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Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin,Marc Cahay
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-03-29
ISBN : 0128126957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotube Superfiber Materials: Science, Manufacturing, Commercialization, Second Edition, helps engineers and entrepreneurs understand the science behind the unique properties of nanotube fiber materials, how to efficiency and safely produce them, and how to transition them into commercial products. Each chapter gives an account of the basic science, manufacturing, properties and commercial potential of a specific nanotube material form and its application. New discoveries and technologies are explained, along with experiences in handing-off the improved materials to industry. This book spans nano-science, nano-manufacturing, and the commercialization of nanotube superfiber materials. As such, it opens up the vast commercial potential of nanotube superfiber materials. Applications for nanotube superfiber materials cut across most of the fields of engineering, including spacecraft, automobiles, drones, hyperloop tracks, water and air filters, infrastructure, wind energy, composites, and medicine where nanotube materials enable development of tiny machines that can work inside our bodies to diagnose and treat disease. Provides up to date information on the applications of nanotube fiber materials Explores both the manufacturing and commercialization of nanotube superfibers Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes Describes the unique properties of these materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Mark J. Schulz,Brad Ruff,Aaron Johnson,Kumar Vemaganti,Weifeng Li,Murali M. Sundaram,Guangfeng Hou,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Ge Li,Svitlana Fialkova,Sergey Yarmolenko,Anli Wang,Yijun Liu,James Sullivan,Noe Alvarez,Vesselin Shanov,Sarah Pixley
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotubes are a unique class of materials because their properties depend not only on their composition but also on their geometry. The diameter, number of walls, length, chirality, van der Waals forces, and quality all affect the properties and performance of nanotubes. This dependence on geometry is what makes scaling-up nanotubes to form bulk material so challenging. Nanotubes are also unusual because they stick together to form bundles or strands. Nanotube superfiber materials are fibrous assemblages of nanotubes and strands. The hope and dream of researchers around the world is that nanotube superfiber materials will have broad applications and change engineering design. This chapter gives a perspective on nanotube superfiber development. This chapter discusses new applications—where we think we can go with the material properties and what applications will be enabled—and new techniques for developing superfiber material.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Mark Schulz,Vesselin Shanov,Zhangzhang Yin
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 1455778648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotube Superfiber Materials refers to different forms of macroscale materials with unique properties constructed from carbon nanotubes. These materials include nanotube arrays, ribbons, scrolls, yarn, braid, and sheets. Nanotube materials are in the early stage of development and this is the first dedicated book on the subject. Transitioning from molecules to materials is a breakthrough that will positively impact almost all industries and areas of society. Key properties of superfiber materials are high flexibility and fatigue resistance, high energy absorption, high strength, good electrical conductivity, high maximum current density, reduced skin and proximity effects, high thermal conductivity, lightweight, good field emission, piezoresistive, magnetoresistive, thermoelectric, and other properties. These properties will open up the door to dozens of applications including replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others. The scope of the book covers three main areas: Part I: Processing; Part II: Properties; and Part III: Applications. Processing involves nanotube synthesis and macro scale material formation methods. Properties covers the mechanical, electrical, chemical and other properties of nanotubes and macroscale materials. Different approaches to growing high quality long nanotubes and spinning the nanotubes into yarn are explained in detail. The best ideas are collected from all around the world including commercial approaches. Applications of nanotube superfiber cover a huge field and provides a broad survey of uses. The book gives a broad overview starting from bioelectronics to carbon industrial machines. First book to explore the production and applications of macro-scale materials made from nano-scale particles. Sets out the processes for producing macro-scale materials from carbon nanotubes, and describes the unique properties of these materials Potential applications for CNT fiber/yarn include replacing copper wire for power conduction, EMI shielding, coax cable, carbon biofiber, bullet-proof vests, impact resistant glass, wearable antennas, biomedical microdevices, biosensors, self-sensing composites, supercapacitors, superinductors, hybrid superconductor, reinforced elastomers, nerve scaffolding, energy storage, and many others.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Stephen C. Hawkins
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The nature of fiber materials and the differences between conventional fibers and nanoscale fibers are discussed in this chapter. The challenge of carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn fiber fabrication is provided from the perspective of conventional yarn fiber fabrication. Prospects for large-scale manufacturing and the physical properties of yarn are also discussed. This chapter sets the stage for presentation of a compendium of techniques working toward producing superfiber materials.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Rufan Zhang,Yingying Zhang,Fei Wei
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090960
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ultralong carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal building blocks for nanodevices and superstrong fibers. Due to their high-aspect-ratio structure formed from sp2 hybrid C–C bonds, they have extraordinary mechanical, electrical and thermal properties. It is of great importance to synthesize ultralong CNTs with controlled structures as well as optimized properties for their applications. This chapter discusses the synthesis methods, growth mechanisms, structures, electrical and mechanical properties, as well as the applications of ultralong CNTs. We show that the controlled synthesis of ultralong CNTs with certain structures and properties is of fundamental importance for their applications. Finally, we also show that the mechanical properties of ultralong CNTs are near the theoretical value, showing great potential for their applications in superstrong fibers.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : T. Filleter,A.M. Beese,M.R. Roenbeck,X. Wei,H.D. Espinosa
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090952
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Performance and efficiency demands in industrial applications are pushing a need for carbon fibers that can outperform existing technologies. Fibers that incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to enhance specific mechanical properties are a promising route to addressing this need. Some of the major roadblocks to unlocking the full potential of macroscopic fibers based on CNTs are controlling and optimizing the shear interactions within and between CNTs, geometrical organization of the CNTs, and structural properties of the individual CNTs. Several approaches have been pursued in order to optimize the mechanical behavior of CNT fibers, including irradiation-induced covalent cross-linking, reformable or rehealable bonding, and optimized geometrical and structural fiber designs. These approaches are inspired by nature, which uses hierarchical bonding schemes in optimized orientations to tailor the mechanical properties of its materials to the needs and environment of specific organisms. In this chapter, these approaches for developing high-performance CNT fibers will be reviewed, and an outlook of their potential impact will be discussed.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Noe T. Alvarez,Vesselin N. Shanov,Tim Ochmann,Brad Ruff
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been at the frontier of nanotechnology research for the past two decades. The interest in CNTs is due to their unique physical and chemical properties, which surpass those of most other materials. To put CNTs into macroscale applications, the nanotubes can be spun to form continuous fiber materials. Thus far, the properties of the fibers are far below the properties of the individual nanotubes. If the electrical and mechanical properties of the fibers could be improved, the resulting superfiber materials would change the industry and society. For example, CNT materials might replace copper wires providing lighter, stronger cables for aerospace applications. The small size of individual nanotubes, and the mixture of different diameters and chiralities, limits the electrical conductivity of CNT fiber. A simple way to improve the electrical conductivity of CNT fibers is chemically doping the CNTs within the fibers. This chapter attempts to summarize, classify and provide a basic understanding of doping at the atomic and molecular levels. Characterization of doping and current results of our doping efforts are discussed.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Fabrizio Pinto
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091193
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A novel approach leading to potentially extremely high-density energy and power storage is proposed based upon the energy exchange between the dispersion force field in an assembly of aligned telescoping nanotubes and the electrostatic field produced by an external voltage source biasing such nanostructures with respect to a facing electrode. We show that the retraction of a telescoping core into the outer nanotube shell in quasi-equilibrium results in the conversion of energy stored in the van der Waals field of the system into an electric current along with heat dissipated into the environment. On a macroscopic scale, the combined effect of the large effective areas and dominant dispersion force magnitudes typical of nanotubes makes such an implementation quite competitive as a storage system, conservatively capable of energy densities ∼1–3×102W·h/kg, depending on the particular class of nanotube employed, and with power densities in principle limited only by the dynamical response of the driving electronics. Additionally, since the mechanism of energy storage and release is ultimately related to quantum–electrodynamical dispersion interactions, the system charge and discharge time profiles can be directly addressed by the user on the nanoscale and are not limited by the electrochemical processes.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Michael B. Jakubinek
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been reported to have the highest thermal conductivities of any known material. However, significant variability exists both for the reported thermal conductivities of individual CNTs and the thermal conductivities measured for macroscopic CNT assemblies (e.g. CNT films, buckypapers, arrays, and fibers), which range from comparable to metals to aerogel-like. This chapter reviews the current status of the field, summarizing a wide selection of experimental results and drawing conclusions regarding present limitations of the thermal conductivity of CNT assemblies and opportunities for improvement of the performance of nanotube superfiber materials.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Xin Wang,Philip D. Bradford,Qingwen Li,Yuntian Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess the unique combination of extreme mechanical and physical properties at the level of the individual tube. They are often considered one of the best candidates for the reinforcement of the next generation of multifunctional composite materials. It is essential to assemble the CNTs into macroscopic assemblies resembling traditional fiber-reinforced composites to begin to realize their potential and make them a serious candidate for commercial composite structures. This chapter presents a general introduction to aligned and high-volume fraction CNT composites and then explores two recent promising approaches for fabricating strong, stiff and multifunctional aligned CNT/polymer composite prepregs at satisfactory processing rates. One approach involves incorporating drawable superaligned CNT sheets into high-volume fraction composites through spraying or spray-stretching and winding. The other approach is based on directly shear pressing vertically aligned CNT arrays into horizontally aligned sheets with subsequent polymer infiltration. Both approaches produced CNT composite prepregs with desirable structural features and excellent properties. Aligned CNT/bismaleimide composites produced by stretch winding exhibited a combined tensile strength and elastic modulus exceeding carbon fiber composites. The exceptional mechanical performance coupled with unique electrical and thermal properties makes these materials promising for a wide range of applications, such as multifunctional composite structures, lightweight and flexible conductors, thermal interface materials, and sensors.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Nicola Pugno
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 012809110X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter, the mechanics of nanotubes, graphene and related fibers are reviewed, with an eye to the limiting case of the design of a space elevator megacable. The effect on the fracture strength of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different sizes and shapes is quantified. Brittle fracture is investigated both numerically (with ad hoc hierarchical simulations) and theoretically (with quantized fracture theories) for nanotubes, graphene and related bundles.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Xiaogan Liang
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091118
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter provides a systematic comparison of band structures, physical properties as well as associated applications between carbon nanotubes and graphene. Both these two carbon-based nanomaterials are composed of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms based on sp2 hybridization and thus share some relevant characteristics. However, they have significantly different electronic states due to their morphological variation in quantum confinement, which is responsible for their different electrical, mechanical, and optical properties. This chapter provides readers some basic knowledge, hints, and insights for choosing appropriate carbon-based nanomaterials for specific applications in electronics, machines, composites, optics, optoelectronics, and other areas.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Weifeng Li,Brad Ruff,John Yin,Rajiv Venkatasubramanian,David Mast,Anshuman Sowani,Arvind Krishnaswamy,Vesselin Shanov,Noe Alvarez,Rachit Malik,Mark Haase,Madhura Patwardhan,Mark Schulz,Sergey Yarmolenko,Svitlana Fialkova,Salil Desai,Ge Li
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091177
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Medical change is coming. Robots and tiny machines built using nanoscale materials are going to fundamentally change engineering at the microscale and medicine will be the first area to benefit. In tiny machine design, copper and iron are replaced with carbon nanotube superfiber wire and magnetic nanocomposite materials. Because of the small size of tiny machines, high magnetic fields can be generated and high-force, high-speed devices can be built. Tiny machines are still in the early stages of being built and this chapter describes their engineering design and the work underway to build them. The tiny machines will operate inside the body and detect disease at an early stage, then provide precise therapy or surgery. There will also be engineering applications for the tiny machines such as performing high-throughput manufacturing operations at the microscale. The design principles and materials processing techniques described herein will facilitate the development of nanomaterial robots and tiny machines for myriad applications ranging from miniaturized sensors, actuators, energy harvesting devices, high-performance electric motors, and energy storage devices to smart structures with built-in artificial responsive behavior.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Brad Ruff,Weifeng Li,Rajiv Venkatasubramanian,David Mast,Anshuman Sowani,Mark Schulz,Timothy J. Harned
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091134
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are two ways to manufacture components and devices, the top-down and bottom-up processes. Each process has its advantages and disadvantages. In our group, the bottom-up process was selected to build up electromagnetic devices using nanoscale materials in a series of steps. The design of a lightweight electric motor is described based on using nanoscale materials. Development of the motor is work in progress and various processes and results are described. There are several potential applications for lightweight sustainable electric motors. One billion electric motors are produced in the world each year.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Miao Zhu,Hongwei Zhu
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091045
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn represents one of the most remarkable macrostructures of CNT with its excellent performance in terms of mechanical and electrical properties. Various synthesis methods have been developed and an increasing number of applications have been reported to date, making yarn production one of the most active fields in current research on nanomaterials. In this chapter, we focus on the direct synthesis of long CNT yarns by chemical vapor deposition, including some discussions of the growth parameters and key characteristics of as-grown yarns. A general introduction to the potential applications of CNT yarns/fibers is given to outline its broad prospects in different fields.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Canh-Dung Tran
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090995
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn, a macroscopic structure of CNTs with many potential applications, has attracted increased attention around the world and across many research areas and industrial fields, including materials science, electronics, medical biology and ecology. Spinning CNTs into yarn based on traditional textile spinning principles has demonstrated the potential in many important applications by producing weavable multifunctionalized yarns. Between 1991 and 2010, new manufacturing methods have enabled the production of pure CNT yarns and CNT-based composite yarns called superfiber suitable for weaving, knitting and braiding with continuous improvements. Especially various novel technologies are used to recently produce yarns for electrochemical devices and medical bioengineering. Thus, the studies on assembling individual CNTs into macrostructures of controlled and oriented configurations continue to play an important role in exploiting CNT potential applications.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : N. Govindaraju,R.N. Singh
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091002
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanostructured materials such as nanotubes exhibit properties significantly different from their bulk counterparts. The effect of the length scale on nanostructure material properties, in general, is briefly discussed. Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide-bandgap (Bandgap: ∼5 eV) semiconductor materials with attractive electrical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. The structure of BNNTs is delineated followed by a description of their main methods of synthesis. Electrical, mechanical, optical, and thermal properties of BNNTs are discussed and contrasted with those of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It is shown that the properties of BNNTs rival, if not exceed CNTs in several areas. It is envisaged that with further research, BNNTs will find applications in nanoelectromechanical systems, as ultraviolet light sources, in composite materials, and for storing gases.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Janet Hurst
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128091010
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter describes the development of noncarbon nanotubes and compares the features of carbon and noncarbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes are the most widely available nanotube material and are typically used for reinforcement of polymeric and glass materials, electronic applications, etc. Noncarbon nanotubes such as boron nitride and silicon carbide have advantages for use in aggressive environments. Possible uses of noncarbon nanotubes include reinforcement of metals, polymers, and glasses; environmental and thermal barrier coatings; electronics; and radiation shielding.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Lakshman K. Randeniya
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 0128090979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter discusses fabrication of carbon nanotube yarn and coating of metals and nonmetals onto the yarn to increase electrical conductivity. An increase in weight due to the metal particle coating is the trade-off for achieving increased electrical conductivity. Electrical conductors made from the hybrid alloy yarn may have multiple applications including in electrical conductors and transmission lines. Carbon nanotube yarns also show potential as microelectrodes and robust and flexible chemiresistors for molecular detection. The decoration of metal nanoclusters on the yarn provides high sensitivity and selectivity to gases that are present in industrial and environmental emissions. Overall, coating yarn with particles produces a multifunctional material that opens up new design possibilities for applications.

Nanotube Superfiber Materials

Nanotube Superfiber Materials Book
Author : Kazuhiro Yanagi
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-09-16
ISBN : 012809107X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The electronic transport properties of networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes are investigated in this chapter. The ratio of semiconducting to metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, called the MS ratio, affects the conduction mechanisms in nanotube networks. Several theories about the conduction mechanisms are discussed. The results presented are useful in the design of nanotube networks that are expected to be used in a wide range of applications such as field-effect transistors and conducting films.