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Neural Crest Cells

Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Paul Trainor
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-23
ISBN : 0124045863
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease summarizes discoveries of historical significance and provides in-depth, current analyses of the evolution of neural crest cells, their contribution to embryo development, and their roles in disease. In addition, prospects for tissue engineering, repair and regeneration are covered, offering a timely synthesis of the current knowledge in neural crest cell research. A comprehensive resource on neural crest cells for researchers studying cell biology, developmental biology, stem cells and neurobiology, Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease provides foundational information needed for students , practicing physicians and dentists treating patients with craniofacial defects. BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 - Highly Commended,Basic and Clinical Sciences,2014, British Medical Association Provides timely, comprehensive synthesis of the current knowledge of neural crest cells Covers the evolution and development of neural crest cells Includes content on applications for tissue engineering, repair and regeneration

Evolving Neural Crest Cells

Evolving Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Brian Frank Eames,Daniel Meulemans Medeiros,Igor Adameyko
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-07-28
ISBN : 1351805916
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vertebrates possess lineage-specific characteristics. These include paired anterior sense organs and a robust, modular head skeleton built of cellular cartilage and bone. All of these structures are derived, at least partly, from an embryonic tissue unique vertebrates - the neural crest. The evolutionary history of the neural crest, and neural crest cells, has been difficult to reconstruct. This volume will use a comparative approach to survey the development of the neural crest in vertebrates, and neural crest-like cells, across the metazoa. This information will be used to reveal neural crest evolution and identify the genomic, genetic, and gene-regulatory changes that drove them. Key selling features: Summarizes the data regarding neural crest cells and nerural crest derivatives Uses a broad-based comparative approach Suggests hypothesis that the origin of neural crest cells involved the novel co-activation of ancient metazoan gene programs in neural border cells Illustrates how the emergences of neural crest made possible the diversification of vertebrate heads

The Neural Crest and Neural Crest Cells in Vertebrate Development and Evolution

The Neural Crest and Neural Crest Cells in Vertebrate Development and Evolution Book
Author : Brian K. Hall
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-10-12
ISBN : 9781441935427
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A presentation of all aspects of neural crest cell origins (embryological and evolutionary) development and evolution; neural crest cell behavior (migration) and anomalies (neurocristopathies and birth defects) that arise from defective neural crest development. The treatment of development will include discussions of cellular, molecular and genetic aspects of the differentiation and morphogenesis of neural crest cells and structures derived from neural crest cells. The origins of the neural crest in embryology will be discussed using the recent information on the molecular basis of the specification of the neural crest. Also presented are the advances in our understanding of the evolution of jaws from studies on lampreys and of the neural crest from studies on ascidians and amphioxus.

The Neural Crest

The Neural Crest Book
Author : Nicole Le Douarin,Nicole M. LeDouarin,Chaya Kalcheim
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1999-11-28
ISBN : 9780521620109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 1999 edition of The Neural Crest contains comprehensive information about the neural crest, a structure unique to the vertebrate embryo, which has only a transient existence in early embryonic life. The ontogeny of the neural crest embodies the most important issues in developmental biology, as the neural crest is considered to have played a crucial role in evolution of the vertebrate phylum. Data that analyse neural crest ontogeny in murine and zebrafish embryos have been included in this revision. This revised edition also takes advantage of recent advances in our understanding of markers of neural crest cell subpopulations, and a full chapter is now devoted to cell lineage analysis. The major research breakthrough since the first edition has been the introduction of molecular biology to neural crest research, enabling an elucidation of many molecular mechanisms of neural crest development. This book is essential reading for students and researchers in developmental biology, cell biology, and neuroscience.

Neural Crest Cells

Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Quenten Schwarz,Sophie Wiszniak
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2019-06-06
ISBN : 9781493994113
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This detailed book provides a wide range of techniques, from those that have been used extensively since the very first investigations into neural crest cells to those that are currently cutting-edge, in order to explore the development of neural crest cells in human, mice, rat, chick, quail, medaka, and shark. With a bit of imagination and adjustment, many of these methodologies can be adaptable to any species desirable for study. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Neural Crest Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference guide for aspiring and experienced developmental biologists alike.

A Radioautographic Analysis of the Migration of Chick Cephalic Neural Crest Cells

A Radioautographic Analysis of the Migration of Chick Cephalic Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Drew Morrison Noden
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1972
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Radioautographic Analysis of the Migration of Chick Cephalic Neural Crest Cells book written by Drew Morrison Noden, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

STUDYING THE ROLE OF SOX10 IN

STUDYING THE ROLE OF SOX10 IN Book
Author : Hon-Man Sit,薛瀚文
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361040263
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Studying the Role of Sox10 in Enteric Neural Crest Cell Migration With Sox10NGFP Mouse Mutant" by Hon-man, Sit, 薛瀚文, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Sox10 is an HMG domain containing transcription factor required for maintaining the multipotent neural crest stem cells during the development of the enteric nervous system. Mutation of SOX10 in human leads to Waardenburg-Shah syndrome which is characterized by colonic aganglionosis, pigmentation defects and deafness. In addition to maintenance of the enteric neural crest progenitors, other factors including interactions of the neural crest cells with the gut microenvironment will also affect the colonization of these cells in the gut. In this study, I hypothesize that Sox10 is involved in maintaining enteric neural crest cell migration behaviors, possibly through regulating cell-cell or cell-extracellular matrix interactions. The aim of this study is to characterize the abnormal migration behavior of Sox10 mutant enteric neural crest cells, and to identify signaling pathway that may be involved in enteric neural crest cell migration. To investigate the migration behavior of Sox10 mutant enteric neural crest cells, gut explants from heterozygous 〖Sox10〗 DEGREESNGFP mutant mice, which expressed GFP protein in the enteric neural crest cells, were cultured on fibronectin coated dish. Movements of cells from the explants were recorded for 24 hours by confocal time-lapse live-cell imaging. The speed, displacement and persistence of the enteric neural crest cells in the gut explant culture were analyzed. While 〖Sox10〗 DEGREES(NGFP/+) cells moved 32% faster than control cells, their persistence was 43% lower than control cells, giving a significant 26% reduction in final displacement. Furthermore, by western blot analysis using protein extracts of mutant and normal midguts, I found that the level of phospho-FAK397, the activated form of focal adhesion kinase required for cell motility, was reduced in 〖Sox10〗 DEGREES(NGFP/NGFP ) and 〖Sox10〗 DEGREES(NGFP/+) mutants. These results indicate that Sox10 is required for normal enteric neural crest cell migration. It has been shown that PDGFRα is a downstream target of Sox10 in oligodendrocyte precursor cells and is essential for their migration. However, the role PDGFRα in the developing enteric nervous system was unclear. By immunohistochemical staining of E10.5, E12.5 and E14.5 〖Sox10〗 DEGREES(NGFP/+) and wildtype gut samples, PDGFRα was detected in the differentiated neuroblasts, but not in undifferentiated neural crest cells during these stages. Interestingly, treatment of gut explant cultures by PDGFR inhibitor disrupted the emigration and spreading of enteric neural crest cells from both Sox10NGFP/+ and wildtype explants, and this effect was more prominent in 〖Sox10〗 DEGREES(NGFP/+). Therefore, PDGF signaling is important for enteric neural crest cell movements. However, how PDGF signaling may control enteric neural crest cell migration requires further investigations. In summary, Sox10 is involved in enteric neural crest cell migration by maintaining normal cell migration behavior through modulating cell motility pathway. PDGFRα is a novel gene found to be expressed in the developing enteric nervous system. PDGF signaling is required for normal enteric neural crest cell migration in vitro, suggesting a potential novel pathway essential for gut colonization. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5317016 Subjects: Cell migration Transcription factors Neura

Induction Specification and Differentiation of Neural Crest Cells in Xenopus and Danio Rerio

Induction  Specification and Differentiation of Neural Crest Cells in Xenopus and Danio Rerio Book
Author : Stefanie Dolores Monica
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The neural crest (NC) is a vertebrate-specific population of multipotent cells, often referred to as the fourth germ layer because of its unique ability to migrate to all parts of the body and contribute to a variety of tissues. Positional information allows neural crest cells to determine their location relative to each other and in complex 3D environments, and to respond accordingly. A central question in developmental biology is how these positional cues are imparted to cells, and how the cells interpret them for the appropriate response. The work in this thesis sets out to determine 1) how Wnt and BMP gradients define cells as neural crest, 2) how the position along the AP axis determines neural crest fate and 3) how abolishing one positional cue results in a craniofacial phenotype. Precise control of BMP and Wnt signaling in both space and time is necessary for proper neural crest induction. While the Wnt signaling pathway has been extensively studied, it is not clear how the cells interpret and respond to the Wnt signals. Knowing the importance of these pathways in setting up the embryo axes, I wanted to further our understanding of the precise way these pathways initiate the neural crest program. An important first step toward determining how the intersection of the Wnt and BMP signaling pathways set up the neural crest cell program in space and time was to develop a method to rapidly and uniformly manipulate the signaling pathways in Xenopu laevis embryos. I was able to validate that small molecules can replace the use of mRNA injections in order to manipulate signaling pathways. The next chapter of my thesis determines how neural crest cells are specified at different axial levels. The derivatives and migratory paths of neural crest cells in the cranial and non-cranial regions are very distinct, so the gene regulatory networks are likely to differ as well. Previous work has focused on the cranial neural crest cells, and therefore, regulation of the non-cranial neural crest program remains poorly understood. By taking advantage of transgenic zebrafish lines, I show that a neural crest cell’s position along the AP axis during early development determines its fate. In the final chapter of this thesis, I examine how abolishing one cue (Wnt signaling) affects patterning of neural crest-derived cells without affecting earlier aspects of neural crest formation, such as proliferation and differentiation. Analysis of the craniofacial structures in mutants for multiple components of non-canonical Wnt signaling provides evidence that each component is required for proper formation in different axes.

Uncovering Molecular Properties of Neural Crest Cells

Uncovering Molecular Properties of Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Meghan Sara Adams,Marianne Bronner-Fraser,California Institute of Technology. Division of Biology
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The neural crest is a transient population of cells that arises at the border between the neural and non-neural ectoderm. These cells are induced, undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and then migrate along stereotypical pathways to form a wide array of derivatives. While these cells have long been studied, much about these cells and their interactions is still not understood. In order to better define these cells, we performed a screen for genes involved in neural crest cell development based on an in vitro culture system that produces neural crest cells. This highly successful screen resulted in a large number of candidates to examine, and we performed in situ hybridization to define the mRNA expression of 112 these genes. Moreover, we performed QPCR on several transcription factors that resulted from this screen to determine the level at which they were upregulated in our in vitro culture system. We also present loss-of-function analyses of two different genes that were discovered in our screen for neural crest effectors. These genes, Adh5 and Ccar1, are both functionally relevant in neural crest cells and the loss of either one through morpholino knockdown significantly decreases the mRNA of Sox10 on the injected side. Furthermore, we also show that Adh5 morpholino knockdown also results in a reduction of Snail2 and FoxD3 mRNA. Taken as a whole, this body of work represents the discovery of many new genes involved neural crest cell development, and the demonstration that at least two of these genes are functionally important for neural crest cells.

Neural Crest Stem Cells

Neural Crest Stem Cells Book
Author : Maya Sieber-Blum
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9814343803
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Offers readers an understanding of the development of neural crest cells, which is crucial as many birth defects and tumours are of neural crest origin. Delving into stem cells from different locations of the body, this book explores the best possible source of such cells for the use in medical applications.

Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation

Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation Book
Author : Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-08-10
ISBN : 0387469540
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Written by an international panel of recognized leaders in the field, Neural Crest Induction and Differentiation discusses all aspects of modern neural crest biology from its evolutionary significance to its specification, migration, plasticity and contribution to multiple lineages of the vertebrate body, to the pathologies associated with abnormal neural crest development and function. Abundant color figures enhance the text providing clear and attractive illustrations of central issues and concepts.

Neural Crest Cell Migration in Chicken and Mouse Embryos

Neural Crest Cell Migration in Chicken and Mouse Embryos Book
Author : George Nicolaus Serbedzija
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neural Crest Cell Migration in Chicken and Mouse Embryos book written by George Nicolaus Serbedzija, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

In Vitro Analysis of Sympathoblast Differentiation from Chick Neural Crest Cells

In Vitro Analysis of Sympathoblast Differentiation from Chick Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Sigmund Carl Norr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1972
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download In Vitro Analysis of Sympathoblast Differentiation from Chick Neural Crest Cells book written by Sigmund Carl Norr, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Analysis of Wt1 Expression in Neural Crest Cells

Analysis of Wt1 Expression in Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Joanna Marie Allardyce
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The neural crest is a transient collection of cell, termed neural crest cells (NCCs), which develop during neurulation at the outer extremities of the neural folds between surface ectoderm and the developing neural tube. NCCs del aminate from the crest and migrate throughout the developing embryo and differentiate into many cell types such as melanocytes, peripheral neurons, osteocytes, muscle cells and enteric neurons and glia. With the use of a lineage tracing system (Wtl-Cre X Rosa26R mouse line) it was previously found that cells derived from Wtl-expressing cells have contributed to the post-natal enteric nervous system (ENS), indicating that Wtl must have been expressed in progenitor cells of the ENS during embryonic development. The goal of this project was therefore to identify when and where Wtl is expressed during this process. Data from immunofluorescence studies revealed that Wtl is transiently expressed in Sox10-expressing NCCs when they first begin their migration from the neural crest, at E8.5 in the mouse. Wt1 is then down-regulated in NCCs before they enter the foregut at E9.5. This data has been supported by in situ hybridisation studies, where Wtl has been found in cells of the neural crest at the same time point (E8.5) but Wtl mRNA was not shown to be present at any embryonic stage later than this. In vitro investigations were carried out in order to characterise Wtl in vagal level NCCs, as it is NCCs from this region (opposite somites 1-7) and the sacral neural crest (caudal to somite 28) which have been established as the origin of the ENS. NCCs were characterised by morphology and marker expression over a time-period of 7 days. The results from immunofluorescence experiments revealed co- expression of Wtl and NCC markers, SoxlO, up to 96 hours in culture. After this time-point it was no longer possible to detect these proteins in cultured explants. The neuronal marker ~III Tubulin was detected from 48 hours and was still found to be expressed at high levels after 96 hours when Wtl and NCC markers had ceased to be expressed, suggesting differentiation ofNCCs. Migration assays whereby the rate of migration was determined in NCCs in culture over a period of 48 hours revealed a mean migration rate of oum/hour. These data are relevant for future siRNA Wtl knock-down experiments in NCCs in vitro to investigate the effect of loss of Wtl function on migration rates, cell morphology, and expression patterns following preliminary experiments carried out on kidney stem cells.

Neural Crest Cells

Neural Crest Cells Book
Author : Quenten Schwarz,Sophie Wiszniak
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2020-08-14
ISBN : 9781493994144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This detailed book provides a wide range of techniques, from those that have been used extensively since the very first investigations into neural crest cells to those that are currently cutting-edge, in order to explore the development of neural crest cells in human, mice, rat, chick, quail, medaka, and shark. With a bit of imagination and adjustment, many of these methodologies can be adaptable to any species desirable for study. Written for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and practical, Neural Crest Cells: Methods and Protocols serves as an ideal reference guide for aspiring and experienced developmental biologists alike.

Neural Crest Contribution to Human Dental Pulp Cells

Neural Crest Contribution to Human Dental Pulp Cells Book
Author : Ahmed Abbas Mohamed,King's College London. Guy's, King's and St. Thomas's School of Dentistry,King's College London Dental Institute. Department of Craniofacial Development
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) are a heterogeneous mesenchymal stem cell population that is highly proliferative and capable of multi-lineage differentiation. The origins of SHED cells are not known, but they are extracted from the dental pulp, a tissue that is formed largely by cranial neural crest cells. Thus, it is likely that neural crest cells contribute to the formation of SHED cells. This study aimed at investigating the possible existence of neural crest cells within SHED cell population. -- By employing RT -PCR, in-vitro cultured SHED cells are shown to express neural crest genes SNAIL1, SNAIL2, TWIST, SOX9, SOX10, and PAX3. Immunofluorescent and flow cytometric analyses of these cells further revealed that a fraction of SHED cells express neural crest genes SNAIL1 (7%), SNAIL2 (9.6%), SOX10 (15.2%), and p-75 (8.3%). When combined with a mesenchymal stem cell marker CD146, 7% express both CD146 and SNAIL1, 6.3% express CD146 and p-75, 10.4% express CD146 and SOX10, and only 8% are positive for both CD146 and SNAIL2. These findings indicate that adult mesenchymal cell subpopulations of SHED cells retain expression of neural crest cell genes. -- In order to test whether this subpopulation retains neural crest-like properties, SHED cells were cultured in in vitro osteogenic and odontoblastic inducing conditions. SHED cells formed nodular aggregates that were stained with Alizarin red after culturing in osteogenic-inducing medium. They also expressed odonotoblastic markers DSP and DSPP after culturing in odontoblastic-inducing medium. These findings suggest that SHED cells can give rise to neural crest-derived tissues in vitro. -- Magnetically sorted p-75 positive SHED cells were injected into the neural tube of stage 9HH chick embryos. The transplanted cells populated only neural crest derived tissues such as the carotid blood vessel walls and Meckel's cartilage.

Characterization of Migrating Neural Crest Cells from Hindbrain Explants in Zebrafish

Characterization of Migrating Neural Crest Cells from Hindbrain Explants in Zebrafish Book
Author : Daniel Murolo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Our lab was interested in creating a reproducible mechanism for obtaining neural crest cells in culture from cultured hindbrain explants of zebrafish. We have characterized the population of cells migrating from the explants as neural crest using a genetic variant of zebrafish with a GFP tag SOX-10, as well as immunostaining using HNK-1, a known neural marker for neural crest cells. We have also devised a modified protocol of in-situ hybridization that can be used for cells in culture for determining specific genes cells express in culture. Based on previous studies by Bingham et al., hindbrain explants have been extensively studied for preservation of their native (endogenous) cellular environments as well as the behavior of individual cell types. Biopidy ceramide labeling of live embryos has been used to extensively monitor and record cell shapes and organization in the developing zebrafish neural tube (Cooper et al). Studies by Bingham et al. have shown that morphogenesis of the neural tube in the zebrafish hindbrain is unaffected by the explantation of the hindbrain into a culture medium. The expression of krox20 and hoxb1a, which are expressed in the developing embryo in the hindbrain in rhombomeres 3 and 5 and rhombomere 4 respectively have been found to be unaffected when the hindbrain is explanted into a culture media. It has also been shown that valine expressing neural crest cells migrate normally out of r6. These results demonstrate that morphogenesis and patterning of the explanted hindbrain occur normally following the explanation of the hindbrain into a culture media (Bingham et al). Our lab has carried out dissections to remove the hindbrain from the developing embryo 15-18 hours post fertilization. We have found that it is possible to dissect the hindbrain out of a developing embryo and have cells migrate from these explants. We have also shown that these cells express Sox10 and are stained when using an antibody for HNK-1, which is known to be a neural crest cell marker. Our lab has also developed a working protocol of in-situ hybridization on cells in culture for Caco 2 and HT-29 using RNA probes for human beta actin and Hox A10.

Chick Corneal Development

Chick Corneal Development Book
Author : Jacqueline Shea McLaughlin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Chick Corneal Development book written by Jacqueline Shea McLaughlin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neurotrophins and the Neural Crest

Neurotrophins and the Neural Crest Book
Author : Maya Sieber-Blum
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1998-06-29
ISBN : 9780849340048
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The target of much current research, the neural crest is a transitory tissue of the vertebrate embryo that gives rise to many diverse structures in the adult organism, including the autonomic nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and most primary sensory ganglia, among other cell types and tissues. Reflecting recent investigations, Neurotrophins and the Neural Crest is dedicated to the roles neurotrophins play in neural crest cell differentiation and in the survival of neural crest derivatives. This timely book correlates in vitro data with results obtained from knock-out mice with targeted neurotrophin or receptor deletions, with the goal of determining the fidelity and usefulness of various experimental culture systems. It also covers embryonic expression patterns and functions of neurotrophins and their receptors. Chapters are organized to begin with neural crest-derived tissues as sources for experimental material, including sensory neurons, sympathetic neurons, enteric neurons, melanocytes, and calcitonin-producing cells from the thyroid, and concludes with discussions of the neural crest cells. A broad range of researchers and scientists involved in growth factors, neuroscience, developmental and cell biology, embryology, and many other fields, will find that Neurotrophins and the Neural Crest targets this fast-moving area of research completely and concisely.

The Neural Crest

The Neural Crest Book
Author : Nancy Coffelt,Brian Keith Hall,Sven Hörstadius,Hall, James
Publisher : London ; Toronto : Oxford University Press
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Neural Crest book written by Nancy Coffelt,Brian Keith Hall,Sven Hörstadius,Hall, James, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.