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Neurobiology Of Language

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Neurobiology of Language

Neurobiology of Language Book
Author : Gregory Hickok,Steven L. Small
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-08-15
ISBN : 0124078621
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurobiology of Language explores the study of language, a field that has seen tremendous progress in the last two decades. Key to this progress is the accelerating trend toward integration of neurobiological approaches with the more established understanding of language within cognitive psychology, computer science, and linguistics. This volume serves as the definitive reference on the neurobiology of language, bringing these various advances together into a single volume of 100 concise entries. The organization includes sections on the field's major subfields, with each section covering both empirical data and theoretical perspectives. "Foundational" neurobiological coverage is also provided, including neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, linguistic, and psycholinguistic data, and models. Foundational reference for the current state of the field of the neurobiology of language Enables brain and language researchers and students to remain up-to-date in this fast-moving field that crosses many disciplinary and subdisciplinary boundaries Provides an accessible entry point for other scientists interested in the area, but not actively working in it – e.g., speech therapists, neurologists, and cognitive psychologists Chapters authored by world leaders in the field – the broadest, most expert coverage available

The Neurobiology of Learning

The Neurobiology of Learning Book
Author : John H. Schumann,Sheila E. Crowell,Nancy E. Jones,Namhee Lee,Sara Ann Schuchert
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-04-04
ISBN : 1135619522
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes a timely contribution to the existing literature by presenting a relatively comprehensive, neurobiological account of certain aspects of second language acquisition. It represents the collaborative efforts of members of the Neurobiology of Language Research Group in the Applied Linguistics and TESL Department at UCLA. Members of the group are trained in neurobiology and then use this knowledge to develop biological accounts of various aspects of applied linguistics. The volume avoids the corticocentric bias that characterizes many brain-language publications--both cortical and subcortical structures receive their appropriate attention. In addition, it demonstrates that enough is presently known about the brain to inform our conceptualizations of how humans acquire second languages, thus, it provides a refreshingly novel, highly integrative contribution to the (second) language acquisition literature. The goal of the research program was based on the need to draw more links between the neurobiological mechanisms and second language acquisition. As such, the book promotes a neurobiology of language that starts with the brain and moves to behavior. The fundamental insights presented should guide second language acquisition researchers for years to come.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Language

Cognitive Neuroscience of Language Book
Author : David Kemmerer
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2014-11-20
ISBN : 1317653157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Language is one of our most precious and uniquely human capacities, so it is not surprising that research on its neural substrates has been advancing quite rapidly in recent years. Until now, however, there has not been a single introductory textbook that focuses specifically on this topic. Cognitive Neuroscience of Language fills that gap by providing an up-to-date, wide-ranging, and pedagogically practical survey of the most important developments in the field. It guides students through all of the major areas of investigation, beginning with fundamental aspects of brain structure and function, and then proceeding to cover aphasia syndromes, the perception and production of speech, the processing of language in written and signed modalities, the meanings of words, and the formulation and comprehension of complex expressions, including grammatically inflected words, complete sentences, and entire stories. Drawing heavily on prominent theoretical models, the core chapters illustrate how such frameworks are supported, and sometimes challenged, by experiments employing diverse brain mapping techniques. Although much of the content is inherently challenging and intended primarily for graduate or upper-level undergraduate students, it requires no previous knowledge of either neuroscience or linguistics, defining technical terms and explaining important principles from both disciplines along the way.

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language Book
Author : Annette M. B. de Groot,Peter Hagoort
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-08-30
ISBN : 1119109876
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first comprehensive guide to research methods and technologies in psycholinguistics and the neurobiology of language Bringing together contributions from a distinguished group of researchers and practitioners, editors Annette M. B. de Groot and Peter Hagoort explore the methods and technologies used by researchers of language acquisition, language processing, and communication, including: traditional observational and behavioral methods; computational modelling; corpus linguistics; and virtual reality. The book also examines neurobiological methods, including functional and structural neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Ideal for students engaged in the field, Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches. It describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method. Featuring numerous example studies, along with many full-color illustrations, this indispensable text will help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described. Brings together contributions from distinguished researchers across an array of related disciplines who explain the underlying assumptions and rationales of their research methods Describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method Explores the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches Features numerous real-world examples, along with many full-color illustrations, to help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described

The Neurobiology of Affect in Language Learning

The Neurobiology of Affect in Language Learning Book
Author : John H. Schumann
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 1999-06-18
ISBN : 9780631210108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a theory of how the psychology and neurobiology of stimulus appraisal influences the variability in second language acquisition. It then extends the notion of affect developed for second language acquisition to primary language acquisition and to cognition in general. Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, this book is an important research tool for students and professors of language studies and linguistics.

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language

Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language Book
Author : Brigitte Stemmer,Harry A. Whitaker
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2008-04-29
ISBN : 0080564917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the last ten years the neuroscience of language has matured as a field. Ten years ago, neuroimaging was just being explored for neurolinguistic questions, whereas today it constitutes a routine component. At the same time there have been significant developments in linguistic and psychological theory that speak to the neuroscience of language. This book consolidates those advances into a single reference. The Handbook of the Neuroscience of Language provides a comprehensive overview of this field. Divided into five sections, section one discusses methods and techniques including clinical assessment approaches, methods of mapping the human brain, and a theoretical framework for interpreting the multiple levels of neural organization that contribute to language comprehension. Section two discusses the impact imaging techniques (PET, fMRI, ERPs, electrical stimulation of language cortex, TMS) have made to language research. Section three discusses experimental approaches to the field, including disorders at different language levels in reading as well as writing and number processing. Additionally, chapters here present computational models, discuss the role of mirror systems for language, and cover brain lateralization with respect to language. Part four focuses on language in special populations, in various disease processes, and in developmental disorders. The book ends with a listing of resources in the neuroscience of language and a glossary of items and concepts to help the novice become acquainted with the field. Editors Stemmer & Whitaker prepared this book to reflect recent developments in neurolinguistics, moving the book squarely into the cognitive neuroscience of language and capturing the developments in the field over the past 7 years. History section focuses on topics that play a current role in neurolinguistics research, aphasia syndromes, and lesion analysis Includes section on neuroimaging to reflect the dramatic changes in methodology over the past decade Experimental and clinical section reflects recent developments in the field

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language

Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language Book
Author : Annette M. B. de Groot,Peter Hagoort
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-10-23
ISBN : 111910985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first comprehensive guide to research methods and technologies in psycholinguistics and the neurobiology of language Bringing together contributions from a distinguished group of researchers and practitioners, editors Annette M. B. de Groot and Peter Hagoort explore the methods and technologies used by researchers of language acquisition, language processing, and communication, including: traditional observational and behavioral methods; computational modelling; corpus linguistics; and virtual reality. The book also examines neurobiological methods, including functional and structural neuroimaging and molecular genetics. Ideal for students engaged in the field, Research Methods in Psycholinguistics and the Neurobiology of Language examines the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches. It describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method. Featuring numerous example studies, along with many full-color illustrations, this indispensable text will help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described. Brings together contributions from distinguished researchers across an array of related disciplines who explain the underlying assumptions and rationales of their research methods Describes the apparatus involved, the nature of the stimuli and data used, and the data collection and analysis techniques for each method Explores the relative strengths and weaknesses of various methods in relation to competing approaches Features numerous real-world examples, along with many full-color illustrations, to help readers gain a clear picture of the practices and tools described

Neuroscience and Multilingualism

Neuroscience and Multilingualism Book
Author : Edna Andrews
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2014-09-04
ISBN : 1107036550
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Alongside an analysis of the theoretical and experimental contributions to the field of multilingualism, this title presents new data and analysis obtained from a multilingualism fMRI study and includes a longitudinal study of second and third language acquisition combined with extensive empirically valid language proficiency data of the subjects.

Language in Our Brain

Language in Our Brain Book
Author : Angela D. Friederici
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2017-11-16
ISBN : 0262342979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive account of the neurobiological basis of language, arguing that species-specific brain differences may be at the root of the human capacity for language. Language makes us human. It is an intrinsic part of us, although we seldom think about it. Language is also an extremely complex entity with subcomponents responsible for its phonological, syntactic, and semantic aspects. In this landmark work, Angela Friederici offers a comprehensive account of these subcomponents and how they are integrated. Tracing the neurobiological basis of language across brain regions in humans and other primate species, she argues that species-specific brain differences may be at the root of the human capacity for language. Friederici shows which brain regions support the different language processes and, more important, how these brain regions are connected structurally and functionally to make language processes that take place in milliseconds possible. She finds that one particular brain structure (a white matter dorsal tract), connecting syntax-relevant brain regions, is present only in the mature human brain and only weakly present in other primate brains. Is this the “missing link” that explains humans' capacity for language? Friederici describes the basic language functions and their brain basis; the language networks connecting different language-related brain regions; the brain basis of language acquisition during early childhood and when learning a second language, proposing a neurocognitive model of the ontogeny of language; and the evolution of language and underlying neural constraints. She finds that it is the information exchange between the relevant brain regions, supported by the white matter tract, that is the crucial factor in both language development and evolution.

Neurobiology of human language and its evolution Primate and Nonprimate Perspectives

Neurobiology of human language and its evolution  Primate and Nonprimate Perspectives Book
Author : Constance Scharff,Angela D. Friederici,Michael Petrides
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2022-09-30
ISBN : 9782889191116
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The evolution of human language has been discussed for centuries from different perspectives. Linguistic theory has proposed grammar as a core part of human language that has to be considered in this context. Recent advances in neurosciences have allowed us to take a new neurobiological look on the similarities and dissimilarities of cognitive capacities and their neural basis across both closely and distantly related species. A couple of decades ago the comparisons were mainly drawn between human and non-human primates, investigating the cytoarchitecture of particular brain areas and their structural connectivity. Moreover, comparative studies were conducted with respect to their ability to process grammars of different complexity. So far the available data suggest that non-human primates are able to learn simple probabilistic grammars, but not hierarchically structured complex grammars. The human brain, which easily learns both grammars, differs from the non-human brain (among others) in how two language-relevant brain regions (Broca’s area and superior temporal cortex) are connected structurally. Whether the more dominant dorsal pathway in humans compared to non-human primates is causally related to this behavioral difference is an issue of current debate. Ontogenetic findings suggest at least a correlation between the maturation of the dorsal pathway and the behavior to process syntactically complex structures, although a causal prove is still not available. Thus the neural basis of complex grammar processing in humans remains to be defined. More recently it has been reported that songbirds are also able to distinguish between sound sequences reflecting complex grammar. Interestingly, songbirds learn to sing by imitating adult song in a process not unlike language development in children. Moreover, the neural circuits supporting this behavior in songbirds bear anatomical and functional similarities to those in humans. In adult humans the fiber tract connecting the auditory cortex and motor cortex dorsally is known to be involved in the repetition of spoken language. This pathway is present already at birth and is taken to play a major role during language acquisition. In songbirds, detailed information exist concerning the interaction of auditory, motor and cortical-basal ganglia processing during song learning, and present a rich substrate for comparative studies. The scope of the Research Topic is to bring together contributions of researchers from different fields, who investigate grammar processing in humans, non-human primates and songbirds with the aim to find answers to the question of what constitutes the neurobiological basis of grammar learning. Open questions are: Which brain networks are relevant for grammar learning? Is there more than one dorsal pathway (one from temporal cortex to motor cortex and one to Broca’s area) and if so what are their functions? Has the ability to process sequences of a given hierarchical complexity evolved in different phylogenetic lines (birds, primates, other vocal production learners such as bats)? Is the presence of a sensory-to-motor circuit in humans a precondition for development of a dorsal pathway between the temporal cortex and Broca’s area? What role do subcortical structures (Basal Ganglia) play in vocal and grammar learning?

The Oscillatory Nature of Language

The Oscillatory Nature of Language Book
Author : Elliot Murphy
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-09-30
ISBN : 1108836313
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Develops a theory of how language is processed in the brain and provides a state-of-the-art review of current neuroscientific debates.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Natural Language Use

Cognitive Neuroscience of Natural Language Use Book
Author : Roel M. Willems
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-02-12
ISBN : 1107042011
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contributors to this book argue that we should study the brain basis of language as used in our daily lives.

The Neurocognition of Language

The Neurocognition of Language Book
Author : Colin M. Brown,Peter Hagoort
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0198507933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

'... an important and captivating book, one that has been long awaited by all researchers interested in language and the brain.' Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 1999.The Neurocognition of Language brings together experts on human language and the brain to present the first critical overview of the cognitive neuroscience of language, one of the fastest-moving and most exciting areas today. In-depth discussion of the representations and structures of language, aswell as of the cognitive architectures which underlie speaking, listening, and reading, will provide a basis for future brain imaging research. In addition, the existing brain imaging literature on word and sentence processing is critically reviewed, as well as contributions from brain lesion data.Finally, the book discusses the prospects and problems of brain imaging techniques for the study of language, presents some of the most recent and promising analytic procedures for relating brain imaging data to the higher cognitive functions, and contains a review of the neuroanatomical structureof Broca's language area. Uniquely interdisciplinary, this book will provide researchers and students in cognitive neuroscience with state-of-the-art reviews of the major language functions, while being of equal interest to researchers in linguistics and language who want to learn about the neuralbases of language. It will be an essential purchase for anyone requiring an overview of our current understanding of the relation between language and the brain.

Language Music and the Brain

Language  Music  and the Brain Book
Author : Michael A. Arbib
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2013-06-28
ISBN : 0262018101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A presentation of music and language within an integrative, embodied perspective of brain mechanisms for action, emotion, and social coordination. This book explores the relationships between language, music, and the brain by pursuing four key themes and the crosstalk among them: song and dance as a bridge between music and language; multiple levels of structure from brain to behavior to culture; the semantics of internal and external worlds and the role of emotion; and the evolution and development of language. The book offers specially commissioned expositions of current research accessible both to experts across disciplines and to non-experts. These chapters provide the background for reports by groups of specialists that chart current controversies and future directions of research on each theme. The book looks beyond mere auditory experience, probing the embodiment that links speech to gesture and music to dance. The study of the brains of monkeys and songbirds illuminates hypotheses on the evolution of brain mechanisms that support music and language, while the study of infants calibrates the developmental timetable of their capacities. The result is a unique book that will interest any reader seeking to learn more about language or music and will appeal especially to readers intrigued by the relationships of language and music with each other and with the brain. Contributors Francisco Aboitiz, Michael A. Arbib, Annabel J. Cohen, Ian Cross, Peter Ford Dominey, W. Tecumseh Fitch, Leonardo Fogassi, Jonathan Fritz, Thomas Fritz, Peter Hagoort, John Halle, Henkjan Honing, Atsushi Iriki, Petr Janata, Erich Jarvis, Stefan Koelsch, Gina Kuperberg, D. Robert Ladd, Fred Lerdahl, Stephen C. Levinson, Jerome Lewis, Katja Liebal, Jônatas Manzolli, Bjorn Merker, Lawrence M. Parsons, Aniruddh D. Patel, Isabelle Peretz, David Poeppel, Josef P. Rauschecker, Nikki Rickard, Klaus Scherer, Gottfried Schlaug, Uwe Seifert, Mark Steedman, Dietrich Stout, Francesca Stregapede, Sharon Thompson-Schill, Laurel Trainor, Sandra E. Trehub, Paul Verschure

Human Language

Human Language Book
Author : Peter Hagoort
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2019-10-29
ISBN : 0262353873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A unique overview of the human language faculty at all levels of organization. Language is not only one of the most complex cognitive functions that we command, it is also the aspect of the mind that makes us uniquely human. Research suggests that the human brain exhibits a language readiness not found in the brains of other species. This volume brings together contributions from a range of fields to examine humans' language capacity from multiple perspectives, analyzing it at genetic, neurobiological, psychological, and linguistic levels. In recent decades, advances in computational modeling, neuroimaging, and genetic sequencing have made possible new approaches to the study of language, and the contributors draw on these developments. The book examines cognitive architectures, investigating the functional organization of the major language skills; learning and development trajectories, summarizing the current understanding of the steps and neurocognitive mechanisms in language processing; evolutionary and other preconditions for communication by means of natural language; computational tools for modeling language; cognitive neuroscientific methods that allow observations of the human brain in action, including fMRI, EEG/MEG, and others; the neural infrastructure of language capacity; the genome's role in building and maintaining the language-ready brain; and insights from studying such language-relevant behaviors in nonhuman animals as birdsong and primate vocalization. Section editors Christian F. Beckmann, Carel ten Cate, Simon E. Fisher, Peter Hagoort, Evan Kidd, Stephen C. Levinson, James M. McQueen, Antje S. Meyer, David Poeppel, Caroline F. Rowland, Constance Scharff, Ivan Toni, Willem Zuidema

The Neurobiology of Brain and Behavioral Development

The Neurobiology of Brain and Behavioral Development Book
Author : Robbin Gibb,Bryan Kolb
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-02
ISBN : 012804084X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Neurobiology of Brain and Behavioral Development provides an overview of the process of brain development, including recent discoveries on how the brain develops. This book collates and integrates these findings, weaving the latest information with core information on the neurobiology of brain development. It focuses on cortical development, but also features discussions on how the other parts of the brain wire into the developing cerebral cortex. A systems approach is used to describe the anatomical underpinnings of behavioral development, connecting anatomical and molecular features of brain development with behavioral development. The disruptors of typical brain development are discussed in appropriate sections, as is the science of epigenetics that presents a novel and instructive approach on how experiences, both individual and intergenerational, can alter features of brain development. What distinguishes this book from others in the field is its focus on both molecular mechanisms and behavioral outcomes. This body of knowledge contributes to our understanding of the fundamentals of brain plasticity and metaplasticity, both of which are also showcased in this book. Provides an up-to-date overview of the process of brain development that is suitable for use as a university textbook at an early graduate or senior undergraduate level Breadth from molecular level (Chapters 5-7) to the behavioral/cognitive level (Chapters 8-12), beginning with Chapters 1-4 providing a historical context of the ideas Integrates the neurobiology of brain development and behavior, promoting the idea that animal models inform human development Presents an emphasis on the role of epigenetics and brain plasticity in brain development and behavior

Language Comprehension

Language Comprehension Book
Author : Angela D. Friederici
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 3642599672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of the book on language comprehension in honor of Pim Levelt's sixtieth birthday has been released before he turns sixty-one. Some things move faster than the years of age. This seems to be especially true for advances in science. Therefore, the present edition entails changes in some of the chapters and incorporates an update of the current literature. I would like to thank all contributors for their cooperation in making a second edition possible such a short time after the completion of the first one. Angela D. Friederici Leipzig, November 23, 1998. Preface to the first edition Language comprehension and production is a uniquely human capability. We know little about the evolution of language as a human trait, possibly because our direct ancestors lived several million years ago. This fact certainly impedes the desirable advances in the biological basis of any theory of language evolution. Our knowledge about language as an existing species-specific biological sys tem, however, has advanced dramatically over the last two decades. New experi mental techniques have allowed the investigation of language and language use within the methodological framework of the natural sciences. The present book provides an overview of the experimental research in the area of language com prehension in particular.

Handbook of Child Language Disorders

Handbook of Child Language Disorders Book
Author : Richard G. Schwartz
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2010-10-18
ISBN : 1136872833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Child Language Disorders provides an in-depth, comprehensive, and state-of-the-art review of current research concerning the nature, assessment, and remediation of language disorders in children. The book includes chapters focusing on specific groups of childhood disorders (SLI, autism, genetic syndromes, dyslexia, hearing impairment); the linguistic, perceptual, genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive bases of these disorders; and the context of language disorders (bilingual, across dialects, and across languages). To examine the nature of deficits, their assessment and remediation across populations, chapters address the main components of language (morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) and related areas (processing, memory, attention, executive function such as reading and writing). Finally, even though there is extensive information regarding research and clinical methods in each chapter, there are individual chapters that focus directly on research methods. This Handbook is a comprehensive reference source for clinicians and researchers and can be used as a textbook for undergraduate, masters, and doctoral students in speech-language pathology, developmental psychology, special education, disabilities studies, neuropsychology and in other fields interested in children's language disorders.

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language

The Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language Book
Author : Miriam Faust
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-06-15
ISBN : 1119050464
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This handbook provides a comprehensive review of new developments in the study of the relationship between the brain and language, from the perspectives of both basic research and clinical neuroscience. Includes contributions from an international team of leading figures in brain-language research Features a novel emphasis on state-of-the-art methodologies and their application to the central questions in the brain-language relationship Incorporates research on all parts of language, from syntax and semantics to spoken and written language Covers a wide range of issues, including basic level and high level linguistic functions, individual differences, and neurologically intact and different clinical populations

The Neurobiology of Cognition and Behavior

The Neurobiology of Cognition and Behavior Book
Author : John Hart, Jr.
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2015-11-27
ISBN : 0190219033
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Neurobiology of Cognition and Behavior" is one of the initial textbooks of brain mapping in the field of cognitive neuroscience. This well-researched text by a leading expert in the field provides a foundational map of the human brain for cognition and behavior. This comprehensive map of essential human thinking and emotion is based on the explosion in the field of functional neuroimaging studies (fMRI, PET) in the normally functioning human brain. The approach of this text is to confirm the association of these brain regions by verifying that damage to the activated brain area results in a consistent deficit in the cognitive/behavioral operation under investigation. The approach used to form this view of mapping brain and cognition is based on cognitive neuroscience principles of defining dissociable, fine-grained cognitive units and associating these units with brain regions encoding for these units or aspects of the units from both functional imaging and lesion studies. These cognitive-brain relationships are incorporated into clinical syndromes to account for the behavior of these patients after a lesion occurs, with the added feature of presenting patient videos demonstrating the disrupted cognitive behaviors. This comprehensive textbook provides a framework of the basic architecture of cognition in the brain with this combination of activation and lesion study confirmation of the brain-behavior associations. This basic framework is useful for those students studying the interaction of cognitive science and neuroanatomy as well as being relevant to the experienced neuroscientist researcher or clinician.