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Neural Mechanisms Of Addiction

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Neural Mechanisms of Addiction

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction Book
Author : Mary Torregrossa
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-08-24
ISBN : 0128123311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Mechanisms of Addiction is the only book available that synthesizes the latest research in the field into a single, accessible resource covering all aspects of how addiction develops and persists in the brain. The book summarizes our most recent understanding on the neural mechanisms underlying addiction. It also examines numerous biobehavioral aspects of addiction disorders, such as reinforcement learning, reward, cognitive dysfunction, stress, and sleep and circadian rhythms that are not covered in any other publication. Readers with find the most up-to-date information on which to build a foundation for their future research in this expanding field. Combining chapters from leading researchers and thought leaders, this book is an indispensable guide for students and investigators engaged in addiction research. Transcends multiple neural, neurochemical and behavioral domains Summarizes advances in the field of addiction research since the advent of optogenetics Discusses the most current, leading theories of addiction, including molecular mechanisms and dopamine mechanisms

Neural Mechanisms in Addiction

Neural Mechanisms in Addiction Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neural Mechanisms in Addiction book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Workshop on the Neural Mechanisms of Addiction

Workshop on the Neural Mechanisms of Addiction Book
Author : R. C. Malenka,E. J. Nestler,Fernando Antonio Rodríguez de Fonseca,Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Workshop on the Neural Mechanisms of Addiction book written by R. C. Malenka,E. J. Nestler,Fernando Antonio Rodríguez de Fonseca,Instituto Juan March de Estudios e Investigaciones, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : Ashley N. Gearhardt,Marc N. Potenza
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 0128065001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by Ashley N. Gearhardt,Marc N. Potenza, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : David H. Root,Mark O. West
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 0128064900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by David H. Root,Mark O. West, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : Peter T. Radu,Samuel M. McClure
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 0128064994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by Peter T. Radu,Samuel M. McClure, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : Antoine Bechara
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 0128064935
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by Antoine Bechara, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : Charlotte A. Boettiger,Vicki W. Chanon,Mary K. Kelm
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 012806501X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by Charlotte A. Boettiger,Vicki W. Chanon,Mary K. Kelm, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internet Gaming Disorder

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internet Gaming Disorder Book
Author : Jintao Zhang,Matthias Brand
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-02-19
ISBN : 2889456552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neural Mechanisms Underlying Internet Gaming Disorder book written by Jintao Zhang,Matthias Brand, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biological Research on Addiction

Biological Research on Addiction Book
Author : Jelena Nesic,Theodora Duka
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-05-17
ISBN : 0128064927
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Biological Research on Addiction book written by Jelena Nesic,Theodora Duka, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction Book
Author : Hanna Pickard,Serge H Ahmed
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-06-13
ISBN : 1317423410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The problem of addiction is one of the major challenges and controversies confronting medicine and society. It also poses important and complex philosophical and scientific problems. What is addiction? Why does it occur? And how should we respond to it, as individuals and as a society? The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction is an outstanding reference source to the key topics, problems and debates in this exciting subject. It spans several disciplines and is the first collection of its kind. Organised into three clear parts, forty-five chapters by a team of international contributors examine key areas, including: the meaning of addiction to individuals conceptions of addiction varieties and taxonomies of addiction methods and models of addiction evolution and addiction history, sociology and anthropology population distribution and epidemiology developmental processes vulnerabilities and resilience psychological and neural mechanisms prevention, treatment and spontaneous recovery public health and the ethics of care social justice, law and policy. Essential reading for students and researchers in addiction research and in philosophy, particularly philosophy of mind and psychology and ethics, The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy and Science of Addiction will also be of great interest to those in related fields, such as medicine, mental health, social work, and social policy.

The Learning Brain

The Learning Brain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021-06-22
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How can learning go wrong? Using the knowledge you've been taught so far, you can unmask the dark side of unconscious associations and reward-seeking behavior: addictions to drugs and alcohol. Professor Polk delves into the psychological, chemical, and neural mechanisms underlying addiction to help understand this serious and delicate subject.

The Neural Mechanisms Mediating the Augmentation of Heroin Seeking Induced by Chronic Food Restriction

The Neural Mechanisms Mediating the Augmentation of Heroin Seeking Induced by Chronic Food Restriction Book
Author : Tracey D'Cunha
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Addiction can be defined as a chronic relapsing disorder that is characterized by a loss of control over drug consumption. One of the major obstacles in the treatment of drug addiction is relapse, with the majority of individuals relapsing within the first year of drug abstinence. In humans, restricted food intake can modulate the main triggers of relapse thereby increasing drug craving and relapse. In animal models of relapse, caloric restriction will also increase drug seeking. The experiments presented in this thesis investigated the neuronal mechanisms that mediate the augmentation of heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction in the rat. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is heavily implicated in reward and motivation. Therefore, the experiments presented in Chapter 3 explored the role of dopamine in the mesolimbic pathway, specifically the nucleus accumbens, in the augmentation of heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction. Extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens core and shell subregions was differentially altered during the heroin-seeking test in chronically food restricted rats. Blockade of dopamine D1-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell decreased heroin seeking, whereas blockade of D1-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens core selectively reduced heroin seeking in the food restricted rats. Hormones involved in energy balance and food intake, such as leptin and ghrelin are implicated in drug-related behaviors. Thus, the experiments in Chapter 4 investigated the role of leptin and ghrelin in heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction. As expected, chronic food restriction decreased plasma levels of leptin and increased plasma levels of ghrelin. Furthermore, administration of leptin or a ghrelin receptor antagonist into the ventral tegmental area exclusively decreased heroin seeking in the food restricted rats. These results suggest that leptin and ghrelin may modulate drug seeking by acting upstream from the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Finally, in addition to the dense innervations from dopamine projections, the nucleus accumbens also receives a multitude of glutamatergic innervations from a variety of brain regions. Hence, in Chapter 5 we investigated the role of glutamate in the nucleus accumbens on the augmentation of heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction. Contrary to our predictions, there were no changes in extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens during ongoing heroin seeking. Moreover, administration of a glutamate receptor antagonist had no effect on heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the augmentation of heroin seeking induced by chronic food restriction is mediated by dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and can be modulated by hormones involved in metabolic processes, such as leptin and ghrelin.

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Acquisition Extinction and Reinstatement of Cocaine Associated Memory

Molecular Mechanisms Underlying the Acquisition  Extinction and Reinstatement of Cocaine Associated Memory Book
Author : Shervin A Liddie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An important target for combating drug addiction is to understand the neurobiological mechanisms that sub-serve relapse to drug use. Drug addiction is thought to usurp the neural mechanisms of learning and memory. The conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm which employs the principles of Pavlovian learning is often used to investigate the incentive value of drugs of abuse and the formation of drug-associated memory. One caveat to conditioned reward studies is the use of a fixed daily dose of the addictive drug during training. However, the transition from drug use to addiction in human addicts involves an escalation in drug intake. I posit that a paradigm that can effectively simulate increases in drug intake will better model the human drug use pattern. Evidence suggests that conditioning by escalating doses of cocaine (Esc-C) confers higher magnitude and more persistent cocaine-memory than conditioning by a fixed daily dose of cocaine (Fix-C). Thus, my research objective was to investigate the contribution of different signaling molecules to the acquisition, reconsolidation, extinction and reinstatement of cocaine associated memory developed by Esc-C versus Fix-C. At the cellular level, I found that the formation of Esc-C memory was associated with markedly increased hippocampal expression of the mRNA and protein that codes for the NR2B subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) compared to formation of Fix-C memory, suggesting a positive correlation between the strength of cocaine associated memory and levels of NR2B subunit expression. Pharmacologically, the development (acquisition) of Fix-C and Esc-C memory was attenuated by antagonism of NR2B-containing NMDARs. However, inhibition of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) which is downstream of the NMDAR attenuated the acquisition of Fix-C but not Esc-C memory. This suggests that the acquisition of Fix-C memory is NO-dependent while Esc-C memory is NO-independent. Regarding memory reconsolidation, NR2B antagonism disrupted reconsolidation of both Fix-C and Esc-C memory. However, while reconsolidation of Fix-C memory was NO-dependent similar to acquisition, reconsolidation of Esc-C memory was NO-insensitive. Conversely, inhibition of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) signaling pathway disrupted reconsolidation of Esc-C but not Fix-C memory. With respect to extinction learning, I investigated the use of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancer to facilitate elimination of extinction-resistant Esc-C CPP. I found that specific inhibition of PDE9, which increases levels of cGMP in the hippocampus and amygdala, induced extinction learning and prevented cocaine-primed reinstatement in mice conditioned by Esc-C. This suggests that PDE9 has a prominent role in consolidation of extinction learning. Stress is a major contributor to relapse to drug use in human addicts. I found that stress-induced reinstatement of Fix-C and Esc-C CPP (following their extinction) was unperturbed by ifenprodil. However, stress-induced reinstatement of Fix-C CPP, but not Esc-C CPP, was attenuated by MK-801, 7-NI and the corticotrophin releasing hormone receptor subtype 1 (CRH-R1) antagonist antalarmin. This suggests that stress-induced reinstatement of Esc-C CPP may engage alternative signaling pathways. Taken together, my studies have shown that variations in the stimulus salience of cocaine reward from a fixed dose to escalating doses engage different neural substrates in the formation of cocaine-associated memory. Furthermore, my studies highlight the importance of understanding the significance of drug memory strength, which could be relevant to the severity of addiction, as it relates to the development of pharmacotherapeutics for the management of addiction.

Psychopharmacology

Psychopharmacology Book
Author : R. H. Ettinger
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2017-02-03
ISBN : 1351978705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With increases in the prevalence of psychiatric and behavioral disorders and rapid advances in the development of new drug therapies, there is an increasing need to present the science behind these developments. Students and educators are often confronted with conflicting and exaggerated claims about the effectiveness of drugs. As recently as ten years ago, the mechanisms of action of many medications prescribed for common psychological disorders were not well understood, even by the scientists developing them. Now, drug treatment has advanced to a stage where drugs are designed for their effects on specific receptors, membrane proteins, or secondary messengers within particular cells in the brain. This text introduces a sufficient background in neuroanatomy and physiology so students can comprehend the necessary details of drug action. Psychopharmacology, Second Edition, presents its subject matter in the context of the behavioral disorders they are designed to treat, rather than by traditional drug classifications. Students are often familiar with the major diagnostic categories, so presenting psychopharmacology as it pertains to these familiar disorders strengthens their understanding of the physiology and neurochemistry underlying them as well as the approaches to their treatment. Each disorder is discussed from a historical context along with diagnostic criteria and descriptions of typical cases. In addition, what we presently know about the underlying pathology of each disorder is carefully described. A critical examination of drug claims is missing from most psychopharmacology texts, but is offered here. Students will read about the most current research available from a critical perspective. When alternatives to traditional drug therapies are supported by research, these studies are presented as well. Throughout, this text discusses how drug effectiveness is measured in both human and animal studies. Psychopharmacology has contributed significantly over the past 75 years to the treatment of severe psychological disorders as well as to our understanding of the brain and human behavior. This symbiotic relationship between psychopharmacology and the neural and behavioral sciences will continue long into the future. This fully updated second edition is ideal for undergraduate and pre-professional students, and includes a robust companion website.

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Appetitive Instrumental Learning Within a Distributed Corticostriatal Network

Neural Mechanisms Underlying Appetitive Instrumental Learning Within a Distributed Corticostriatal Network Book
Author : Anne E. Baldwin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neural Mechanisms Underlying Appetitive Instrumental Learning Within a Distributed Corticostriatal Network book written by Anne E. Baldwin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neurobiology of Disease

Neurobiology of Disease Book
Author : Michael V. Johnston,Ali Fatemi
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016-09-15
ISBN : 0199937834
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preceded by Neurobiology of disease / edited by Sid Gilman. 2007.

Genetics Drugs and Cognitive Control

Genetics  Drugs  and Cognitive Control Book
Author : Travis Edward Baker
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Why is it that only some people who use drugs actually become addicted? In fact, addiction depends on a complicated process involving a confluence of risk factors related to biology, cognition, behaviour, and personality. Notably, all addictive drugs act on a neural system for reinforcement learning called the midbrain dopamine system, which projects to and regulates the brain's system for cognitive control, called frontal cortex and basal ganglia. Further, the development and expression of the dopamine system is determined in part by genetic factors that vary across individuals such that dopamine related genes are partly responsible for addiction-proneness. Taken together, these observations suggest that the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with substance abuse result from the impact of disrupted dopamine signals on frontal brain areas involved in cognitive control: By acting on the abnormal reinforcement learning system of the genetically vulnerable, addictive drugs hijack the control system to reinforce maladaptive drug-taking behaviors. The goal of this research was to investigate this hypothesis by conducting a series of experiments that assayed the integrity of the dopamine system and its neural targets involved in cognitive control and decision making in young adults using a combination of electrophysiological, behavioral, and genetic assays together with surveys of substance use and personality. First, this research demonstrated that substance dependent individuals produce an abnormal Reward-positivity, an electrophysiological measure of a cortical mechanism for dopamine-dependent reward processing and cognitive control, and behaved abnormally on a decision making task that is diagnostic of dopamine dysfunction. Second, several dopamine-related neural pathways underlying individual differences in substance dependence were identified and modeled, providing a theoretical framework for bridging the gap between genes and behavior in drug addiction. Third, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in decision making function and dysfunction were identified, revealing possible risk factors in the decision making system. In sum, these results illustrate how future interventions might be individually tailored for specific genetic, cognitive and personality profiles.

What is Addiction

What is Addiction  Book
Author : Don Ross,Harold Kincaid,Peter Collins,David Spurrett
Publisher : Bradford Books
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780262513111
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ignorance and surprise belong together: surprises can make people aware of their own ignorance. And yet, perhaps paradoxically, a surprising event in scientific research--one that defies prediction or risk assessment--is often a window to new and unexpected knowledge. In this book, Matthias Gross examines the relationship between ignorance and surprise, proposing a conceptual framework for handling the unexpected and offering case studies of ecological design that demonstrate the advantages of allowing for surprises and including ignorance in the design and negotiation processes. Gross draws on classical and contemporary sociological accounts of ignorance and surprise in science and ecology and integrates these with the idea of experiment in society. He develops a notion of how unexpected occurrences can be incorporated into a model of scientific and technological development that includes the experimental handling of surprises. Gross discusses different projects in ecological design, including Chicago's restoration of the shoreline of Lake Michigan and Germany's revitalization of brownfields near Leipzig. These cases show how ignorance and surprise can successfully play out in ecological design projects, and how the acknowledgment of the unknown can become a part of decision making. The appropriation of surprises can lead to robust design strategies. Ecological design, Gross argues, is neither a linear process of master planning nor a process of trial and error but a carefully coordinated process of dealing with unexpected turns by means of experimental practice.

Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence Book
Author : Antonio Noronha,Changhai Cui,R. Adron Harris,John C. Crabbe
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9780124059412
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent scientific advances have provided substantial information on the brain circuits and pathways relevant to various aspects of dependence. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence highlights the most recent data at the molecular, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels, fostering an understanding how neuroplasticity and neuroadaptation occur, and how different neural pathways and neurocircuits contribute to dependence. Highlights recent advances in understanding alcohol addiction from molecular, cellular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels Integrates several emerging areas of research and discusses the application of novel research techniques to the understanding of alcohol dependence Chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe - the broadest, most expert coverage available