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Network Functions and Plasticity

Network Functions and Plasticity Book
Author : Jian Jing
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-04-11
ISBN : 0128034998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Network Functions and Plasticity: Perspectives from Studying Neuronal Electrical Coupling in Microcircuits focuses on the specific roles of electrical coupling in tractable, well-defined circuits, highlighting current research that offers novel insights for electrical coupling‘s roles in sensory and motor functions, neural computations, decision-making, regulation of network activity, circuit development, and learning and memory. Bringing together a diverse group of international experts and their contributions using a variety of approaches to study different invertebrate and vertebrate model systems with a focus on the role of electrical coupling/gap junctions in microcircuits, this book presents a timely contribution for students and researchers alike. Provides an easy-to-read introduction on neural circuits of the model system Focuses on the specific roles of electrical coupling in tractable, well-defined circuits Includes recent discoveries and findings that are presented in the context of historical background Outlines outstanding issues and future research in the field

Homeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity

Homeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity Book
Author : Michael A. Sutton,Dion Dickman
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-06
ISBN : 2889197042
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Activity within neural circuits shapes the synaptic properties of component neurons in a manner that maintains stable excitatory drive, a process referred to as homeostatic plasticity. These potent and adaptive mechanisms have been demonstrated to modulate activity at the level of an individual neuron, synapse, circuit, or entire network, and dysregulation at some or all of these levels may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Greater mechanistic understanding of homeostatic plasticity will provide key insights into the etiology of these disorders, which may result from network instability and synaptic dysfunction. Over the past 15 years, the molecular mechanisms of this form of plasticity have been intensely studied in various model organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Though once thought to have a predominantly postsynaptic basis, emerging evidence suggests that homeostatic mechanisms act on both sides of the synapse through mechanisms such as retrograde signaling, to orchestrate compensatory adaptations that maintain stable network function. These trans-synaptic signaling systems ultimately alter neurotransmitter release probability by a variety of mechanisms including changes in vesicle pool size and calcium influx. These adaptations are not expected to occur homogenously at all terminals of a pre-synaptic neuron, as they might synapse with neurons in non-overlapping circuits. However, the factors that govern the homeostatic control of synapse-specific plasticity are only beginning to be understood. In addition to our limited molecular understanding of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity, very little is known about its prevalence in vivo or its physiological and disease relevance. In this research topic, we aim to fill the aforementioned void by covering a broad range of topics that include: - Identification of signaling pathways and mechanisms that operate globally or locally to induce specific pre-synaptic adaptations - The nature of pre-synaptic ion channels relevant to this form of plasticity and their synapse-specific modulation and trafficking - Development and utilization of new tools or methods to study homeostatic plasticity in axons and pre-synaptic terminals - Novel mechanisms of homeostatic adaptations in pre-synaptic neurons - Postsynaptic sensors of activity and retrograde synaptic signaling systems - A comprehensive analysis of the kinds of pre-synaptic adaptations in diverse neural circuits and cell types - Identification of physiological or developmental conditions that promote pre-synaptic homeostatic adaptations - How activity-dependent (Hebbian) and homeostatic synaptic changes are integrated to both permit sufficient flexibility and maintain stable activity - Relevance of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders - Computational modeling of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity and network stability.

Neuronal Network Research Horizons

Neuronal Network Research Horizons Book
Author : Martin L. Weiss
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9781600214851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In neuroscience, a neural network is a bit of conceptual juggernaut: the conceptual transition from neuroanatomy, a rigorously descriptive discipline of observed structure, to the designation of the parameters delimiting a 'network' can be problematic. In outline a neural network describes a population of physically interconnected neurons or a group of disparate neurons whose inputs or signalling targets define a recognisable circuit. Communication between neurons often involves an electrochemical process. The interface through which they interact with surrounding neurons usually consists of several dendrites (input connections), which are connected via synapses to other neurons, and one axon (output connection). If the sum of the input signals surpasses a certain threshold, the neuron sends an action potential (AP) at the axon hillock and transmits this electrical signal along the axon. This important book presents the latest research in this field.

Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders

Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders Book
Author : Joseph I Tracy,Benjamin M Hampstead,K. Sathian
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2014-11-04
ISBN : 0199321884
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cognitive Plasticity in Neurologic Disorders describes and specifies the cognitive impact of neuroplastic processes in key neurologic disorders and syndromes. It is set apart from previous works in this area by its emphasis on the changing quality of neurocognition, demonstrating that this dynamic nature emerges from the neuroplastic processes at work in both mild and severe states of brain disease or injury. This resource describes the ways neurological illness or trauma (or attempts to treat patients with such conditions) can trigger neuroplastic mechanisms in the brain, inducing cognitive reorganization and remapping of brain networks. Each chapter shows how the cognitive and behavioral presentation of the disorder mirrors the changing neurobiologic context, and displays the numerous techniques being employed (e.g. behavior and rehabilitation therapies, electrical stimulation, and computer/machine neuromodulation of brain signals) underlying the neurobiology in ways that facilitate adaptive plasticity and cognitive recovery. An important feature of the book involves characterizing the degree to which the mechanistic principles governing neuroplastic responses and cognitive reorganization in the brain have been elucidated, making clear that it is these principles which will allow us to further develop rational rehabilitative therapies, match patients to appropriate treatments, and even begin to predict clinical treatment outcomes.

Anatomy and Plasticity in Large Scale Brain Models

Anatomy and Plasticity in Large Scale Brain Models Book
Author : Markus Butz,Wolfram Schenck,Arjen van Ooyen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-01-05
ISBN : 2889450651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Supercomputing facilities are becoming increasingly available for simulating activity dynamics in large-scale neuronal networks. On today's most advanced supercomputers, networks with up to a billion of neurons can be readily simulated. However, building biologically realistic, full-scale brain models requires more than just a huge number of neurons. In addition to network size, the detailed local and global anatomy of neuronal connections is of crucial importance. Moreover, anatomical connectivity is not fixed, but can rewire throughout life (structural plasticity)—an aspect that is missing in most current network models, in which plasticity is confined to changes in synaptic strength (synaptic plasticity). The papers in this Ebook, which may broadly be divided into three themes, aim to bring together high-performance computing with recent experimental and computational research in neuroanatomy. In the first theme (fiber connectivity), new methods are described for measuring and data-basing microscopic and macroscopic connectivity. In the second theme (structural plasticity), novel models are introduced that incorporate morphological plasticity and rewiring of anatomical connections. In the third theme (large-scale simulations), simulations of large-scale neuronal networks are presented with an emphasis on anatomical detail and plasticity mechanisms. Together, the articles in this Ebook make the reader aware of the methods and models by which large-scale brain networks running on supercomputers can be extended to include anatomical detail and plasticity.

Consciousness and Neural Plasticity

Consciousness and Neural Plasticity Book
Author : Morten Overgaard,Mads Jensen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 2889190072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies. If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather a dynamic entity, which physical structure changes according to its use and environment. This change may take the form of growth of new neurons, the creation of new networks and structures, and change within network structures, that is, changes in synaptic strengths. Plasticity raises questions about the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can have direct consequences for a theory about consciousness. For instance, theories of strict identity between consciousness and structure may face the serious dilemma to either accept that, say, the experience of the colour red is fundamentally different in one individual over time due to cortical changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is, something that is stable over time. Considering neural plasticity, this is not necessarily so. The NCC might change and hence literally change the way a person is conscious. What it is about the NCC that can and might change is, even though it can be relevant for the relation between the brain and consciousness is, still an unanswered question. There are, hence, a lot of questions that might shed light upon the relevant but unknown relations between consciousness and the brain. Therefore, We hereby propose to do a Research Topic on consciousness and neural plasticity to shed light on these underestimated issues.

Natural Artificial Parallel Computation

Natural   Artificial Parallel Computation Book
Author : David L. Waltz
Publisher : SIAM
Release : 1996-01-01
ISBN : 9780898713572
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The volume begins with processing in biological organisms, moves through interactions between processing in biology and computer science, and ends with massively parallel computing. It contains articles by scientists exploring the modeling of biological systems on computers and computer designers interested in exploiting massive numbers of computing elements in parallel.

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function CNS Disorders and Therapeutics

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function  CNS Disorders  and Therapeutics Book
Author : Carl Faingold,Hal Blumenfeld
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-12-26
ISBN : 0124158641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuronal Networks in Brain Function, CNS Disorders, and Therapeutics, edited by two leaders in the field, offers a current and complete review of what we know about neural networks. How the brain accomplishes many of its more complex tasks can only be understood via study of neuronal network control and network interactions. Large networks can undergo major functional changes, resulting in substantially different brain function and affecting everything from learning to the potential for epilepsy. With chapters authored by experts in each topic, this book advances the understanding of: How the brain carries out important tasks via networks How these networks interact in normal brain function Major mechanisms that control network function The interaction of the normal networks to produce more complex behaviors How brain disorders can result from abnormal interactions How therapy of disorders can be advanced through this network approach This book will benefit neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in networks, as well as clinicians in neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychiatry dealing with neurobiological disorders. Utilizes perspectives and tools from various neuroscience subdisciplines (cellular, systems, physiologic), making the volume broadly relevant Chapters explore normal network function and control mechanisms, with an eye to improving therapies for brain disorders Reflects predominant disciplinary shift from an anatomical to a functional perspective of the brain Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe – the broadest, most expert coverage available

Neural Models of Plasticity

Neural Models of Plasticity Book
Author : John H. Byrne,William O. Berry
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 148321687X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural Models of Plasticity: Experimental and Theoretical Approaches is an outgrowth of a conference that was held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, in the spring of 1987. The purpose of that conference was to review recent developments in both areas and to foster communication between those researchers pursuing theoretical approaches and those pursuing more empirical approaches. Contributions have been solicited from individuals who represent both ends of the spectrum of approaches as well as those using a combination of the two. These indicate that our knowledge of the plastic capabilities of the nervous system is accelerating rapidly due to rapid advances in the understanding of basic subcellular and molecular mechanisms of plasticity, and because of the computational capabilities and plastic properties that emerge from neural networks and assemblies. The book contains 19 chapters and opens with a study on the role of the neuromodulator in associative learning of the marine mollusk Hermissend. Subsequent chapters examine topics such as learning and memory in Aplysia; the Hebb rule for synaptic plasticity; olfactory processing and associative memory in the mollusk Limax maximus; simulation of a classically conditioned response; and the neural substrates of memory, focusing on the role of the hippocampus.

Computational Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing

Computational Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing Book
Author : Andrew Kusiak
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2000-05-22
ISBN : 9780471348795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Take the next step in Integrated Product and Process Development This pioneering book is the first to apply state-of-the-art computational intelligence techniques to all phases of manufacturing system design and operations. It equips engineers with a superior array of new tools for optimizing their work in Integrated Product and Process Development. Drawing on his extensive experience in the field of advanced manufacturing, Andrew Kusiak has masterfully embedded coverage of data mining, expert systems, neural networks, autonomous reasoning techniques, and other computational methods in chapters that cover all key facets of integrated manufacturing system design and operations, including: * Process planning * Setup reduction * Production planning and scheduling * Kanban systems * Manufacturing equipment selection * Group technology * Facilities and manufacturing cell layout * Warehouse layout * Manufacturing system product and component design * Supplier evaluation Each chapter includes questions and problems that address key issues on model integration and the use of computational intelligence approaches to solve difficulties across many areas of an enterprise. Examples and case studies from real-world industrial projects illustrate the powerfulapplication potential of the computational techniques. Comprehensive in scope and flexible in approach, Computational Intelligence in Design and Manufacturing is right in step with the enterprise of the future: extended, virtual, model-driven, knowledge-based, and integrated in time and space. It is essential reading for forward-thinking students and professional engineers and managers working in design systems, manufacturing, and related areas.

Synaptic Plasticity

Synaptic Plasticity Book
Author : Dean of Biomedical Sciences Michel Baudry,M. Baudry,Richard F. Thompson,Joel L. Davis
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1993
ISBN : 9780262023597
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synaptic Plasticity presents an up-to-date overview of the current status of research on the full scope of synaptic plasticity, including synaptic remodeling in response to damage, long-term depression and long-term potentiation, and learning and memory.The contributions are written by leading experts in the field and cover approaches from biochemical, anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and computational levels. They offer hypotheses concerning the molecular and cellular mechanisms that are responsible for the various manifestations of synaptic plasticity and propose models explaining how these cellular events can be linked to the functional and behavioral expressions of these adaptive principles.Michel Baudry is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Southern California. Richard F. Thompson is Director of the Neuroscience Program and Keck Professor of Psychology and Biological Sciences at the University of Southern California. Joel L. Davis is Scientific Officer for Computational Neuroscience at the Office of Naval Research.Contents: Introduction. Molecular Correlates of Activity-dependent Development and Synaptic Plasticity, S. Hockfield. Molecular Sorting in Neurons, 0. Steward. Molecular and Morphological Responses to Deafferentation in Rodents, C. E. Finch, T. H. McNeill. Forms of Long-term Potentiation Induced by NMDA and Non--NMDA Receptor Activation, T. Teyler, L. Grover. Long-term Potentiation: Biochemical Mechanisms, M. Baudry, G. Lynch. Cerebellar Mechanisms of Long-Term Depression, M. Ito. Long-term Depression: Related Mechanisms in Cerebellum, Neocortex, and Hippocampus, A. Artola, W. Singer. Theory of Synaptic Plasticity in Visual Cortex, N. Intrator, M. F. Bear, L. N. Cooper, M. A. Paradiso. A Theoretical and Experimental Strategy for Realizing a Biologically Based Model of the Hippocampus, T. W. Berger et al. Synaptic Plasticity, Learning, and Memory, S. P. Rose. Synaptic Plasticity and Memory Storage, R. F. Thompson et al.

Skeletal Muscle Structure Function and Plasticity

Skeletal Muscle Structure  Function  and Plasticity Book
Author : Richard L. Lieber
Publisher : LWW
Release : 2010
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In its Third Edition, this text addresses basic and applied physiological properties of skeletal muscle in the context of the physiological effects from clinical treatment. Anyone interested in human movement analysis and the understanding of generation and control from the musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems in implementing movement will find this a valuable resource. A highlight color has been added to this edition's updated figures and tables, and the color plates section has been doubled, ensuring that all figures that need color treatment to clarify concepts receive this treatment. A new Clinical Problem feature uses concepts presented in each chapter in the context of a specific clinical case—for example, a spinal cord injury, a sports accident, or rehabilitation after bed rest.

Cerebral Plasticity

Cerebral Plasticity Book
Author : Leo M. Chalupa,Nicoletta Berardi,Matteo Caleo,Lucia Galli-Resta,Tommaso Pizzorusso
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2011-05-20
ISBN : 0262294605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A survey of the latest research, covering such topics as plasticity in the adult brain and the underlying mechanisms of plasticity. The notion that neurons in the living brain can change in response to experience—a phenomenon known as "plasticity"—has become a major conceptual issue in neuroscience research as well as a practical focus for the fields of neural rehabilitation and neurodegenerative disease. Early work dealt with the plasticity of the developing brain and demonstrated the critical role played by sensory experience in normal development. Two broader themes have emerged in recent studies: the plasticity of the adult brain (one of the most rapidly developing areas of current research) and the search for the underlying mechanisms of plasticity—explanations for the cellular, molecular, and epigenetic factors controlling plasticity. Many scientists believe that achieving a fundamental understanding of what underlies neuronal plasticity could help us treat neurological disorders and even improve the learning capabilities of the human brain. This volume offers contributions from leaders in the field that cover all three approaches to the study of cerebral plasticity. Chapters treat normal development and the influences of environmental manipulations; cerebral plasticity in adulthood; and underlying mechanisms of plasticity. Other chapters deal with plastic changes in neurological conditions and with the enhancement of plasticity as a strategy for brain repair.

Cognitive Neurorehabilitation

Cognitive Neurorehabilitation Book
Author : Donald T. Stuss,Gordon Winocur,Ian H. Robertson
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1999-10-07
ISBN : 9780521581028
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first truly comprehensive survey of cognitive rehabilitation, spanning the spectrum from basic science to functional outcome. The international team of expert authors provide a critical review of theoretical and methodological issues relating to specific rehabilitation procedures and also to programme organization and management. The book is based on the twin premises that basic science is the foundation of rehabilitation and that successful outcome is dependent on the specificity of the rehabilitation. In demonstrating this, the book goes beyond cognitive rehabilitation treatments to cover biological, psychological, social and historical factors such as course of recovery, mood and motivation, family environment, education and age. With its emphasis on scientific principles, multidisciplinary practice, and functional outcome, this book will serve as an essential resource for all scientists and clinicians concerned with cognitive deficits secondary to altered brain functioning, and particularly to psychologists, neurologists, psychiatrists, occupational therapists and physical therapists.

Advances in Engineering Plasticity and its Application IX

Advances in Engineering Plasticity and its Application IX Book
Author : Jeong Whan Yoon,Heung Nam Han,Beom Soo Kang,Young Suk Kim
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2019-02-25
ISBN : 3035733627
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This edition includes the selected papers in the area of engineering plasticity, which were presented at the 14th Asia-Pacific Symposium on Engineering Plasticity and its Applications (AEPA 2018) was held on Jeju Island, Korea during December 2-7, 2018.

The Autisms

The Autisms Book
Author : Mary Coleman,Christopher Gillberg
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2011-12-20
ISBN : 0199996296
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Autisms, written by Mary Coleman and Christopher Gillberg, demonstrates that autism, like mental retardation, is a clinical presentation of numerous different diseases, many with genomic underpinnings. In this ground-breaking work, the authors explain in great detail how to clinically diagnose infants, children, adolescents and adults with autistic behavioral features and their psychiatric and neurological work-ups. This new edition contains several chapters on the associated problems of autism, such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, tics, eating disorders and sleep problems, as well as a chapter on epidemiology that documents the historical increase in autism diagnoses. Several chapters summarize the latest data on neuroanatomy, biochemistry and neuropsychology, while three neurogenomics chapters show evidence suggesting that autism occurs due to genetic errors which cause interruption or misdirection of critical neurodevelopmental circuits in the fetal brain. Completely up-to-date, The Autisms is relevant and necessary reading for researchers and clinicians in neuroscience, neurology, pediatrics, psychiatry, and psychology.