Endovascular Intervention in Venous Tinnitus: New Horizons and Future Directions; Emerging Role of Surgical Treatments in the Treatment of Tinnitus; Role of Advanced Neuroimaging and Future Directions; Imaging Interpretation of Temporal Bone Studies in a Patient with Tinnitus: A Systematic Approach; and much more!

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 9535134515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Repair of the Human Brain and Spinal Cord

Repair of the Human Brain and Spinal Cord Book
Author : Giselher Schalow
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2015-02-12
ISBN : 9781629483146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the single-nerve fiber action potential recording method and the single-motor unit electromyography, the functioning of the human central nervous system (CNS) is analysed at the single-neuron level under physiologic conditions following injury, malformation and degeneration. It is shown that the self-organisation of the neuronal networks of the human CNS by phase and frequency coordination becomes impaired following all nervous system diseases. Out of the differences between the functioning of the healthy and pathologically functioning CNS, a repair treatment is developed called Co-ordination Dynamics Therapy (CDT). This movement-based learning therapy is able to improve almost every nervous system in its functioning by functional and structural repair for all ages including premature born babies and in aging. The therapy progress with CDT can be quantified by using the System Theory of Pattern Formation. By pattern change, given by a special CDT device, a single value is obtained for the quality of CNS functioning. Especially the tremor in Parkinsons disease and the urinary bladder repair in spinal cord injury are analysed in detail by the human neurophysiologic recording methods and clinical assessments. The repair of the human nervous system is shown in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in mild and severe traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries. By applying CDT, CNS functioning can also be improved in Parkinsons disease and in aging. The rate of improvement/repair by learning is measured in the healthy and the diseased nervous systems. It is emphasised that the efficacy of movement-based learning therapies may differ by a factor of 100. A powerful tool in learning is the learning transfer. By training integrative movements, including automatisms, not only the trained movements can be improved, but also the vegetative and higher mental functions can be repaired as, for example, continence, speech and cardiovascular performance.

Neural Approaches to Dynamics of Signal Exchanges

Neural Approaches to Dynamics of Signal Exchanges Book
Author : Anna Esposito,Marcos Faundez-Zanuy,Francesco Carlo Morabito,Eros Pasero
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-09-18
ISBN : 9811389500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents research that contributes to the development of intelligent dialog systems to simplify diverse aspects of everyday life, such as medical diagnosis and entertainment. Covering major thematic areas: machine learning and artificial neural networks; algorithms and models; and social and biometric data for applications in human–computer interfaces, it discusses processing of audio-visual signals for the detection of user-perceived states, the latest scientific discoveries in processing verbal (lexicon, syntax, and pragmatics), auditory (voice, intonation, vocal expressions) and visual signals (gestures, body language, facial expressions), as well as algorithms for detecting communication disorders, remote health-status monitoring, sentiment and affect analysis, social behaviors and engagement. Further, it examines neural and machine learning algorithms for the implementation of advanced telecommunication systems, communication with people with special needs, emotion modulation by computer contents, advanced sensors for tracking changes in real-life and automatic systems, as well as the development of advanced human–computer interfaces. The book does not focus on solving a particular problem, but instead describes the results of research that has positive effects in different fields and applications.

Almost Periodicity Chaos and Asymptotic Equivalence

Almost Periodicity  Chaos  and Asymptotic Equivalence Book
Author : Marat Akhmet
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-20
ISBN : 303020572X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The central subject of this book is Almost Periodic Oscillations, the most common oscillations in applications and the most intricate for mathematical analysis. Prof. Akhmet's lucid and rigorous examination proves these oscillations are a "regular" component of chaotic attractors. The book focuses on almost periodic functions, first of all, as Stable (asymptotically) solutions of differential equations of different types, presumably discontinuous; and, secondly, as non-isolated oscillations in chaotic sets. Finally, the author proves the existence of Almost Periodic Oscillations (asymptotic and bi-asymptotic) by asymptotic equivalence between systems. The book brings readers' attention to contemporary methods for considering oscillations as well as to methods with strong potential for study of chaos in the future. Providing three powerful instruments for mathematical research of oscillations where dynamics are observable and applied, the book is ideal for engineers as well as specialists in electronics, computer sciences, robotics, neural networks, artificial networks, and biology. Distinctively combines results and methods of the theory of differential equations with thorough investigation of chaotic dynamics with almost periodic ingredients; Provides all necessary mathematical basics in their most developed form, negating the need for any additional sources for readers to start work in the area; Presents a unique method of investigation of discontinuous almost periodic solutions in its unified form, employed to differential equations with different types of discontinuity; Develops the equivalence method to its ultimate effective state such that most important theoretical problems and practical applications can be analyzed by the method.

Neuromodulatory Control of Brainstem Function in Health and Disease

Neuromodulatory Control of Brainstem Function in Health and Disease Book
Author : Brian R. Noga,Mikhail Lebedev,Ioan Opris,Gordon S. Mitchell
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-03-25
ISBN : 2889635759
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neuromodulatory Control of Brainstem Function in Health and Disease book written by Brian R. Noga,Mikhail Lebedev,Ioan Opris,Gordon S. Mitchell, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brain and Art

Brain and Art Book
Author : Bruno Colombo
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-08-29
ISBN : 3030235807
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book analyzes and discusses in detail art therapy, a specific tool used to sustain health in affective developments, rehabilitation, motor skills and cognitive functions. Art therapy is based on the assumption that the process of making art (music, dance, painting) sparks emotions and enhances brain activity. Art therapy is used to encourage personal growth, facilitate particular brain areas or activity patterns, and improve neural connectivity. Treating neurological diseases using artistic strategies offers us a unique option for engaging brain structural networks that enhance the brain’s ability to form new connections. Based on brain plasticity, art therapy has the potential to increase our repertoire for treating neurological diseases. Neural substrates are the basis of complex emotions relative to art experiences, and involve a widespread activation of cognitive and motor systems. Accordingly, art therapy has the capacity to modulate behavior, cognition, attention and movement. In this context, art therapy can offer effective tools for improving general well-being, quality of life and motivation in connection with neurological diseases. The book discusses art therapy as a potential group of techniques for the treatment of neurological disturbances and approaches the relationship between humanistic disciplines and neurology from a holistic perspective, reflecting the growing interest in this interconnection.

PsychoNeuroEndocrineImmunology and the science of integrated care The manual

PsychoNeuroEndocrineImmunology and the science of integrated care  The manual Book
Author : Anna Giulia Bottaccioli,Francesco Bottaccioli
Publisher : Edra
Release : 2020-09-22T00:00:00+02:00
ISBN : 8821447464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this book PNEI paradigm presents itself in its full extension: from the description of the historical and philosophical bases of the paradigm; to the biological revolution underway, which through the bursting of epigenetics radically changes the traditional view of genetics and of the evolution of the human species; from the description of nervous, neuroen¬docrine, immune, psychic systems and their reciprocal influences; to the modulation tools of the human network for preventive and therapeutic uses, such as nutrition, physical activity, psychotherapy, meditation and other behavioural and natural medicine techniques; up to the final part that presents integrated care schemes, proposed on the basis of the available scientific evidence, for acute cardiovascular diseases, disturbances of the psyche-brain system, immune disorders, eating and metabolism disorders, reproductive and sexual dysfunctions and cancer.

Cellular Mechanisms of Brain derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediated Synapse Reorganization Following Hippocampal Injury

Cellular Mechanisms of Brain derived Neurotrophic Factor Mediated Synapse Reorganization Following Hippocampal Injury Book
Author : Raminder Gill
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Brain injury and neurological disorders can adversely impact the way that we communicate with the environment and therefore detrimentally affect quality of life for patients. Synapses, which are important neuronal structures that mediate communication between neurons, can become dysfunctional after brain injury. It is generally thought that synaptic dysfunction underlies the cognitive deficits that patients experience following brain injury and disease. As such, synapses represent an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in order to limit the damage that brain insults have on cognition. In the case of post-traumatic epilepsy and ischemia, both excitatory and inhibitory synapses are remodelled, which can have devastating effects to existing functional neuronal networks. Though there are some theories on how trauma can lead to long-term functional deficits through neurocircuitry reorganization, there is still a paucity of information on the cellular mechanisms underlying synapse remodeling. In this thesis, I studied the role of the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in synaptic reorganization following hippocampal injury, a brain region which is important for learning and memory. BDNF plays a crucial role in development of both excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory GABAergic synapses. Interestingly, BDNF is highly upregulated after many different types of brain injury, including stroke and epilepsy. Some neuroscientists believe that this increase in BDNF is an attempt by the brain to ameliorate injury, but may actually revert the central nervous system to a more juvenile and aberrant state thereby provoking further injury. In my thesis I hypothesized that (1) BDNF can downregulate excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission following ischemia, (2) BDNF mediates axonal reorganization and network hyperexcitability in a model of post-traumatic epilepsy and (3) BDNF-mediated axonal reorganization is due to a misappropriation of activity-dependent transcription of the Bdnf gene. In order to test my hypotheses, I used organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and subjected them to two well-established in vitro models of hippocampal injury for long-term studies on neuronal networks: (1) oxygen-glucose deprivation, focusing on area CA1, the hippocampal region most susceptible to ischemia and (2) Schaffer collateral lesion, focusing on area CA3, the region where axon sprouting and hyperexcitability occurs in response to Schaffer collateral injury. I then combined confocal microscopy, immunofluorescence, molecular biology and electrophysiology to study synapse function, morphology and signaling. I found that after ischemia to organotypic hippocampal slices, BDNF can downregulate GABAergic synapses structurally and functionally through the high-affinity TrkB receptor. Moreover, I found that proBDNF, the precursor protein of BDNF, can downregulate glutamatergic synapses structurally and functionally through the low-affinity p75NTR receptor. Accordingly, my findings identify distinct signaling cascades that specifically provoke acute excitatory or inhibitory synapse loss after ischemia. Therefore, these signaling cascades represent putative therapeutic targets for prevention of cognitive deficits following ischemic stroke.I next wanted to determine if BDNF played a role in another type of hippocampal injury such as post-traumatic epilepsy. Using the Schaffer collateral transection model, I found that bdnf mRNA expression is upregulated shortly following a lesion and that scavenging BDNF with TrkB-Fc prevented lesion-induced axonal remodeling and inhibited the formation of a recurrent network. Given that axonal remodelling is a classic hallmark of post-traumatic epilepsy, my data identifies a specific therapeutic pathway that may prevent epileptogenesis in patients following traumatic brain injury. Lastly, in order to better understand the source of this BDNF and also identify other therapeutic targets... " --

Neuro motor control and feed forward models of locomotion in humans

Neuro motor control and feed forward models of locomotion in humans Book
Author : Marco Iosa,Nadia Dominici,Federica Tamburella,Leonardo Gizzi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-29
ISBN : 2889196143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Locomotion involves many different muscles and the need of controlling several degrees of freedom. Despite the Central Nervous System can finely control the contraction of individual muscles, emerging evidences indicate that strategies for the reduction of the complexity of movement and for compensating the sensorimotor delays may be adopted. Experimental evidences in animal and lately human model led to the concept of a central pattern generator (CPG) which suggests that circuitry within the distal part of CNS, i.e. spinal cord, can generate the basic locomotor patterns, even in the absence of sensory information. Different studies pointed out the role of CPG in the control of locomotion as well as others investigated the neuroplasticity of CPG allowing for gait recovery after spinal cord lesion. Literature was also focused on muscle synergies, i.e. the combination of (locomotor) functional modules, implemented in neuronal networks of the spinal cord, generating specific motor output by imposing a specific timing structure and appropriate weightings to muscle activations. Despite the great interest that this approach generated in the last years in the Scientific Community, large areas of investigations remain available for further improvement (e.g. the influence of afferent feedback and environmental constrains) for both experimental and simulated models. However, also supraspinal structures are involved during locomotion, and it has been shown that they are responsible for initiating and modifying the features of this basic rhythm, for stabilising the upright walking, and for coordinating movements in a dynamic changing environment. Furthermore, specific damages into spinal and supraspinal structures result in specific alterations of human locomotion, as evident in subjects with brain injuries such as stroke, brain trauma, or people with cerebral palsy, in people with death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra due to Parkinson’s disease, or in subjects with cerebellar dysfunctions, such as patients with ataxia. The role of cerebellum during locomotion has been shown to be related to coordination and adaptation of movements. Cerebellum is the structure of CNS where are conceivably located the internal models, that are neural representations miming meaningful aspects of our body, such as input/output characteristics of sensorimotor system. Internal model control has been shown to be at the basis of motor strategies for compensating delays or lacks in sensorimotor feedbacks, and some aspects of locomotion need predictive internal control, especially for improving gait dynamic stability, for avoiding obstacles or when sensory feedback is altered or lacking. Furthermore, despite internal model concepts are widespread in neuroscience and neurocognitive science, neurorehabilitation paid far too little attention to the potential role of internal model control on gait recovery. Many important scientists have contributed to this Research Topic with original studies, computational studies, and review articles focused on neural circuits and internal models involved in the control of human locomotion, aiming at understanding the role played in control of locomotion of different neural circuits located at brain, cerebellum, and spinal cord levels.

Current Research in Acupuncture

Current Research in Acupuncture Book
Author : Ying Xia,Guanghong Ding,Gen-Cheng Wu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-08-09
ISBN : 1461433576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by over 60 scientists and clincicians from the United States, mainland China, Germany, Australia, Japan, Sweden, Portugal and Hong Kong, Current Research in Acupuncture discusses recent advances in acupuncture research in a modern scientific language. The first 5 chapters investigate the basic mechanisms of acupuncture. Later chapters explore topics including acupuncture treatment and potential mechanisms for epilepsy, Parkinson’s diseases, neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment, aging, anxiety, polycystic ovary syndrome, pain, nerve root cervical spondylosis, stroke, imflamation, myocardial ischemia and other cardiovascular diseases. Following the translational and clinical discussions, 4 chapters present new prospects for acupuncture theories and applications. The final chapter comments on the pitfalls and problems of the previous studies and suggests direction for future research towards in-depth understanding of acupuncture, along with better application of acupuncture in modern medicine. Each chapter is written by one or more experts in the field. This unique book provides a broad perspective on the principles of acupuncture for acupuncture researchers and neuroscientists. The laboratory and clinical investigations of various acupoints and optimal conditions provide unique clues to acupuncturists for improved clinical efficacy. For a medical student, this book is a modern course in ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine, especially acupuncture. Ying Xia, the chief editor, is Professor and Vice-Chairman of the Department of Neurosurgery at The University of Texas Medical School in Houston, Texas, USA. Guanghong Ding is Professor in the Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science at Fudan University and Director of Shanghai Research Center for Acupuncture and Meridians, Shanghai, China. Gen-Cheng Wu is Professor of Neurobiology; Chairman, Department of Integrative Medicine and Neurobiology; Director, Institute of Acupuncture Research; and Director, WHO Collaborating Center for Traditional Medicine, at Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Chemical Reprogramming of Astrocytes Into Functional Neurons for CNS Repair

Chemical Reprogramming of Astrocytes Into Functional Neurons for CNS Repair Book
Author : Lei Zhang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) possesses very limited self-repair capability: very few newborn neurons are generated during adulthood. Regeneration of neurons in the CNS when injured or under pathological conditions remains a major challenge for functional recovery. Current efforts largely focus on cell replacement therapy with exogenous cells derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate neurons (Sahni and Kessler, 2010; Takahashi et al., 2007; Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006). In spite of the great promise, cell transplantation approaches face significant hurdles, such as poor survival rate, immunorejection, tumorigenesis and differentiation uncertainty (Lee et al., 2013; Lukovic et al., 2014). Glial cells represent a large reservoir for generating neurons locally. In response to CNS injury, glial cells (e.g., astrocytes, NG2 cells and microglia) are activated to proliferate and become hypertrophic to occupy the injured CNS area, thus limiting the spreading of injury in the acute stage (Pekny and Nilsson, 2005; Robel et al., 2011; Sofroniew and Vinters, 2010). On the other hand, long-term occupancy of the injury sites by reactive glial cells will result in the secretion of neuroinhibitory factors that prevent neuronal growth, eventually forming glial scars inside the CNS (Sofroniew and Vinters, 2010). Reactive glial cells have been widely reported after brain injury, spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimers disease (AD) (Burda and Sofroniew, 2014; Gwak et al., 2012; Pekny and Nilsson, 2005; Sofroniew and Vinters, 2010; Verkhratsky et al., 2012). Recent studies, including our own, have demonstrated that astroglial cells can be directly converted into functional neurons in vitro (Guo et al., 2014; Heinrich et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2015) and in vivo (Grande et al., 2013; Guo et al., 2014; Heinrich et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2013; Torper et al., 2013) by ectopic overexpression of neural transcription factors (TFs). So far, conversion of glial cells into neurons has been largely achieved using viral-based expression of TFs, but clinical applications might be hampered due to complex brain surgery and genetic alteration. Here we report a novel technology, chemical reprogramming that uses defined small molecules to reprogram cultured human astrocytes into functional neurons with high efficiency. Chemically converted human neurons can survive in long-term culture and in the mouse brain. Moreover, they form elaborate neuronal networks in culture and can integrate into mouse neural circuits. We further examined the mechanisms underlying small molecule-induced glia-to-neuron conversion. Our results suggest that human neurons can be directly generated by conversion of human astrocytes without a transient stem cell stage. Intriguingly, epigenetic silencing of glial genes and transcriptional activation of neural TFs, such as NEUROD1 and NGN2, are involved in chemical reprogramming. In addition, we evaluated the functional role of each individual small molecule included in the cocktail and identified the core molecules that are essential for highly efficient glia-to-neuron reprogramming. Towards future therapeutic applications, we also tested the effect of a small-molecule cocktail on neurogenesis in vivo. Interestingly, the small molecules injected into mouse brains induced stem cell properties in cortical and striatal astrocytes. Moreover, adult neurogenesis was significantly enhanced by local injection of small molecules in adult mouse hippocampus. In conclusion, our study opens a new avenue using chemical compounds to reprogram reactive glial cells into functional neurons for CNS repair. Our chemical reprogramming method may potentially be translated into clinical therapy to help patients suffering from CNS disorders.

Molecular and Cell Biology of Human Gene Therapeutics

Molecular and Cell Biology of Human Gene Therapeutics Book
Author : G. Dickson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401105472
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

advanced metastatic disease of solid tumors, dictates that each tumor mass, indeed each individual metastasis, will have a unique antigen and cytokine environment and hence unique response to immune modu lation. A differential response to immunotherapy is thus inevitable. 4. Many of the human trials described are not randomized and report survival or response against historical controls. Most tumors described are immunogenic human tumors: renal cell cancer and melanoma are most common. In order to avoid the well-described inter-patient vari ation and rare incidence of spontaneous response among patient samples as well as selection bias and changes in practice over time, randomized trials are required. 5. Immunological treatment is unlike conventional chemotherapy in its endpoint. Most chemotherapeutic regimes require a complete response or a good partial response for cure or good palliation. There are now many cases where immunotherapy has provided long-term palliation without massive tumor reduction. Immunity may be stimulated to a degree which holds tumorigenicity in check and most importantly, pro vides good palliation for the patient in a manner that differs essentially from chemotherapy.