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Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Teruya Shinjo
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780444632791
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Spintronics is a newly developing area in the field of magnetism, in which the interplay of magnetism and transport phenomena is studied experimentally and theoretically. This book introduces the recent progresses in the research relating to spintronics."--Publishers website.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Teruo Ono,Teruya Shinjo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086785
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dynamical behavior of magnetic domain wall (DW) is one of the main issues in the field of spintronics. In this chapter, several experimental studies in DW dynamics in nanomagnetic systems are described. For the study of DW motion in nanoscale wires, samples with a trilayer structure, ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic/ferromagnetic, were prepared and the position of DW was estimated from electrical resistance measurements using giant magnetoresistance principle. The velocity of DW driven by an external field has been evaluated from the resistance change. On the other hand, current-driven DW motion in a single wire of ferromagnetic layer was studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM). All-electrical control and local detection of multiple magnetic DWs are also shown. Magnetic vortex structures are realized in nanoscale ferromagnetic dot systems. The behavior of vortex core magnetization was observed by MFM. Recent topics such as the switching of vortex core driven by a high frequency AC are introduced. Furthermore, all-electrical operation of a magnetic vortex core memory cell is demonstrated.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Farzad Nasirpouri,Alain Nogaret
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9814273058
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomagnetism and spintronics are two close subfields of nanoscience, explaining the effect of substantial magnetic properties of matter when the materials fabrication is realized at a comparable length size. Nanomagnetism deals with the magnetic phenomena specific to the structures having dimensions in the submicron range. The fact that the electronic transport properties of materials are dependent on the magnetic properties' artificial nanostructures, i.e., giant magnetoresistance (GMR) or tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), has revolutionized spintronics science and technology. This book explains the concepts of nanomagnetism and spintronics by viewing the most recent research works from internationally distinguished research groups. Placing special emphasis on crucial fundamental and technical aspects of nanomagnetism and spintronics, it serves as a one-stop reference for universities offering postgraduate programs in nanotechnology or related disciplines. This unique book deals with all three stages required for conducting research in nanomagnetism and spintronics including fabrication, characterization and applications of nanomagnetic and spintronics materials, providing general concepts and an insightful overview of this subject for research students and scientists from different backgrounds investigating the multidisciplinary area of nanotechnology.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Teruya Shinjo
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086750
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This overview is a brief introduction to the subjects covered by this book, nanomagnetism and spintronics. The discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect is described together with a short summary of the studies prior to the experiments on GMR. Studies on various kinds of magnetoresistance (MR) effect that were inspired by the GMR effect are reviewed and recent topics are introduced. In many novel phenomena involving the interplay of electric conductance and magnetization, the role of the “spin current” has been revealed to be important and the possibility for exploiting these phenomena in spintronics devices has been suggested. Nanoscale devices are indispensable to fundamental studies on spintronics and also to various technical devices, and therefore gaining an understanding of nanomagnetism is a crucial current issue. At the end of this section, the scope of this book is described in brief with the content of each chapter.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Yoshishige Suzuki,Ashwin A. Tulapurkar,Youichi Shiota,Claude Chappert
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086777
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current and voltage applied to the magnetic nanopillars induce a spin injection and an accumulation of nonequilibrium charges in a nanosize magnetic cell and result a spin torque exerted on the magnetic moment. Using such torques, we may amplify a precession of magnetization and induct a magnetization switching. These phenomena provide new techniques to write information into tiny magnetic cells and to construct oscillators and rectifiers that are several tens of nanometers in size. In this chapter, spin injections, and current and voltage-induced spin torques in magnetic multilayers, which show giant magnetoresistance effect in current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP-GMR) geometry, and magnetic tunneling junctions are described. Further, mechanisms of spin injection and voltage-induced magnetization switching and its high-speed observations are explained. Then, phenomena related to spin injection, namely, spin-transfer oscillation and the spin-torque diode effect, are described. Finally, applications related to the spin-injection technology are reviewed.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Fumihiro Matsukura,Hideo Ohno
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086815
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

III–V compound semiconductors such as GaAs and InAs alloyed with Mn exhibit ferromagnetism. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of ferromagnetic III–V semiconductors are first compiled along with the way to prepare the epitaxial films and the effect of postgrowth annealing. Theories available to explain the magnetism in these alloys are then presented. Because the ferromagnetic semiconductors are compatible with epitaxial III–V heterostructures, a number of device structures have been examined and shown to reveal a wide variety of phenomena that either cannot be realized or are very difficult to observe in ferromagnetic metal structures. The unique properties revealed by ferromagnetic semiconductor structures, ranging from reversible electric field control of ferromagnetic phase transition to generating velocity versus current-density curves of current-induced domain wall motion, are then reviewed. The prospect of realizing high-transition temperature is discussed in the last section.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Teruya Shinjo
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-06-29
ISBN : 9780080932163
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spintronics is a newly developing area in the field of magnetism, in which the interplay of magnetism and transport phenomena is studied experimentally and theoretically. This book introduces the recent progresses in the research relating to spintronics. * Presents in-depth analysis of this fascinating and technologically important new branch of nanoscience * Edited text with contributions from acknowledged leaders in the field * This handbook and guide will appeal to students and researchers in the fields of electronic devices and materials

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : André Thiaville,Yoshinobu Nakatani
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086807
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spin-transfer torque manifests itself in two main geometries, either submicrometer diameter pillars composed of magnetic multilayers, flooded by a current perpendicular to plane (CPP), or nanowires with current flowing in their plane (CIP). The first situation can be described rather well, from the magnetic point of view, in the framework of the macrospin model (see by Y. Suzuki). In the latter case, the typical situation is that of a magnetic domain wall under CIP current, with many internal degrees of freedom. In by H. Kohno and G. Tatara, a simplest model of the domain wall, called collective coordinates model, has been introduced to study this question. In this chapter, we will address the entire manifold of the degrees of freedom in the domain wall by micromagnetic numerical simulations, and apply this to the physics of CIP spin transfer in magnetic domain walls. We will consider soft magnetic materials only, where domain wall structures and dynamics are controlled by magnetostatics. This corresponds to the largest part of experiments that have been performed up to now, soft magnetic materials having generally lower coercive forces and domain wall propagation fields. The experimental counterpart to this chapter can be found in , by T. Ono and T. Shinjo. After briefly introducing micromagnetics and the typology of domain walls in samples shaped into nanostrips, we start by reviewing the field-driven dynamics in such samples. This situation was indeed considered first, historically, and led to the introduction of several useful concepts. Prominent among them are the separation between steady-state and precessional regimes, and the existence of a maximum velocity for a domain wall. The spin-transfer torque-induced domain wall dynamics will then be addressed, considering first the implementation of the CIP spin transfer torque in micromagnetics, with several components as introduced by theory. Comparison will be made to the field-driven case, with similarities and differences highlighted. In the nascent field of nanomagnetism and spintronics, micromagnetics can be considered to play the role of a translator. There are on one side experiments and on the other side theories about interaction between magnetization and spin-polarized electrical currents. Micromagnetics is a tool that translates the equations of the latter into quantitative predictions that can be compared to the former. Considering the present state of the subject of this book, with rapidly advancing experiments and theories, keeping in touch those two aspects of research is very important for its sound development. This is the objective of this chapter.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Jun-ichiro Inoue
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086769
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Novel magnetotransport phenomena appear when magnet sizes become nanoscale. Typical examples of such phenomena are giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in magnetic multilayers, tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic tunnel junctions, and ballistic magnetoresistance (BMR) in magnetic nanocontacts. In this chapter, we first briefly review the relationship between spin-dependent resistivity and electronic structures in metals and alloys, and describe microscopic methods for investigating electrical transport. We then review the essential aspects of GMR, TMR, and BMR, emphasizing the role of the electronic structures of the constituent metals of these junctions and the effects of roughness on the electrical resistivity (or resistance). The important factors that control GMR are shown to be the spin-dependent random potential at interfaces and band matching/mismatching between magnetic and nonmagnetic layers. For TMR, several factors are shown to be important in determining the MR ratio, including the shape of the Fermi surface of the electrodes, the symmetry of the wave functions, electron scattering at interfaces, and spin-slip tunneling. An interpretation of TMR in Fe/MgO/Fe and of an oscillation of TMR is presented. TMR in granular films and in the Coulomb-blockade regime is also described. We also provide a brief explanation for other MR effects, such as normal MR, anisotropic MR (AMR) and colossal MR (CMR) in order to clarify the essential difference between these MRs and GMR, TMR, and BMR. These MR effects are attributed to the spin-dependent electrical currents produced in metallic ferromagnets. After the discovery of these different MR effects, the role of spin current was proposed, for example, spin Hall effect and the effects of spin transfer torque, which will be briefly explained in this chapter. The former orginates from the spin–orbit interaction, and can be observed even in nonmagnetic metals and semiconductors. It is closely related to the anomalous Hall effect observed in ferromagnetic metals. The spin transfer torque is an inverse effect of the MR. The MR is the resistivity change produced by magnetization rotation in ferromagnetic junctions, while the spin transfer torque is an effect in which spin-polarized current makes the magnetization rotate. Finally, we briefly introduce the coupled effects of spin, charge, and heat transport, which are called spin caloritronics.

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics

Nanomagnetism and Spintronics Book
Author : Hiroshi Kohno,Gen Tatara
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-10-07
ISBN : 0128086793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current-driven domain-wall motion and related phenomena are reviewed from a theoretical point of view. In the first part, the dynamics of a rigid domain wall is described based on the collective-coordinate method. After an elementary introduction, the equations of motion are derived for a wall under current, whose effects enter as a spin-transfer effect and a momentum-transfer effect (force). The wall motion is studied in detail, and several depinning mechanisms are found. In the second part, a microscopic derivation of spin torques is described for slowly varying magnetic texture. In addition to the well-established spin-transfer torque, two new torques are shown to arise from the spin-relaxation process and the nonadiabatic process (reflection) of conduction electrons. These new torques act as forces on a rigid wall. Some related topics are described in the third part, which includes current-driven dynamics of magnetic vortices and the current-induced spin-wave instability and domain-wall nucleation.

Handbook of Nanomagnetism

Handbook of Nanomagnetism Book
Author : Rosa A. Lukaszew
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-10-06
ISBN : 9814613053
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique handbook compiles and details cutting-edge research in nanomagnetism and its applications in spintronics, magnetoplasmonics, and nonlinear magneto-optics. Fundamental aspects of magnetism relevant to nanodevices and new spin-transfer torque random-access memory (STT-RAM), current-induced domain wall motion memory, and spin torque oscillators, as well as highly anisotropic materials and topics on magnetization damping are developed in detail in the book. New paradigms such as molecule-based magnets (MBMs), which are a promisingly adaptive class of solids poised to open new frontiers of exploration, are also covered. The relationship between magnetism and nonlinear optics and the new field of magnetoplasmonics is also developed in detail. The book also includes a thorough chapter on spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SP-STM), which enables studying magnetic phenomena on surfaces with real-space imaging and spectroscopy techniques down to the atomic level. All these topics are developed by an interdisciplinary team of leading experts in their pertinent fields. The book will certainly appeal to anyone involved in nanomagnetism and its application in spintronic nanodevices and nonlinear magneto-optics.

Nanomagnetism

Nanomagnetism Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-03-27
ISBN : 9780080457178
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoscience is of central importance in the physical and biological sciences and is now pervasive in technology. However nanomagnetism has a special role to play as magnetic properties depend uniquely on both dimensionality and lengthscales. Nanomagnetism is already central to data storage, sensor and device technologies but is increasingly being used in the life sciences and medicine. This volume aims to introduce scientists, computer scientists, engineers and technologists from diverse fields to this fascinating and technologically important new branch of nanoscience. The volume should appeal to both the interested general reader but also to the researcher wishing to obtain an overview of this fast moving field. The contributions come from acknowledged leaders in the field who each give authoritative accounts of key fundamental aspects of nanomagnetism to which they have themselves made a major contribution. After a brief introduction by the editors, Wu first surveys the fundamental properties of magnetic nanostructures. The interlayer exchange interactions within magnetic multilayer structures is next discussed by Stiles. Camley then discusses the static, dynamic and thermal properties of magnetic multilayers and nanostructures, followed by an account of the phenomenon of exchange anisotropy by Berkowitz and Kodama. This latter phenomenon is widely in current read head devices for example. The transport properties of nanostructures also are spectacular, and again underpin computer technology, as we see from the discussion of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) and tunnelling magnetoresistance (TMR) presented by Fert and his colleagues. Beyond GMR and TMR we look to the field of spintronics where new electronic devices are envisioned and for which quantum computing may depend as discussed in the chapter by Flatte and Jonker. The volume concludes with discussion of the recently discovered phenomenon of current induced switching of magnetization by Edwards and Mathon. * Subject is in the forefront of nanoscience * All Section authors are leading figures in this key field * Presentations are accessible to non specialists, with focus on underlying fundamentals

Principles of Nanomagnetism

Principles of Nanomagnetism Book
Author : Alberto P. Guimarães
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-08
ISBN : 3319594095
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of this book on nanomagnetism presents the basics and latest studies of low-dimensional magnetic nano-objects. It highlights the intriguing properties of nanomagnetic objects, such as thin films, nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotubes, nanodisks and nanorings as well as novel phenomena like spin currents. It also describes how nanomagnetism was an important factor in the rapid evolution of high-density magnetic recording and is developing into a decisive element of spintronics. Further, it presents a number of biomedical applications. With exercises and solutions, it serves as a graduate textbook.

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III Book
Author : J.A.C. Bland,Bretislav Heinrich
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2005-12-06
ISBN : 9783540271635
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be accessible both to newcomers and to experts already working in this field who would like to get a better understanding of this very diversified area of research.

Magnetic Nanostructures

Magnetic Nanostructures Book
Author : Hartmut Zabel,Michael Farle
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-09-15
ISBN : 3642320422
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomagnetism and spintronics is a rapidly expanding and increasingly important field of research with many applications already on the market and many more to be expected in the near future. This field started in the mid-1980s with the discovery of the GMR effect, recently awarded with the Nobel prize to Albert Fert and Peter Grünberg. The present volume covers the most important and most timely aspects of magnetic heterostructures, including spin torque effects, spin injection, spin transport, spin fluctuations, proximity effects, and electrical control of spin valves. The chapters are written by internationally recognized experts in their respective fields and provide an overview of the latest status.

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures IV

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures IV Book
Author : Bretislav Heinrich,J.A.C. Bland
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-12-13
ISBN : 9783540219545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be accessible both to newcomers and to experts already working in this field who would like to get a better understanding of this very diversified area of research.

Spintronic 2D Materials

Spintronic 2D Materials Book
Author : Wenqing Liu,Yongbing Xu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-15
ISBN : 0081021542
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spintronic 2D Materials: Fundamentals and Applications provides an overview of the fundamental theory of 2D electronic systems that includes a selection of the most intensively investigated 2D materials. The book tells the story of 2D spintronics in a systematic and comprehensive way, providing the growing community of spintronics researchers with a key reference. Part One addresses the fundamental theoretical aspects of 2D materials and spin transport, while Parts Two through Four explore 2D material systems, including graphene, topological insulators, and transition metal dichalcogenides. Each section discusses properties, key issues and recent developments. In addition, the material growth method (from lab to mass production), device fabrication and characterization techniques are included throughout the book. Discusses the fundamentals and applications of spintronics of 2D materials, such as graphene, topological insulators and transition metal dichalcogenides Includes an in-depth look at each materials system, from material growth, device fabrication and characterization techniques Presents the latest solutions on key challenges, such as the spin lifetime of 2D materials, spin-injection efficiency, the potential proximity effects, and much more

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures III Book
Author : J.A.C. Bland,Bretislav Heinrich
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2004-12-13
ISBN : 9783540219538
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. This volume describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. Volume IV deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be accessible both to newcomers and to experts already working in this field who would like to get a better understanding of this very diversified area of research.

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures IV

Ultrathin Magnetic Structures IV Book
Author : Bretislav Heinrich,J.A.C. Bland
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-09-02
ISBN : 9783540801788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is designed to be accessible both to newcomers and to experts already working in this field who would like to get a better understanding of this very diversified area of research.

Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy Efficient Memory and Computing

Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy Efficient Memory and Computing Book
Author : Jayasimha Atulasimha,Supriyo Bandyopadhyay
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-03-07
ISBN : 1118869265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomagnetic and spintronic computing devices are strong contenders for future replacements of CMOS. This is an important and rapidly evolving area with the semiconductor industry investing significantly in the study of nanomagnetic phenomena and in developing strategies to pinpoint and regulate nanomagnetic reliably with a high degree of energy efficiency. This timely book explores the recent and on-going research into nanomagnetic-based technology. Key features: Detailed background material and comprehensive descriptions of the current state-of-the-art research on each topic. Focuses on direct applications to devices that have potential to replace CMOS devices for computing applications such as memory, logic and higher order information processing. Discusses spin-based devices where the spin degree of freedom of charge carriers are exploited for device operation and ultimately information processing. Describes magnet switching methodologies to minimize energy dissipation. Comprehensive bibliographies included for each chapter enabling readers to conduct further research in this field. Written by internationally recognized experts, this book provides an overview of a rapidly burgeoning field for electronic device engineers, field-based applied physicists, material scientists and nanotechnologists. Furthermore, its clear and concise form equips readers with the basic understanding required to comprehend the present stage of development and to be able to contribute to future development. Nanomagnetic and Spintronic Devices for Energy-Efficient Memory and Computing is also an indispensable resource for students and researchers interested in computer hardware, device physics and circuits design.