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Neurocognitive Mechanisms Of Attention

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Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention Book
Author : Golnaz Baghdadi,Farzad Towhidkhah,Mojdeh Rajabi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-01
ISBN : 0323909361
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Attention: Computational Models, Physiology, and Disease States describes the brain mechanisms underlying the attention control system, how those mechanisms are examined, how they operate in different disease states, and methods for improving them. Conceptual models of attention further explore their functional operation. Coverage includes the different types of attention, processing paths, brain anatomy, and attention’s role in memory and movement. Factors affecting attention are explored including nutrition, exercise, and genetics. Neurocognitive disorders impacting attention are discussed including autism, ADHD, OCD, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease. Assessment methods and treatments are uniquely set against the backdrop of current conceptual, computational, and oscillatory-based models to encourage researchers to pursue continued development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools. Examines brain mechanisms underlying different types of attention Explores how nutrition, exercise, genetics and more impact attention Identifies impact on attention of neurocognitive diseases and disorders Includes therapeutic advances to improve attention Provides computational models via companion website

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Type 1 and Type 2 Decision Making Processes

Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Type 1 and Type 2 Decision Making Processes Book
Author : Chad Williams
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In an attempt to understand how humans make decisions, a wealth of researchers have explored the commonalities of different decision making demands. Two ranges of systems have been classified. Whereas Type 1 decision making is fast, automatic, and effortless, Type 2 judgments are slow, contemplative, and effortful. Here, I sought to determine underlying mechanisms of these processes. To do this, I present an extensive review and two electroencephalogram experiments. My review addresses theoretical models defining Type 1 and Type 2 decision making, discusses the debate between dual-process and continuous frameworks, proposes a novel insight into how these processes are selected and executed, and outlines neuro-anatomical findings. In one experiment, participants retained digits (Type 1 processes) and completed mathematical computations (Type 2 processes). I found that cognitive control - as reflected by frontal theta - and attentional mechanisms - as reflected by parietal alpha - are core mechanisms in Type 1 and Type 2 decision making. In a second experiment, I sought to replicate these findings when trained students diagnosed diseases. Differences in theta and alpha activity were not seen. I posit that the discrepancy between experiments may be because cognitive control relies on uncertainty which existed in experiment one but not experiment two. Moreover, attentional mechanisms involve the retrieval of knowledge in which the demands would have differed in experiment one but not two. I conclude by describing how cognitive control and attention fit into my hypothesis of different decision making steps: process selection and execution. These findings are important as they could lead to the assessment of decision making processes in real-world contexts, for example with clinicians in the hospital. Moreover, they could be used in biofeedback training to optimize decisions.

The Neuropsychology of Attention

The Neuropsychology of Attention Book
Author : Ronald A. Cohen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-11
ISBN : 038772639X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It has been 15 years since the original publication of Neuropsychology of Attention. At the time of its publication, attention was a construct that had long been of theoretical interest in the field of psychology and was receiving increased research by cognitive scientists. Yet, attention was typically viewed as a nuisance variable; a factor that needed to be accounted for when assessing brain function, but of limited importance in its own right. There is a need for a new edition of this book within Neuropsychology to present an updated and integrated review of what is know about attention, the disorders that affect it, and approaches to its clinical assessment and treatment. Such a book will provide perspectives for experimental neuropsychological study of attention and also provide clinicians with insights on how to approach this neuropsychological domain.

Attention Disorders After Right Brain Damage

Attention Disorders After Right Brain Damage Book
Author : Paolo Bartolomeo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-16
ISBN : 1447156498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an overview of attentional impairments in brain-damaged patients from both clinical and neuroscientific perspectives, and aims to offer a comprehensive, succinct treatment of these topics useful to both clinicians and scholars. A main focus of the book concerns left visual neglect, a dramatic but often overlooked consequence of right hemisphere damage, usually of vascular origin, but also resulting from other causes such as neurodegenerative conditions. The study of neglect offers a key to understand the brain’s functioning at the level of large-scale networks, and not only based on discrete anatomical structures. Patients are often unaware of their deficits (anosognosia), and often obstinately deny being hemiplegic. Diagnosis is important because neglect predicts poor functional outcome in stroke. Moreover, effective rehabilitation strategies are available, and there are promising possibilities for pharmacological treatments. Attention Disorders After Right Brain Damage is aimed at clinical neurologists, medics in physical medicine and rehabilitation, clinical psychologists and neuropsychologists. It will also be useful for graduate students and medical students who wish to understand the topic of attention systems and improve their knowledge of the neurocognitive mechanisms of attentional deficits. In addition, clinical researchers in neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience will find in this book an up to date overview of current research dealing with the attention systems of the human brain.

Perspective Taking building a neurocognitive framework for integrating the social and the spatial

Perspective Taking  building a neurocognitive framework for integrating the    social    and the    spatial    Book
Author : Klaus Kessler,Sarah H Creem-Regehr,Antonia Hamilton
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-06-08
ISBN : 2889194175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Interacting with other people involves spatial awareness of one’s own body and the other’s body and viewpoint. In the past, social cognition has focused largely on belief reasoning, which is abstracted away from spatial and bodily representations, while there is a strong tradition of work on spatial and object representation which does not consider social interactions. These two domains have flourished independently. A small but growing body of research examines how awareness of space and body relates to the ability to interpret and interact with others. This also builds on the growing awareness that many cognitive processes are embodied, which could be of relevance for the integration of the social and spatial domains: Online mental transformations of spatial representations have been shown to rely on simulated body movements and various aspects of social interaction have been related to the simulation of a conspecific’s behaviour within the observer’s bodily repertoire. Both dimensions of embodied transformations or mappings seem to serve the purpose of establishing alignment between the observer and a target. In spatial cognition research the target is spatially defined as a particular viewpoint or frame of reference (FOR), yet, in social interaction research another viewpoint is occupied by another’s mind, which crucially requires perspective taking in the sense of considering what another person experiences from a different viewpoint. Perspective taking has been studied in different ways within developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, psycholinguistics, neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience over the last few decades, yet, integrative approaches for channelling all information into a unified account of perspective taking and viewpoint transformations have not been presented so far. Aims: This Research Topic aims to bring together the social and the spatial, and to highlight findings and methods which can unify research across areas. In particular, the topic aims to advance our current theories and set the stage for future developments of the field by clarifying and linking theoretical concepts across disciplines. Scope: The focus of this Research Topic is on the SPATIAL and the SOCIAL, and we anticipate that all submissions will touch on both aspects and will explicitly attempt to bridge conceptual gaps. Social questions could include questions of how people judge another person’s viewpoint or spatial capacities, or how they imagine themselves from different points of view. Spatial questions could include consideration of different physical configurations of the body and the arrangement of different viewpoints, including mental rotation of objects or viewpoints that have social relevance. Questions could also relate to how individual differences (in personality, sex, development, culture, species etc.) influence or determine social and spatial perspective judgements. Many different methods can be used to explore perspective taking, including mental chronometry, behavioural tasks, EEG/MEG and fMRI, child development, neuropsychological patients, virtual reality and more. Bringing together results and approaches from these different domains is a key aim of this Research Topic. We welcome submissions of experimental papers, reviews and theory papers which cover these topics.

Cognitive Neuroscience

Cognitive Neuroscience Book
Author : Michael Gazzaniga,Richard B. Ivry,George R. Mangun
Publisher : W. W. Norton
Release : 2018-11
ISBN : 9780393603170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by world-renowned researchers, including Michael Gazzaniga, Cognitive Neuroscience remains the gold standard in its field, showcasing the latest discoveries and clinical applications. In its new Fifth Edition, updated material is woven into the narrative of each chapter and featured in new Hot Science and Lessons from the Clinic sections. The presentation is also more accessible and focused as the result of Anatomical Orientation figures, Take-Home Message features, and streamlined chapter openers.

Finding Consciousness in the Brain

Finding Consciousness in the Brain Book
Author : Peter G. Grossenbacher
Publisher : John Benjamins Publishing
Release : 2001-01-01
ISBN : 9789027251282
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How does the brain go about the business of being conscious? Though we cannot yet provide a complete answer, this book explains what is now known about the neural basis of human consciousness.The last decade has witnessed the dawn of an exciting new era of cognitive neuroscience. For example, combination of new imaging technologies and experimental study of attention has linked brain activity to specific psychological functions. The authors are leaders in psychology and neuroscience who have conducted original research on consciousness. They wish to communicate the highlights of this research to both specialists and interested others, and hope that this volume will be read by students concerned with the neuroscientific underpinnings of subjective experience. As a whole, the book progresses from an overview of conscious awareness, through careful explanation of identified neurocognitive systems, and extends to theories which tackle global aspects of consciousness. (Series B)

Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behaviour

Gene Expression to Neurobiology and Behaviour Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-04-21
ISBN : 0444538852
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How does the genome, interacting with the multi-faceted environment, translate into the development by which the human brain achieves its astonishing, adaptive array of cognitive and behavioral capacities? Why and how does this process sometimes lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with a major, lifelong personal and social impact? This volume of Progress in Brain Research links findings on the structural development of the human brain, the expression of genes in behavioral and cognitive phenotypes, environmental effects on brain development, and developmental processes in perception, action, attention, cognitive control, social cognition, and language, in an attempt to answer these questions. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Sensation Perception and Attention

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Sensation  Perception  and Attention Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-02-12
ISBN : 1119174155
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

II. Sensation, Perception & Attention: John Serences (Volume Editor) (Topics covered include taste; visual object recognition; touch; depth perception; motor control; perceptual learning; the interface theory of perception; vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic contributions to spatial orientation; olfaction; audition; time perception; attention; perception and interactive technology; music perception; multisensory integration; motion perception; vision; perceptual rhythms; perceptual organization; color vision; perception for action; visual search; visual cognition/working memory.)

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Tatjana Aue,Hadas Okon-Singer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-02-23
ISBN : 0128166614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Biases in Health and Psychiatric Disorders: Neurophysiological Foundations focuses on the neurophysiological basis of biases in attention, interpretation, expectancy and memory. Each chapter includes a review of each specific bias, including both positive and negative information in both healthy individuals and psychiatric populations. This book provides readers with major theories, methods used in investigating biases, brain regions associated with the related bias, and autonomic responses to specific biases. Its end goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the neural, autonomic and cognitive mechanisms related to processing biases. Outlines neurophysiological research on diverse types of information processing bias, including attention bias, expectancy bias, interpretation bias, and memory bias Discusses both normal and pathological forms of each cognitive biases Provides specific examples on how to translate research on cognitive biases to clinical applications

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency

Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency Book
Author : Norman Segalowitz
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2010-08-09
ISBN : 1136968830
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Winner of the 2011 Kenneth W. Mildenberger Prize Exploring fluency from multiple vantage points that together constitute a cognitive science perspective, this book examines research in second language acquisition and bilingualism that points to promising avenues for understanding and promoting second language fluency. Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency covers essential topics such as units of analysis for measuring fluency, the relation of second language fluency to general cognitive fluidity, social and motivational contributors to fluency, and neural correlates of fluency. The author provides clear and accessible summaries of foundational empirical work on speech production, automaticity, lexical access, and other issues of relevance to second language acquisition theory. Cognitive Bases of Second Language Fluency is a valuable reference for scholars in SLA, cognitive psychology, and language teaching, and it can also serve as an ideal textbook for advanced courses in these fields.

Brain Disorders in Critical Illness

Brain Disorders in Critical Illness Book
Author : Robert D. Stevens,Tarek Sharshar,E. Wesley Ely
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-09-19
ISBN : 1107434424
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain dysfunction is a major clinical problem in intensive care, with potentially debilitating long-term consequences for post-ICU patients of any age. The resulting extended length of stay in the ICU and post-discharge cognitive dysfunction are now recognized as major healthcare burdens. This comprehensive clinical text provides intensivists and neurologists with a practical review of the pathophysiology of brain dysfunction and a thorough account of the diagnostic and therapeutic options available. Initial sections review the epidemiology, outcomes, relevant behavioral neurology and biological mechanisms of brain dysfunction. Subsequent sections evaluate the available diagnostic options and preventative and therapeutic interventions, with a final section on clinical encephalopathy syndromes encountered in the ICU. Each chapter is rich in illustrations, with an executive summary and a helpful glossary of terms. Brain Disorders in Critical Illness is a seminal reference for all physicians and neuroscientists interested in the care and outcome of severely ill patients.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention

Cognitive Neuroscience of Attention Book
Author : Michael I. Posner
Publisher : Guilford Press
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 160918985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This authoritative reference provides a comprehensive examination of the nature and functions of attention and its relationship to broader cognitive processes. The editor and contributors are leading experts who review the breadth of current knowledge, including behavioral, neuroimaging, cellular, and genetic studies, as well as developmental and clinical research. Chapters are brief yet substantive, offering clear presentations of cutting-edge concepts, methods, and findings. The book addresses the role of attention deficits in psychological disorders and normal aging and considers the implications for intervention and prevention. It includes 85 illustrations. New to This Edition *Significant updates and many new chapters reflecting major advances in the field. *Important breakthroughs in neuroimaging and cognitive modeling. *Chapters on the development of emotion regulation and temperament. *Expanded section on disorders, including up-to-date coverage of ADHD as well as chapters on psychopathy and autism. *Chapters on cognitive training and rehabilitation.

Unlocking the Brain

Unlocking the Brain Book
Author : Georg Northoff
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0199826994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What makes our brain a brain? This is the central question posited in Unlocking the Brain. By providing a fascinating venture into different territories of neuroscience, psychiatry, and philosophy, the author takes a novel exploration of the brain's resting state in the context of the neural code, and its ability to yield consciousness.

Value based Attentional Capture Affects Multi alternative Decision Making

Value based Attentional Capture Affects Multi alternative Decision Making Book
Author : Sebastian Gluth,Mikhail S. Spektor,Jörg Rieskamp
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Humans and other animals often violate economic principles when choosing between multiple alternatives, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms remain elusive. A robust finding is that adding a third option can alter the relative preference for the original alternatives, but studies disagree on whether the third option's value decreases or increases accuracy. To shed light on this controversy, we used and extended the paradigm of one study reporting a positive effect. However, our four experiments with 147 human participants and a reanalysis of the original data revealed that the positive effect is neither replicable nor reproducible. In contrast, our behavioral and eye-tracking results are best explained by assuming that the third option's value captures attention and thereby impedes accuracy. We propose a computational model that accounts for the complex interplay of value, attention, and choice. Our theory explains how choice sets and environments influence the neurocognitive processes of multi-alternative decision making

Neurocognitive Mechanisms

Neurocognitive Mechanisms Book
Author : Gualtiero Piccinini
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-11-12
ISBN : 0192636057
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In Neurocognitive Mechanisms Gualtiero Piccinini presents the most systematic, rigorous, and comprehensive philosophical defence to date of the computational theory of cognition. His view posits that cognition involves neural computation within multilevel neurocognitive mechanisms, and includes novel ideas about ontology, functions, neural representation, neural computation, and consciousness. He begins by defending an ontologically egalitarian account of composition and realization, according to which all levels are equally real. He then explicates multiple realizability and mechanisms within this ontologically egalitarian framework, defends a goal-contribution account of teleological functions, and defends a mechanistic version of functionalism. This provides the foundation for a mechanistic account of computation, which in turn clarifies the ways in which the computational theory of cognition is a multilevel mechanistic theory supported by contemporary cognitive neuroscience. Piccinini argues that cognition is computational at least in a generic sense. He defends the computational theory of cognition from standard objections, yet also rebuts putative a priori arguments. He contends that the typical vehicles of neural computations are representations, and that, contrary to the received view, the representations posited by the computational theory of cognition are observable and manipulatable in the laboratory. He also contends that neural computations are neither digital nor analog; instead, neural computations are sui generis. He concludes by investigating the relation between computation and consciousness, suggesting that consciousness may be a functional phenomenon without being computational in nature. This book will be of interest to philosophers of cognitive science as well as neuroscientists.

Collective Emotions

Collective Emotions Book
Author : Christian von Scheve,Mikko Salmella
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0199659184
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although collective emotions have a long tradition in scientific inquiry, for instance in mass psychology and the sociology of rituals and social movements, their importance for individuals and the social world has never been more obvious than in the past decades. This book presents a comprehensive overview of contemporary theories and research on collective emotions. It spans several disciplines and brings together, for the first time,various strands of inquiry and up-to-date research in the study of collective emotions and related phenomena. In focusing on conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in collective emotionresearch, the volume narrows the gap between the wealth of studies on individual emotions and inquiries into collective emotions.

Explorations in Learning and the Brain

Explorations in Learning and the Brain Book
Author : Ton de de Jong,Tamara van Gog,Kathleen Jenks,Sarah Manlove,Janet van Hell,Jelle Jolles,Jeroen van Merrienboer,Theo van Leeuwen,Annemarie Boschloo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-21
ISBN : 9780387895123
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume presents a short review study of the potential relationships between cognitive neuroscience and educational science. Conducted by order of the Dutch Programme Council for Educational Research of the Netherlands Organization for Scienti c Research (NWO; cf. the American NSF), the review aims to identify: (1) how educational principles, mechanisms, and theories could be extended or re ned based on ndings from cognitive neuroscience, and (2) which neuroscience prin- ples, mechanisms, or theories may have implications for educational research and could lead to new interdisciplinary research ventures. The contents should be seen as the outcome of the ‘Explorations in Learning and the Brain’ project. In this project, we started with a ‘quick scan’ of the lite- ture that formed the input for an expert workshop that was held in Amsterdam on March 10–11,2008. This expert workshopidenti ed additional relevant themesand issues that helped us to update the ‘quick scan’ into this nal document. In this way the input from the participants of the expert workshop (listed in Appendix A) has greatly in uenced the present text. We are therefore grateful to the participants for their scholarly and enthusiastic contributions. The content of the current volume, however, is the full responsibility of the authors.

Self Referential Information Processing in Psychotic Disorders

Self Referential Information Processing in Psychotic Disorders Book
Author : Suet-Chung Lawson Tang,鄧雪松
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-27
ISBN : 9781361352342
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Self-referential Information Processing in Psychotic Disorders" by Suet-chung, Lawson, Tang, 鄧雪松, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Motivations Ideas and delusions of reference (I/DOR) are common psychotic symptoms and can be defined as self-referential experiences in excess of the amount of evidence available in the immediate environment. A putative neurocognitive mechanism is increased automatic attention capture by self-referential (SR) information. This study was carried out to test the hypotheses that 1) compared with patients with no I/DOR, those who have the symptom have increased attentional shift to SR information and 2) there is a positive correlation between the severity of I/DOR and the extent of attentional shift to SR information. Clinical and cognitive correlates of I/DOR were also explored. Methods Patients with I/DOR (n=20, mean age 25.27.9 years, 4 men) and without I/DOR (n=17, mean age 28.68.2 years, 10 men) matched for age and education were assessed for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, mood symptoms and basic neurocognition. I/DOR were phenomenologically assessed using the Ideas of Reference Interview Scale (IRIS). In an interference task, patients were instructed to respond to computerized Stroop tasks while ignoring a voice clip presented binaurally with the subject's own name (SON) embedded in certain trials. Within-subject differences in reaction time and accuracy between Stroop trials with and without SON were used as parameters to measure the degree of attentional shift to SR information. Between-group and within-subject differences in the reaction time and accuracy in the interference task were analysed using 22 mixed-ANOVA. Bivariate correlation was used to explore the relationship between IRIS scores and performance in the interference task. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to explore the correlates of I/DOR. Results There was statistically significant interaction between conditions with and without SON and patient groups on the reaction time of the interference task (p=0.048). Simple main effects showed the mean difference of reaction time between conditions with and without SON was statistically significant in patients with I/DOR (p=0.001) but not in patients without I/DOR (p=0.862). Parameters used in the interference task correlated highly with IRIS global score and subscores on pervasiveness, self-referential discrepancy, conviction and frequency (r=0.328-0.517, range; pDiscussion The significant interaction and simple main effect suggest that I/DOR are associated with a heightened attentional shift to SR information. The robust correlations between IRIS scores and attentional shift to SON provide some evidence to support the continuum hypothesis of I/DOR. The possible roles of emotions in the pathogenesis of I/DOR are discussed. Significance With the use of well-matched patient samples and an ecologically valid paradigm based on known human cognitive functions, the present study provided first empirical evidence for a theoretical link between cognitive anomaly and a key psychotic symptom. The SON paradigm provides a promising tool for further research and can potentially be developed into a neurocognitive parameter of I/DOR. The present study also shed light on the complexity of I/DOR in

Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High Tempo Operations

Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High Tempo Operations Book
Author : Rebecca Steinberg,Steven Kornguth,Michael D Matthews
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-06-12
ISBN : 1317088786
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurocognitive and Physiological Factors During High-Tempo Operations features world-renowned scientists conducting groundbreaking research into the basic mechanisms of stress effects on the human body and psyche, as well as introducing novel pharmaceutics and equipment that can rescue or improve maximal performance during stress. Its focus is on the military model as an exemplar for high-stress environments, the best for understanding human performance under stress, both in the short-term as well as in the long-term. The unprecedented demands on the modern soldier include constantly shifting enemy threat levels and tactics, ambiguous loyalties, rapidly evolving weaponry, and the need to amass, comprehend, retain, and act upon large datasets of information. During high-tempo operations, soldiers must maintain superior cognitive and physical skill levels throughout extended periods of little to no sleep. Furthermore, although a soldier fresh from training may perform at peak skill, the effects of cognitive and physical strain and sleeplessness during deployment can impair his or her ability to transfer instructional knowledge to complex real-life situations. It is necessary to understand how intense workloads, both mental and physical, combine with total sleep deprivation to alter soldier situation awareness, decision-making, and physical abilities. The resulting knowledge can be used to design rapid, deployable fitness-for-duty measures, alter training protocols, and assess training efficacy in order to enable decision-makers to act at peak ability during high operations tempo. In addition, dual-use applications of resulting knowledge and technology extend well into the civilian sector, to law-enforcement officers, healthcare professionals, and emergency responders. The book differs from many previous human factors publications by presenting state-of-the-art neuroscience data in a format that is comprehensible and informative for readers of diverse backgrounds. It not only details human behaviors and perception, but also provides concise brain imagery and physiological findings to support its conclusions. In addition, the incorporation of the US Army soldier model of extreme stress and extreme performance demands provides a real-life theme that anchors the scientific, organizational, assessment and response aspects of each chapter. This book synthesizes hard facts with real-life accounts of performing under stress and shows how a large oversight institution like the US Army can measure and improve human factors considerations for its members.