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Neuroinflammation And Cognition

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Neuroinflammation and Cognition

Neuroinflammation and Cognition Book
Author : Ashok Kumar,Brandi K Ormerod,Yogesh Dwivedi,Jakob W Streit
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-03-22
ISBN : 2889457605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aging is one of the major risk factors for the onset and progression of various neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammation is a common feature of virtually every central nervous system disease, and is acknowledged as a likely mediator of cognitive impairments. Systemic inflammation levels are augmented with advanced age and neurodegeneration. The influence of age on neuroinflammatory responses including glial activation, increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, and aberrant neuronal signaling could magnify the deterioration of the central nervous system microenvironment in disease, and may contribute to enhanced cognitive impairment. This eBook is a collection of highly informative original research articles, providing comprehensive aspect of neuroinflammation and possible therapeutic interventions in rescuing cognitive impairments.

Mild Cognitive Impairment

Mild Cognitive Impairment Book
Author : Ronald C. Petersen
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2003-01-09
ISBN : 9780198028741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What are the boundary zones between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? Are many elderly people whom we regard as normal actually in the early stages of AD? Alzheimer's disease does not develop overnight; the early phases may last for years or even decades. Recently, clinical investigators have identified a transitional condition between normal aging and and very early Alzheimer's disease that they have called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. This term typically refers to memory impairment beyond what one would expect in individuals of a given age whose other abilities to function in daily life are well preserved. Persons who meet the criteria for mild cognitive impairment have an increased risk of progressing to Alzheimer's disease in the near future. Though many questions about this condition and its underlying neuropathology remain open, full clinical trials are currently underway worldwide aimed at preventing the progression from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. This book addresses the spectrum of issues involved in mild cognitive impairment, and includes chapters on clinical studies, neuropsychology, neuroimaging, neuropathology, biological markers, diagnostic approaches, and treatment. It is intended for clinicians, researchers, and students interested in aging and cognition, among them neurologists, psychiatrists, geriatricians, clinical psychologists, and neuropsychologists.

Perioperative Care of the Elderly

Perioperative Care of the Elderly Book
Author : Gabriella Bettelli
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-11-30
ISBN : 1107139341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This innovative, comprehensive book covers the key elements of perioperative management of older patients. The book's chapter structure coincides with the clinical path patients tread during their treatment, from preoperative evaluation to post-hospital care. Epidemiological aspects and aging processes are illustrated, providing keys to understanding the quick expansion of geriatric surgery and defining the clinical profile of older surgical patients in a cybernetic perspective. Preoperative evaluation and preparation for surgery, including medication reconciliation and pre-habilitation, are developed in the light of supporting decision-making about surgery in an evidence-based and patient-focused way. Intra- and postoperative management are discussed, aiming to tailor anesthetic, surgical and nursing approaches to specific patients' needs, in order to prevent both general and age-related complications. This volume also addresses issues relevant to geriatric surgery, from different organizational models to clinical risk management and systems engineering applied to hospital organization.

The Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders

The Perioperative Neurocognitive Disorders Book
Author : Roderic G. Eckenhoff,Niccol- Terrando
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-03-28
ISBN : 1107559200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A practical guide to perioperative cognitive disorders, the most common complications of anesthesia and surgery in older people.

Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia

Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia Book
Author : Golam M. Khandaker,Urs Meyer,Peter B. Jones
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-01-23
ISBN : 9783030391409
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive summary of the cutting edge scientific evidence regarding the role of immune system in the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It illustrates the role of inflammation and immunity in schizophrenia drawing on both basic science and clinical research. The chapters provide up-to-date summaries of immunological risk factors for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, and underlying mechanisms as informed by neuroimaging, genetic, clinical and animal experimental studies. In addition, the book will illuminate the scope for immunological treatment for schizophrenia.

Type 2 Diabetes and Dementia

Type 2 Diabetes and Dementia Book
Author : Velandai Srikanth,Zoe Arvanitakis
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-02-09
ISBN : 0128096942
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Type 2 Diabetes and Dementia details the relationship between diabetes, dementia and the future of medicine and therapeutics. Chapters range from epidemiology, clinical features, neuroimaging biomarkers, neuropathology, macrostructural and molecular mechanisms, risk assessment and prevention strategies, and the application of therapeutics. The book reflects the translational aspects of the current science in the field, with an emphasis on the display of neuroimaging and neuropathology. It contains contributions from world experts, and is ideal for clinicians and researchers in the fields of neurology, neuroscience, geriatric medicine and endocrinology. Presents a comprehensive overview that details the relationship between diabetes, dementia and the future of medicine and therapeutics Written for researchers and clinicians in neurology, neuroscience, geriatric medicine and endocrinology Includes topics ranging from epidemiology, clinical features, neuroimaging biomarkers, neuropathology, macrostructural and molecular mechanisms, risk assessment, prevention strategies and therapeutic applications

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Diseases Book
Author : Tahira Farooqui,Akhlaq A. Farooqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 0128119608
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Role of the Mediterranean Diet in the Brain and Neurodegenerative Disease provides a comprehensive overview of the effects of all components of the Mediterranean diet on the brain, along with its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. It covers topics on neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease, (PD) Huntington disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also providing information on how cardiovascular disease, Type 2 Diabetes, and Metabolic Syndrome become risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases. This book focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases as well as signal transduction. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by the abundant consumption of olive oil, high consumption of plant foods (fruits, vegetables, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds); frequent and moderate intake of wine (mainly with meals); moderate consumption of fish, seafood, yogurt, cheese, poultry and eggs; and low consumption of red meat and processed meat products. High consumption of dietary fiber, low glycemic index and glycemic load, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant compounds may act together to produce favorable effects on health status. Collective evidence suggests that Mediterranean diet not only increases longevity by lowering cardiovascular disease, inhibiting cancer growth, but also by protecting the body from age-dependent cognitive decline. Comprehensively provides an overview of the effects of the Mediterranean diet on the brain and its beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases Discusses the relationship among Type 2 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease, and the effect of the Mediterranean diet on normal aging, longevity, and other neurodegenerative diseases Focuses on how the Mediterranean diet suppresses oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disease

Neuroinflammation

Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Alireza Minagar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-12-17
ISBN : 9780123849144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Inflammation is a central mechanism in many neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, and brain trauma as well as meningitis and contributes to the generation of pain. We are now beginning to understand the impact of the immune system on different nervous system functions and diseases, ranging from damage through tolerance to modulation and repair. This book discusses some of the more common neuro-inflammatory diseases. Topics covered include multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis and Susac syndrome. Comprehensive review of the latest developments in neuroinflammation Includes contributions from leading authorities

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain

Cytokines as Players of Neuronal Plasticity and Sensitivity to Environment in Healthy and Pathological Brain Book
Author : Silvia Alboni,Laura Maggi
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-03-18
ISBN : 2889197689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is now accepted that immune molecules are not only present within the brain during pathology but they exert physiological functions in the “healthy” brain as well. Increasing evidence points to a neuro-modulatory role of cytokines and chemokines (CHEMOtactic cytoKINES) in basal transmission and plasticity processes where signaling between peri-synaptic astrocytes, microglia and neurons plays an important role. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms as to how cytokines, and in particular chemokines, participate in the molecular and cellular processes thought to subserve memory formation, plasticity processes and responsiveness to environmental stimuli remain to be clarified. Interestingly, in in vitro preparations, molecules like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, CX3CL1, CXCL12, CCL2 and CCL3 are implicated in synaptic formation and scaling, in modulation of glutamatergic transmission, in plasticity and neurogenesis, in particular in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is an extremely plastic structure, one of the main neurogenic niches in the adult brain, that exhibits a marked sensibility to environmental stimuli. Indeed exposure of mice to environmental enrichment (EE) modifies learning and memory abilities increasing neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity whether exposure to severe stressful experiences diminishes neurotrophic support, impairs neurogenesis, plasticity and cognition. In the hippocampus cytokines play a key role in mediating both positive as well as negative effects of the environment affecting neuronal plasticity also in stress related pathologies, such as depression. It has been reported that mice lacking type 1 receptor for IL-1 display impaired hippocampal memory and LTP that are restored by EE; moreover negative effects on neuronal plasticity (and thus behavior) induced by stress exposure can be prevented by blocking IL-1 activity. In addition, mice lacking IL-6 have improved cognitive functions whereas the absence of microglia-driven CX3CR1 signaling increases hippocampal plasticity and spatial memory occluding the potentiating effects of EE. However, the factors mediating the effect of environmental stimuli on behavior and plasticity has been only partially identified. Interestingly, it has been suggested that chemokines can play a key role in the flexibility of hippocampal structure and may modulate neuronal signaling during behavior. The question is how cytokines may translate environmental stimuli in plasticity and behavioral changes. This research topic is proposed to explore the role of cytokines, and more in particular chemokines, in the modulation of neuronal activity as a fundamental step for the correct brain wiring, function and susceptibility to environment. We encourage the submission of original research reports, review articles, commentaries, perspectives or short communications, in the following (but not limited to) topics: - Role of cytokines and chemokines in neuronal plasticity - Immune molecules and responsiveness to environment - Role of chemokine in the flexibility of hippocampal structure

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour Book
Author : Luba Sominsky,Adam K. Walker,Deborah M. Hodgson
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-21
ISBN : 288919602X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will contribute to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. In this research topic we explored the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life. We include both original research and review papers from animal, clinical and molecular perspectives.

Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis

Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Book
Author : M. Filippi,G. Comi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 8847022347
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Why are there no effective treatments for my condition? Why do researchers exclude patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis from enrolling in clinical trials? Please let me know if you hear of studies that I might be allowed to enter or treatments that I could try for my condition. " Thus, in recent years, the sad lament of the patient with primary progressive MS (PPMS). This variant, often in the guise of a chronic progressive myelopathy or, less commonly, progressive cerebellar or bulbar dysfunction, usually responds poorly to corticosteroids and rarely seems to benefit to a significant degree from intensive immunosuppressive treatments. In recent years, most randomized clin ical trials have excluded PPMS patients on two counts. Clinical worsening devel ops slowly in PPMS and may not be recognized during the course of a 2-or 3-year trial even in untreated control patients. This factor alone adds to the potential for a type 2 error or, at the very least, inflates the sample size and duration of the trial. In addition, there is mounting evidence that progressive axonal degeneration and neuronal loss (rather than active, recurrent inflammation) may be important components of the pathology in this form of the disease. Although contemporary trials are evaluating whether PPMS patients may benefit from treatment with the ~-interferons and glatiramer acetate, preliminary, uncontrolled clinical experi ence suggests that the results may not be dramatic.

Perception and Cognition Interactions in the Aging Brain

Perception and Cognition  Interactions in the Aging Brain Book
Author : Harriet A. Allen,Katherine L. Roberts
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-09-13
ISBN : 2889199371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Healthy ageing can lead to declines in both perceptual and cognitive functions. Impaired perception, such as that resulting from hearing loss or reduced visual or tactile resolution, increases demands on ‘higher-level’ cognitive functions to cope or compensate. It is possible, for example, to use focused attention to overcome perceptual limitations. Unfortunately, cognitive functions also decline in old age. This can mean that perceptual impairments are exacerbated by cognitive decline, and vice versa, but also means that interventions aimed at one type of decline can lead to improvements in the other. Just as improved cognition can ameliorate perceptual deficits, improving the stimulus can help offset cognitive deficits. For example, making directions and routes easy to follow can help compensate for declines in navigation abilities. In this Topic, we bring together papers from both auditory and visual researchers that address the interaction between perception and cognition in the ageing brain. Many of the studies demonstrate that a broadening of representations or increased reliance on gist underlie perceptual and cognitive age-related declines. There is also clear evidence that impaired perception is associated with poor cognition although, encouragingly, it can also be seen that good perception is associated with better cognition. Compensatory cognitive strategies were less successful in improving perception than might be expected. We also present papers which highlight important methodological considerations that are required when studying the older brain.

Nutrition and Immunity

Nutrition and Immunity Book
Author : Maryam Mahmoudi,Nima Rezaei
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-30
ISBN : 3030160734
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides readers with a systematic assessment of current literature on the link between nutrition and immunity. Chapters cover immunonutrition topics such as child development, cancer, aging, allergic asthma, food intolerance, obesity, and chronic critical illness. It also presents a thorough review of microflora of the gut and the essential role it plays in regulating the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. Written by experts in the field, Nutrition and Immunity helps readers to further understand the importance of healthy dietary patterns in relation to providing immunity against disorders and offering readily available immunonutritional programming in clinical care. It will be a valuable resource for dietitians, immunologists, endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals.

The Role of the Noradrenergic System in Cognition and Neuroinflammation

The Role of the Noradrenergic System in Cognition and Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gillian Ann Scullion
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Role of the Noradrenergic System in Cognition and Neuroinflammation book written by Gillian Ann Scullion, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 9535134515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Perioperative Care of the Elderly Patient

Perioperative Care of the Elderly Patient Book
Author : Sheila Ryan Barnett,Sara E. Neves
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2018-01-11
ISBN : 1107576296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This practical, useful guide is for all clinicians involved in perioperative care of the geriatric patient undergoing surgery with anesthesia.

Olfaction Taste and Cognition

Olfaction  Taste  and Cognition Book
Author : Catherine Rouby,Benoist Schaal,Danièle Dubois,Rémi Gervais,A. Holley
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2002-10-28
ISBN : 1139437526
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human organs of perception are constantly bombarded with chemicals from the environment. Our bodies have in turn developed complex processing systems, which manifest themselves in our emotions, memory, and language. Yet the available data on the high order cognitive implications of taste and smell are scattered among journals in many fields, with no single source synthesizing the large body of knowledge, much of which has appeared in the last decade. This book presents the first multidisciplinary synthesis of the literature in olfactory and gustatory cognition. Leading experts have written chapters on many facets of taste and smell, including odor memory, cortical representations, psychophysics and functional imaging studies, genetic variation in taste, and the hedonistic dimensions of odors. The approach is integrative, combining perspectives from neuroscience, psychology, anthropology, philosophy, and linguistics, and is appropriate for students and researchers in all of these areas who seek an authoritative reference on olfaction, taste, and cognition.

Update on Dementia

Update on Dementia Book
Author : Davide Moretti
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-09-28
ISBN : 9535126547
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The dementia challenge is the largest health effort of the times we live in. The whole society has to move to a realization of the significance of prioritization to make an attempt in the direction of mental health promotion and dementia risk reduction. New priorities for research are needed to go far beyond the usual goal of constructing a disease course-modifying medication. Moreover, a full empowerment and engagement of men and women living with dementia and their caregivers, overcoming stigma and discrimination should be promoted. The common efforts and the final aim will have to be the progress of a ''dementia-constructive'' world, where people with dementia can take advantage of equal opportunities.

Obesity and Mental Disorders

Obesity and Mental Disorders Book
Author : Susan L. McElroy,David B. Allison,George A. Bray
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-01-13
ISBN : 0849374510
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Currently, there are a limited amount of guidelines to help clinicians manage patients with obesity and comorbid mental disorders. This expertly written source fills the gap in the literature by providing a clear overview of obesity and its relationship to mental illness while reviewing the most recent methods to manage and control the condition with diet, exercise, psychological treatments, pharmacotherapy, and surgery.

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration

Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration Book
Author : Phillip K. Peterson,Michal Toborek
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 149391071X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

State of the art reviews by experts in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, microbiology/infectious diseases and pharmacology addressing the convergence of the immune system (neuroinflammation) and the loss of neurons (neurodegeneration). Many of the diseases that are discussed in the book are of epidemic proportion, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, viral encephalitides and substance abuse. In addition to discussions of the involvement of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration in these disorders, scientific reviews are presented on the cells and mediators that participate in defense of and damage to the nervous system. With rare exception, no or inadequate treatment exists for the diseases discussed in this book. An underlying premise of the book is that understanding of their shared pathogenic mechanisms will lead to improved therapies. Given the rapid evolution of the field of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, readers will find this book to be the most timely and authoritative reference on the subject of each of its chapters.