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Neuroinflammation In Neuronal Death And Repair

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Neuro inflammation in Neuronal Death and Repair

Neuro inflammation in Neuronal Death and Repair Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-07-25
ISBN : 0080550568
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroinflammation has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. The cross-talk between neurons and non-neuronal cells seems to be a critical step in the progression of neurodegeneration and molecules that have a beneficial role may turn into harmful players. Thus, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are involved in axonal growth and regeneration as well as synaptic plasticity, may also have detrimental effects. Recent evidence has linked MMPs to conditions like ischemia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease and suggested that, together with their role in the degradation of extracellular macromolecules, MMPs could work as important signalling molecules from injured neurons to the microglia. Thus, MMP-3 has been shown to induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from microglia via activation of ERK and NF-kB-dependent pathways. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of a balanced cross-talk between neurons and non-neuronal cells and indicates that the presence of reactive astrocytes, the activation of microglia and the release of inflammatory mediators may contribute to the progression of many central nervous system disorders, independently of the nature of the primary pathogenic event. However, many aspects still remain controversial and much more effort is needed to understand the role of neuroinflammatory mediators and processes in these conditions. This volume brings together renowned, international scientists to discuss current knowledge and views on the mechanisms of neuroinflammation, on its role in the context of different neurodegenerative diseases (i.e. Alzheimer's, prion disease, HIV-associated dementia, multiple sclerosis, pain) and on the potential approaches for future therapeutic strategies.

Neuroinflammation in Neuronal Death and Repair

Neuroinflammation in Neuronal Death and Repair Book
Author : Giacinto Bagetta,M. Tiziana Corasaniti,Stuart A. Lipton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0123739896
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A current review of the mechanisms of neuroinflammation and their role in neurodegenerative disorders.

Mechanisms of Neuronal Recovery in the Central Nervous System

Mechanisms of Neuronal Recovery in the Central Nervous System Book
Author : Luis B. Tovar-y-Romo,Alicia Guemez-Gamboa,João M. N. Duarte
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-10-13
ISBN : 2889714705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Mechanisms of Neuronal Recovery in the Central Nervous System book written by Luis B. Tovar-y-Romo,Alicia Guemez-Gamboa,João M. N. Duarte, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Update on Dementia

Update on Dementia Book
Author : Davide Moretti
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-09-28
ISBN : 9535126547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dementia challenge is the largest health effort of the times we live in. The whole society has to move to a realization of the significance of prioritization to make an attempt in the direction of mental health promotion and dementia risk reduction. New priorities for research are needed to go far beyond the usual goal of constructing a disease course-modifying medication. Moreover, a full empowerment and engagement of men and women living with dementia and their caregivers, overcoming stigma and discrimination should be promoted. The common efforts and the final aim will have to be the progress of a ''dementia-constructive'' world, where people with dementia can take advantage of equal opportunities.

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration Book
Author : Phillip K. Peterson,Michal Toborek
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 149391071X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

State of the art reviews by experts in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, microbiology/infectious diseases and pharmacology addressing the convergence of the immune system (neuroinflammation) and the loss of neurons (neurodegeneration). Many of the diseases that are discussed in the book are of epidemic proportion, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, viral encephalitides and substance abuse. In addition to discussions of the involvement of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these disorders, scientific reviews are presented on the cells and mediators that participate in defense of and damage to the nervous system. With rare exception, no or inadequate treatment exists for the diseases discussed in this book. An underlying premise of the book is that understanding of their shared pathogenic mechanisms will lead to improved therapies. Given the rapid evolution of the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, readers will find this book to be the most timely and authoritative reference on the subject of each of its chapters.

Innate Immune Responses During Neuronal Death and Regeneration

Innate Immune Responses During Neuronal Death and Regeneration Book
Author : Linda V. Blomster,University of Western Australia
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

[Truncated abstract] Trauma to the central nervous system (CNS) results in immediate local cell death and axonal damage at the site of impact. The poor environment around the lesion site triggers a cascade of events, including a large inflammatory response that exacerbates tissue damage. This so-called process of secondary degeneration is thought to ultimately lead to a worsened prospect for functional recovery. As the CNS is generally thought to lack the ability of self-repair, any acquired damage is considered irreversible. Development of therapeutic strategies that can reduce secondary damage is thus of vast importance to prevent additional tissue loss and improve outcomes. Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs following neurotrauma does not always translate into an improved outcome for patients, suggesting that some aspects of the inflammatory response may be beneficial as part of the wound healing process. Macrophages are cells of the innate immune system that can mediate both inflammation and tissue repair processes in many peripheral organs. However, much less is known on the role of these cells in context of the CNS where mostly injurious roles have been highlighted as part of secondary immunopathology following neurotraumic events. The molecular mechanisms that control recruitment and activation profiles of blood-derived monocytes / macrophages are also poorly understood. The chemokine receptor CX3CR1 is expressed by all cells of monocytic origin. The only known ligand for this receptor is fractalkine/CX3CL1, which can be secreted by neurons and thus provide a link for direct communication between the nervous system and the immune system. Upon activation by fractalkine, CX3CR1 has been shown to induce an anti-inflammatory profile in receptor-bearing cells in vitro as well as in neurodegenerative diseases in vivo. The main aim of this PhD thesis was to better understand the origins of monocyte-derived cells in neural tissues and their contribution to secondary pathology following injury. Initially, recruitment of monocyte-derived cells, and the role of CX3CR1 therein, was studied using the primary olfactory pathway as a regenerative model system with naturally occurring neuronal cell death and replacement. This study revealed that CX3CR1 is important for maintaining the macrophage population in the olfactory epithelium during normal homeostasis. Study two of this thesis focused on the origins and activation profile of monocyte-derived macrophages in a model of experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. It was demonstrated that blood-derived macrophages are mobilised from the spleen in the early phase after injury. An altered recruitment and/or activation profile of these infiltrating cells could significantly change the histological and functional outcomes following injury. In addition, it was shown that the origin of monocyte-derived macrophages did not appear to dictate the functional phenotype of these cells at the lesion site based on the expression of select activation markers...

Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders

Innate immunity and neurodegenerative disorders Book
Author : Roger A Barker,Francesca Cicchetti
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-03
ISBN : 2889193101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation of the brain in the context of neurodegenerative disorders is an area of intense debate and discussion, not least in terms of its pathogenic significance and the extent to which it drives disease processes and pathology. This inflammation can take several forms including innate responses recruiting microglia, humoral responses involving antibody, complement mediated processes and cellular T-cell activation, of which the role and extent of each may differ between diseases. Whilst some diseases have been more intensely linked to inflammation and long-term degeneration (e.g. MS), more traditional chronic neurodegenerative disorders have been thought of in terms of intrinsic neuronal pathology with a secondary innate response. However, it has been described that microglia activation is an early event of many degenerative disorders and evidence is accumulating that it may play a critical role in actually causing pathology and driving disease processes. If true, this would have major therapeutic implications, but what is the evidence that this is the case? The initial observations by Patrick McGeer’s group of post-mortem tissue from patients with Parkinson’s disease revealed the presence of activated brain microglia and has thus lead to the hypothesis that chronic inflammation could participate to neuronal degenerative processes. The significance of these original observations has only been recently revisited, and the development of more powerful tools to study the brain immune response has certainly contributed to this field of research. Chronic inflammation in the brain can take many forms but of particular interest has been the resident microglia and the role they play in this process. In this context, microglia have often been thought to become activated only after the disease has begun and then to contribute minimally to the degenerative process. Emerging new concepts challenge this view by proposing that microglial senescence, for example, may release the disease process and/or accelerate it. In addition, microglia, once activated, can adopt different phenotypes which can be both pro-inflammatory and pro-repair and may impact not only on the healthy adult neuronal population but on those new neurons derived from neurogenic niches of the adult brain. In this Research Topic, we attempt to explore this by first considering the innate immune responses in the brain and the methods by which they can be studied experimentally and in patients with various neurodegenerative disorders. This sets the scene for then discussing a range of different disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. These papers seek to discuss the evidence for an innate immune response and whether this is beneficial or detrimental, as well as its therapeutic implications.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Alireza Minagar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-12-17
ISBN : 9780123849144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation is a central mechanism in many neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and brain trauma as well as meningitis and contributes to the generation of pain. We are now beginning to understand the impact of the immune system on different nervous system functions and diseases, ranging from damage through tolerance to modulation and repair. This book discusses some of the more common neuro-inflammatory diseases. Topics covered include multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis and Susac syndrome. Comprehensive review of the latest developments in neuroinflammation Includes contributions from leading authorities

Igniting Inflammation

Igniting Inflammation Book
Author : Kendra Joan Lechtenberg
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stroke is a cerebrovascular event resulting in cell death in the brain, neurological deficits, and other complications. Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, but in spite of its prevalence, treatments remain extremely limited. Neuroinflammation after stroke is an appealing therapeutic target, because of its prolonged time course and because it includes multifaceted responses which may either exacerbate or mitigate neuronal death and facilitate injury resolution and repair. Microglia are the brain's resident macrophage population and are central to the neuro-immune response after stroke by becoming activated in response to cellular damage, initiating inflammation, releasing chemokines and pro-inflammatory signaling molecules, clearing dead cells and debris, and secreting growth factors to promote tissue repair. Furthermore, microglia recruit peripheral immune cells into the injured brain, such as monocyte-derived macro-phages, which also contribute to these aspects of the neuro-immune response. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the events in the neuroinflammatory response to ischemic stroke and highlights current knowledge and controversies about microglial functions in post-stroke neuroinflammation. Much is still unknown about which microglial functions are most important to the overall immune response after stroke, and how those functions change over time. Particularly little is known about the pivotal role that microglia play in initiating neuroinflammation after stroke, and the different signals which regulate the microglial and macrophage response. The sympathetic nervous system is activated after stroke, and previous studies indicate that sympathetic neurotransmitters inhibit inflammatory activities of immune cells primarily by acting on beta2-adrenergic receptors. In Chapter 2, I use pharmacological stimulation of beta2-adrenergic signaling and genetic knockout of the beta2-adrenergic receptor from microglia and macrophages to evaluate the extent to which beta2-adrenergic receptor signaling modulates the activation and inflammatory functions of these cells following ischemic stroke. In Chapter 3, I leverage gene expression profiling of ribosome-associated mRNA from microglia to characterize the microglial transcriptional profile in the early response phase after stroke compared to the later sub-acute phase. This work reveals robust pro-inflammatory signaling of microglia during the initiation of post-stroke neuroinflammation and demonstrates that this response changes over time. This analysis also identified several genes strongly upregulated during the acute and sub-acute micro-glial inflammatory responses, and Chapter 4 describes ongoing work to investigate the functional role of some of these molecules in stroke recovery and neuro-immune signaling. Chapter 5 provides a summary of the findings reported in this dissertation, and de-scribes ongoing work and future studies.

Inflammation and Stroke

Inflammation and Stroke Book
Author : Giora Z. Feuerstein
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3034882971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stroke is a leading cause of death in developed countries. However, current therapeutic strategies for stroke have been largely unsuccessful. One possible explanation is that research and pharmacological management have focused on very early events in brain ischemia. New research has shown that brain ischemia and trauma elicit strong inflammatory reactions driven by both external and brain cells. The recognition of inflammation as a fundamental response to brain ischemia provides novel opportunities for new anti-inflammatory therapies. For the first time, an international body of researchers presents the latest findings about the cellular and humoral aspects of immune and inflammatory reactions in the brain. The work may have an impact on the treatment of neuroinjuries and ancillary brain diseases, and increase the understanding of the roles infections and immune reactions play in the brain milieu.

Neuronal Cell Death

Neuronal Cell Death Book
Author : Laura Lossi,Adalberto Merighi
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2014-11-28
ISBN : 9781493921515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume represents a valuable and readily reproducible collection of established and emerging techniques for neuronal cell death research. Conveniently divided into four parts, sections cover a series of techniques for the molecular, structural, functional and genomic characterization of dying neurons, a number of protocols that are of primary interest in neuropathology and in experimental neuropathology, a series of gene engineering techniques to obtain and manipulate neuronal stem cells and progenitors, to prepare HSV-1 vectors for the gene therapy, and to CNS transplantation of bone marrow stem cells, and finally, some very interesting protocols for the study of cell death in non-mammalian models. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Neuronal Cell Death: Methods and Protocols seeks to serve a large audience of scientists that are currently active in the field or are willing to enter such an exciting and still expanding area of neurobiology.

Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation

Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-03-16
ISBN : 0309463653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroinflammation is a burgeoning area of interest in academia and biopharma, with a broadly acknowledged role in many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, there is little agreement on the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie the manifestations of neuroinflammation in the CNS compartment and how neuroinflammation operates as a driver and also as a consequence of disease in the brain. Moreover, another unclear area is how to translate increased understanding of the mechanisms that underlie neuroinflammation and its manifestations in the CNS to therapeutics. To address these gaps in understanding mechanisms and how to translate that understanding into therapeutics, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 20-21, 2017, bringing together key leaders in the field from industry, academia, and governmental agencies to explore the role and mechanisms of neuroinflammation in a variety of CNS diseases. The workshop also considered strategies to advance the identification and validation of biomarkers of neuroinflammation that could accelerate development of therapies, bringing much-needed treatments to patients with disorders ranging from neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury Book
Author : Kim Heidenreich
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-09-27
ISBN : 0128027010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New Therapeutics for Traumatic Brain Injury: Prevention of Secondary Brain Damage and Enhancement of Repair and Regeneration explores traumatic brain injury (TBI), a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. The delayed nature of the secondary injury phase suggests that there is a therapeutic window for pharmacological interventions or other approaches to prevent progressive tissue damage and improve functional outcomes. It is now apparent that therapeutic interventions should entail both protective and repair/regeneration strategies depending on the phase of brain injury. This book describes emerging experimental strategies for the treatment of TBI, including new anti-inflammatory or anti-apoptotic therapeutics that limit brain damage, and novel or repurposed drugs that enhance repair or regeneration of the brain after injury. Comprehensive overview of basic approaches and translational development of new therapies for TBI Edited by a prominent TBI researcher that includes contributions by leading global researchers in the field Presents a great resource for researchers and practitioners to learn more about the many evolving preclinical studies and clinical trials currently underway, and the challenges of bringing translational studies in TBI to the clinic

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 9535134515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Interaction Between Neurons and Glia in Aging and Disease

Interaction Between Neurons and Glia in Aging and Disease Book
Author : Ana Cristina Rego,Joao Malva,Rodrigo Cunha,Catarina Oliveira
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-08-09
ISBN : 0387708308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A superb source of reference reviews as well as a concise overview of the functional cross-talk between neurons and glial cells, this book also focuses on microglia and inflammation in the aging brain and in neurological disorders. The scientific spectrum covered by this book is of key interest, and is recognized by the scientific community as a major competitive area with critical implications for human health.

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Paul L. Wood
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2002-12-18
ISBN : 159259297X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this thoroughly updated and revised edition of his much praised book, Paul L. Wood and a panel of leading researchers capture these new developments in a masterful synthesis of what is known today about the inflammatory mediators and cells involved in neurodegenerative diseases. This second edition contains extensive updates on the mediators produced by microglia and their role in neuroinflammatory-induced neuronal lysis. There is also increased coverage of the animal models used in the study of neuroinflammatory mechanisms, of the new imaging methods that allow the noninvasive evaluation of microglial activation in human neurodegernerative disorders, and of the role of neuroinflammation in amyloid-dependent neuronal lysis.

Non Neuronal Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Repair After Stroke

Non Neuronal Mechanisms of Brain Damage and Repair After Stroke Book
Author : Jun Chen,John H. Zhang,Xiaoming Hu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-11
ISBN : 3319323377
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest research in the role of non-neuronal cells - astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, microglia, and other immune cells in ischemic brain injury and long-term recovery. In these cases, neurodegeneration and brain repair are controlled in a sophisticated system, incorporating interactions between different cell types and cellular systems. Also explored are the therapeutic strategies that target non-neuronal responses after stroke and their translational potentials.

Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke

Immunological Mechanisms and Therapies in Brain Injuries and Stroke Book
Author : Jun Chen,Xiaoming Hu,Mary Stenzel-Poore,John H. Zhang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-09
ISBN : 1461489156
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent research has revealed the importance of immunological mechanisms and inflammation in delaying damage and/or promoting repair after an acute injury to the central nervous system. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the role of immunological mechanisms and therapies for treating acute neurological injuries such as cerebral ischemia, hemorrhage, and brain and spinal cord trauma. In several sections, the contributing authors provide a review of immunological mechanisms involved in neurological injury and of various translational and clinical research aimed at harnessing those mechanisms for better patient outcomes.​

Alzheimer s Disease

Alzheimer s Disease Book
Author : Inga Zerr
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2015-07-01
ISBN : 9535121375
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is a wide scope of clinical phenomenology in Alzheimers disease, regarding the age of onset, presenting features, rate of progression and appearance of other clinical manifestation. Although clinical appearance and neuropathological hallmarks have been defining AD since its first description, major factors which trigger pathology are still unknown. The role of comorbidity is discussed controversially. Important environmental risk factors in AD development are continuous stress, low education and cardiovascular risk factors such as alcohol intake, smoking, hypertension. The role of lipids and cholesterol has been recognized, but the relevant pathogenetic steps are still to be identified. There is an urgent need to understand molecular disease pathogenesis in order to develop early therapeutic targets for the disease.

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases

Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Marie-Francoise Chesselet
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000-10-19
ISBN : 1592590063
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the unprecedented identification of new mutation mechanisms in neurodegenerative diseases and the emergence of common mechanisms among diseases that were once considered unrelated, neurobiologists are poised for the development of new therapies based on high throughput screenings and a better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration. In Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, MD, PhD, and a panel of leading researchers and neurologists from industry and academia critically review the most recent advances from different yet complementary points of view. Focusing on Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and CAG triplet repeat diseases, the authors show how studies of cellular and genetically engineered animal models have enhanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases and may lead to the development of new therapeutics. Topics include the role of Ab toxicity, glial cells, and inflammation in Alzheimer's disease; the formation of abnormal protein fragments across several diseases, the impact of dopamine and mitochondrial dysfunction on neurodegeneration; and the potential of genetics to identify the molecular mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. Authoritative and insightful, Molecular Mechanisms of Neurodegenerative Diseases synthesizes the novel ideas and concepts now emerging to create a fresh understanding of neurodegenerative disorders, one that promises to lead to powerful new therapies that prevent, delay the onset, slow the progression, or even cure these cruel diseases.