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Neuroinflammation And Behaviour

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Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour Book
Author : Luba Sominsky,Adam K. Walker,Deborah M. Hodgson
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-21
ISBN : 288919602X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will contribute to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. In this research topic we explored the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life. We include both original research and review papers from animal, clinical and molecular perspectives.

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour

Neuroinflammation and Behaviour Book
Author : Luba Sominsky,Adam K. Walker,Deborah M. Hodgson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain and immune system are involved in an intricate network of bidirectional communication. This relationship is vital for optimal physiological and psychological development and functioning but can also result in unwanted outcomes. In particular, this interaction plays an important role in cognition, mood and behaviour. Neuroinflammation is known to contribute to neurological and affective disorders including impaired learning and memory, depressive, anxiety and schizoaffective symptoms, as well as pain. The development of these conditions often occurs on the backdrop of pre-existing physical illnesses which give rise to increased activation of the immune system, such as cancer, obesity, infection and autoimmune disorders. Similarly, psychological states can alter regulation of the immune system. This has been most extensively studied in the context of stress and immune function. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that lead to the onset of inflammation-induced neuropathology and stress-induced immune suppression will lead to the development of novel and effective treatment strategies for both the disease and its neurological side effects. The aim of this research topic is to explore the relationship between the immune system and the brain throughout life from the developing infant to the ageing individual.

Neuroinflammation Induces Time dependant Behavioral Cellular and Molecular Changes that Resemble Characteristics of Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Diseases and Can be Modulated by Caffeine Administration

Neuroinflammation Induces Time dependant Behavioral  Cellular and Molecular Changes that Resemble Characteristics of Alzheimer s and Parkinson s Diseases and Can be Modulated by Caffeine Administration Book
Author : Holly Marie Brothers
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, that may contribute to loss of function and cell death. Cell loss in the hippocampus and cortex is characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) is marked by the loss of cells in the substantia nigra (SN), and both the locus coeruleus (LC) and the raphe nucleus are known to be affected in these diseases. Caffeine, an adenosine antagonist, is protective against the risk of AD and PD. The experiments described in this thesis were designed to address the following two hypotheses: If neuroinflammation contributes to the onset/progression of behavioral, cellular and molecular characteristics of AD and PD in a time-dependant manner in the temporal lobe and brainstem, then neuroinflammation created in a young rat by i.c.v. infusion of LPS should reproduce a subset of time-dependant characteristics of AD and PD in these brain regions. If the actions of adenosine at its receptors contribute to the behavioral, cellular and molecular characteristics of AD and PD reproduced by LPS-induced neuroinflammation and natural aging in rats, then modulation of the consequences of neuroinflammation by the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine should attenuate the disease-like characteristics produced by neuroinflammation and aging. In order to test these hypotheses, young rats (3 months) were implanted with a cannula into the IVth ventricle that was connected to an osmotic minipump filled with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the vehicle (aCSF) for 2, 4 or 8 weeks and modulation by caffeine upon experimentally produced neuroinflammation in LPS-infused young rats and naturally occurring inflammation in aged rats was evaluated. We predicted that LPS-infusion would produce microglia activation (defined as presentation of MHC II) in the hippocampus and brainstem, regions that degenerate in AD and PD, that would increase in intensity over time, evidence of reduced function and potentially death of dopaminergic neurons within the SN that would also increase with time, and corresponding behavioral deficits. Furthermore, we predicted that caffeine, a drug with known epidemiological potential to reduce the incidence of both AD and PD, would attenuate the development of neuroinflammation and the behavioral, cellular and molecular consequences of inflammation in a dose-dependent manner. The infusion of LPS induced pronounced microglia activation and characteristic changes in morphology that increased with the duration of LPS infusion. The regional distribution of microglia presenting MHC II is heterogeneous and was concentrated in the DG of the hippocampus, SN, LC and raphe as compared to other regions, indicating that those regions most vulnerable to degeneration in a disease state are those with the greatest propensity to develop reactive microglia to an inflammagen. Rats that received LPS performed poorly in the Morris water maze, a task known to be sensitive to the integrity of the hippocampus. LPS-infused rats also displayed reduced production of tyrosine hydroxylase and therefore reduced dopamine synthesis in the SN and displayed dysmorphic neuronal structure in LC and the raphe nucleus.

Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology Book
Author : Robert Ader
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0120885778
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychoneuroimmunology is the study of interactions among behavioral, neural and endocrine, and immunologic processes of adaptation. These two volumes provide a clearly written, extensively referenced summary of some of the behavioral, neural and endocrine regulators of immune responses and immunologically mediated disease processes and of the behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of immune system activity. Several chapters expand upon topics reviewed in earlier editions of this series; most chapters cover active areas of research that have not previously been reviewed. As illustrated in this fourth edition, interdisciplinary research continues to provide evidence that the brain and immune system represent a single, integrated system of defense.

Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia

Neuroinflammation and Schizophrenia Book
Author : Golam M. Khandaker,Urs Meyer,Peter B. Jones
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-22
ISBN : 3030391418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive summary of the cutting edge scientific evidence regarding the role of immune system in the pathogenesis and treatment of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. It illustrates the role of inflammation and immunity in schizophrenia drawing on both basic science and clinical research. The chapters provide up-to-date summaries of immunological risk factors for schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders, and underlying mechanisms as informed by neuroimaging, genetic, clinical and animal experimental studies. In addition, the book will illuminate the scope for immunological treatment for schizophrenia.

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation

Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Gonzalo Emiliano Aranda Abreu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 9535134515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mechanisms of Neuroinflammation" book explains how the neuronal cells become swollen at the moment of the blood-brain barrier disruption and how they lose their immunological isolation. A cascade of cytokines and immune cells from the bloodstream enters the nervous system, inflaming neurons and activating the glia. This produces a neuroinflammatory process that can generate different neurodegenerative diseases. Better understanding of mechanisms that are activated at the time when the damage to the brain occurs could lead to the development of suitable therapies that revert the neuronal inflammation and thus prevent further damage to the nervous system.

Neuropeptide GPCRs in neuroendocrinology

Neuropeptide GPCRs in neuroendocrinology Book
Author : Jae Young Seong,Hubert Vaudry
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-07
ISBN : 2889192679
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human genome encompasses ˜ 860 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) including 374 non-chemosensory GPCRs. Half of these latter GPCRs recognize (neuro)peptides as natural ligands. GPCRs thus play a pivotal role in neuroendocrine communication. In particular, GPCRs are involved in the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior, reproduction, growth, hydromineral homeostasis and stress response. GPCRs are also major drug targets and hence possess a strong potential for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. The aim of this Research Topic was to assemble a series of review articles and original research papers on neuropeptide GPCRs and their ligands that would illustrate the different facets of the studies currently conducted in this domain.

Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health

Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health Book
Author : Pietro Cipresso,Silvia Serino,Yuri Ostrovsky,Justin T. Baker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-10-10
ISBN : 3030010937
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Pervasive Computing Paradigms for Mental Health, MindCare 2018, held in Boston, MA, USA, Jin January 2018. The 19 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions and present advanced computing and communication technologies from the use of wearable sensors and ecological virtual environments to use of big data and machine learning techniques. These technologies can be used to support and promote the well-being through an objective continuous data collection and personalized

Psychoneuroimmunology

Psychoneuroimmunology Book
Author : Robert Ader
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-06-28
ISBN : 1483258904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychoneuroimmunology, Second Edition presents reports on the relationship between the nervous and immune systems. The book is divided into four sections. The first section details the role of neural structures and neurotransmitter signals in communication with the immune system. It documents the extensive neural connections with organs of the immune system; the dynamics of noradrenergic sympathetic innervation of spleen and thymus; and the evidence for immune signaling of the CNS. Part II elaborates the role of hormones in the modulation of immune functions; the basis for bidirectional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems; and the potential physiological implications of these neuroendocrine-immune system interactions. The third part addresses behavioral influences on immune response; the effects of conditioning, stress and social interactions in modulating immune responses; and the behavioral consequences of experimentally altered or genetically determined immunologic states. The final section presents the effects of psychosocial factors on immune responses and the potential impact of behavioral interventions in modulating immunity in healthy human subjects and in patients with AIDS. Neuroscientists, endocrinologists, and immunologists will find the book interesting.

Glial Cells in Health and Disease of the CNS

Glial Cells in Health and Disease of the CNS Book
Author : Rommy von Bernhardi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-06
ISBN : 3319407643
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A timely overview covering the three major types of glial cells in the central nervous system - astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. New findings on glia biology are overturning a century of conventional thinking about how the brain operates and are expanding our knowledge about information processing in the brain. The book will present recent research findings on the role of glial cells in both healthy function and disease. It will comprehensively cover a broad spectrum of topics while remaining compact in size.

Neuroinflammation and its Resolution From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Perspectives

Neuroinflammation and its Resolution  From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Perspectives Book
Author : Morena Zusso,Stefano Moro,Pietro Giusti,Leanne Stokes
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-14
ISBN : 2889638545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neuroinflammation and its Resolution From Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutic Perspectives book written by Morena Zusso,Stefano Moro,Pietro Giusti,Leanne Stokes, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nutrition and Immunity

Nutrition and Immunity Book
Author : Maryam Mahmoudi,Nima Rezaei
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-30
ISBN : 3030160734
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides readers with a systematic assessment of current literature on the link between nutrition and immunity. Chapters cover immunonutrition topics such as child development, cancer, aging, allergic asthma, food intolerance, obesity, and chronic critical illness. It also presents a thorough review of microflora of the gut and the essential role it plays in regulating the balance between immune tolerance and inflammation. Written by experts in the field, Nutrition and Immunity helps readers to further understand the importance of healthy dietary patterns in relation to providing immunity against disorders and offering readily available immunonutritional programming in clinical care. It will be a valuable resource for dietitians, immunologists, endocrinologists and other healthcare professionals.

Cytokines Stress and Depression

Cytokines  Stress  and Depression Book
Author : Robert Dantzer,Emmanuelle E. Wollmann,Raz Yirmiya
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-11-23
ISBN : 058537970X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytokines had been characterized in the early eighties as communication mole cules between immune cells, and between immunocytes and other peripheral cells, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. They play a key role in the regulation of the immune response and the coordination of the host response to infection. Based on these biological properties, nobody would have predicted that one decade later cytokines would burst upon neurosciences and permeate into several avenues of current research. In neurology, the connection between cytokines and inflammation, and the demonstration of a pivotal role of some of these molecules in cell death by apoptosis, prompted the investigation of their involvement in several neurological diseases involving an inflammatory component, including multiple sclerosis, brain trauma, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. This movement started in the late eighties, and the corresponding field of research, known as neuroimmunology, is presently booming. In psychiatry, however, the relationship between cytokines and mental disorders was much less evident and took longer to materialize. The first indication that cytokines might be involved in psychopathology came from cancerology and internal medicine.

Textbook of Immunopsychiatry

Textbook of Immunopsychiatry Book
Author : Golam Khandaker,Neil Harrison,Edward Bullmore,Robert Dantzer
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2021-09-23
ISBN : 110842404X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An essential book summarizing cutting-edge evidence on the role of the immune system and immunotherapies in psychiatric disorders.

Genetics Neurology Behavior and Diet in Dementia

Genetics  Neurology  Behavior  and Diet in Dementia Book
Author : Colin R. Martin,Victor R Preedy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-11
ISBN : 0128158697
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetics, Neurology, Behavior, and Diet in Dementia: The Neuroscience of Dementia, Volume 2 consolidates different fields of dementia research into a single book, covering a range of subjects, including Alzheimer’s disease, Lewy body dementia, mixed dementia, vascular dementia, physical activity, risk factors, mortality, biomarkers, SPECT, CT, MRI, questionnaires, nutrition, sleep, delirium, hearing loss, agitation, aggression, delusions, anxiety, depression, hallucinations, psychosis, senile plaques, tau and amyloid-beta, neuroinflammation, and molecular biology. This foundational, comprehensive book assembles the latest understanding on all dementias and their common features in a single source. It is an invaluable resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, and anyone in the field. Offers comprehensive coverage of a broad range of topics related to dementia Serves as a foundational collection for neuroscientists and neurologists on the biology of dementia and brain dysfunction Contains in each chapter an abstract, key facts, mini dictionary of terms, and summary points to aid in understanding Provides unique sections on specific subareas, intellectual components, and knowledge-based niches that will help readers navigate key areas for research and further clinical recommendations Features preclinical and clinical studies to help researchers map out key areas for research and further clinical recommendations Serves as a "one-stop" source for everything you need to know about dementia

Late Aging Associated Changes in Alcohol Sensitivity Neurobehavioral Function and Neuroinflammation

Late Aging Associated Changes in Alcohol Sensitivity  Neurobehavioral Function  and Neuroinflammation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-11-14
ISBN : 0128175311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Late aging associated changes in alcohol sensitivity, neurobehavioral function, and neuroinflammation, Volume 148, the latest release in the International Review of Neurobiology series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on a variety of timely topics. Each chapter is written by an international board of authors. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the International Review of Neurobiology series Includes the latest information on late aging-associated changes in alcohol sensitivity, inflammation and cognitive decline

Early Life Experience Contributes to the Developmental Programming of Depressive like Behaviour Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress

Early Life Experience Contributes to the Developmental Programming of Depressive like Behaviour  Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Early Life Experience Contributes to the Developmental Programming of Depressive like Behaviour Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Effects of Physical Activity on Diabetes induced Depressive Behavior and Neuroinflammation in Rats

Effects of Physical Activity on Diabetes induced Depressive Behavior and Neuroinflammation in Rats Book
Author : Benova Kristina
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Depression and diabetes mellitus are increasingly recognized as comorbid chronic diseases. The relationship between diabetes and depression, argued to be bidirectional. Evidence is growing that depression and type 2 diabetes share biological origins, particularly overactivation of innate immunity leading to a cytokine-mediated inflammatory response, and potentially through dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Neuroinflammation forms the background for the induction of multiple cellular pathways which can lead to the complications of diabetes mellitus that the most debilitating ones is depression. Some studies suggest that regular moderate physical exercise has beneficial effects on the brain. It is believed that regular exercise decreases the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the CNS, and therefore reduces cellular damage. Aim: Taking into account the above-mentioned facts, the present study is undertaken to evaluate whether physical activity (wheel running) could alleviate neuroinflammation in the ratu2019s brain and suppress depressive-like behavior of streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats.Methods: 24 adult male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=6): Control group (CG), exercised group (EG), diabetic group (DG) and diabetic-exercised group (DEG). Diabetes was induced by injection of single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/ kg, i.v.) in male rats. All rats in the trained groups, run on the running wheel for four weeks. At the end of the 4th week, sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swim test (FST) were applied to all animals. After the tests the rats were decapitated and the hippocampi of animals were immediately removed on ice and kept frozen. The light supernatant was taken and stored at -80u00b0C. They were used for determination of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta levels with sandwich ELISA.Results: The influence of physical activity on the forced swimming test FST. Physical activity in the running wheel significantly increase the climbing and swimming period and decrease immobility time in animals from DEG-group compared to DG-group (p0.05), in forced swim test (FST). On the other hand there was no statistically significant differences between DEG-group and EG-group of animals (P0.05). 1.tThe influence of physical activity on the sucrose preference test (SPT).At 24h-SPT-test, preference index for sucrose was significantly higher in DEG-group (124u00b12,3%), compared to DG-group rats (90u00b11,4%), p