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Nanobiosensors

Nanobiosensors Book
Author : Aiguo Wu,Waheed S. Khan
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-06-02
ISBN : 3527345108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Containing cutting edge research on the hot topic of nanobiosensor, this book will become highly read Biosensor research has recently re-emerged as most vibrant area in recent years particularly after the advent of novel nanomaterials of multidimensional features and compositions. Nanomaterials of different types and striking properties have played a positive role in giving the boost and accelerated pace to biosensors development technology. Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications covers several aspects of biosensors beginning from the basic concepts to advanced level research. It will help to bridge the gap between various aspects of biosensors development technology and applications. It covers biosensors related material in broad spectrum such as basic concepts, biosensors & their classification, biomarkers & their role in biosensors, nanostructures-based biosensors, applications of biosensors in human diseases, drug detection, toxins, and smart phone based biosensors. Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications will prove a source of inspiration for research on biosensors, their local level development and consequently using for practical application in different industries such as food, biomedical diagnosis, pharmaceutics, agriculture, drug discovery, forensics, etc. * Discusses the latest technology and advances in the field of nanobiosensors and their applications in human diseases, drug detection, toxins * Offers a broad and comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on advanced materials such as carbon materials, nitride based nanomaterials, metal and metal oxide based nanomaterials for the fast-developing nanobiosensors research * Goes to a wide scientific and industry audience Nanobiosensors - From Design to Applications is a resource for polymer chemists, spectroscopists, materials scientists, physical chemists, surface chemists, and surface physicists.

Nanobiosensors for Environmental Monitoring

Nanobiosensors for Environmental Monitoring Book
Author : Ravindra Pratap Singh,Kingsley Eghonghon Ukhurebor,Jay Singh,Charles Oluwaseun Adetunji,Kshitij RB Singh
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-11-30
ISBN : 3031161068
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book entails detailed information on the utilization of nanobiosensor as an effective technology for the effective detection, monitoring, and management of environmental contaminations to ensure its sustainability and humanity's well-being. The higher level of anthropogenic action has been identified as a threat to humankind's existence due to the higher level of xenobiotic and toxic substances that could interrupt the normal ecosystem. This has prompted numerous agencies both locally and internationally that could play a significant role in environmental pollution mitigation. The application of nanobiosensor has been identified as a sustainable technique that could be applied to ensure proper detection and identification of several environmental contaminants. Nanomaterial’s possible applications created an innovative domain called nanomaterials based biosensors machinery as one of nanotechnology's ultimate sub-divisions. The application of nanomaterials based biosensors machinery and their advancements could be applied globally to resolve numerous environmental sectors' challenges to guarantee the environment's quality and safety. The book will be an excellent collection of reviews based on contemporary research and developments on nanomaterials utilization and applications in environmental monitoring along with their prospects. The book will attempt to give a comprehensive idea of nanomaterial concepts for nanobiosensors applications in an environmental context to help students, researchers, and professionals/practitioners recognize nanomaterials' significance in the environmental domain. The book will also help understand and address the environmental sectors' complications via nanomaterials' utilization and applications. Hence, this book will serve as a textbook and will help students, professionals/practitioners, scientists, researchers, and academicians in various research domains.

Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses

Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses Book
Author : Mun'delanji C. Vestergaard,Kagan Kerman,I-Ming Hsing,Eiichi Tamiya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-03-18
ISBN : 4431551905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive review of established, cutting-edge, and future trends in the exponentially growing field of nanomaterials and their applications in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part I focuses on the key principles and transduction approaches, reviewing the timeline featuring the important historical milestones in the development and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part II reviews various architectures used in nanobiosensing designs focusing on nanowires, one- and two-dimensional nanostructures, and plasmonic nanobiosensors with interferometric reflectance imaging. Commonly used nanomaterials, functionalization of the nanomaterials, and development of nanobioelectronics are discussed in detail in Part III with examples from screen-printed electrodes, nanocarbon films, and semiconductor quantum dots. Part IV reviews the current applications of carbon nanotubes, nanoneedles, plasmonic sensors, electrochemical scanning microscopes, and field-effect transistors with the future outlook for emerging technologies. Attention is also given to potential challenges, in particular, of taking these technologies at the point-of-need. The book concludes by providing a condensed summary of the contents, with emphasis on future directions. Nanomaterials have become an essential part of biosensors and bioanalyses in the detection and monitoring of medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental conditions, from cancer to chemical warfare agents. This book, with its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, will be an essential guide for all those involved in the research, design, development, and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses.

Nanobiosensors for Agricultural Medical and Environmental Applications

Nanobiosensors for Agricultural  Medical and Environmental Applications Book
Author : Mohd. Mohsin,Ruphi Naz,Altaf Ahmad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-01-11
ISBN : 9811583463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This informative book compiles the most up-to-date applications of nanobiosensors in fields ranging from agriculture to medicine. The introductory section describes different types of nanobiosensors and use of nanobiosensors towards a sustainable environment. The applications are divided into four broad sections for easy reading and understanding. The book discusses how manipulation, control and integration of atoms and molecules are used to form materials, structures, devices and systems in nano-scale. Chapters in the book shed light on the use of nanosensors in diagnostics and medical devices. Application in food processing as well as in cell signaling is also described. Nanobiosensors have immense use, and this book captures the most important ones.

Nanobiosensors

Nanobiosensors Book
Author : Alexandru Grumezescu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-12-20
ISBN : 0128043725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiosensors: Nanotechnology in the Agri-Food Industry, Volume 8, provides the latest information on the increasing demand for robust, rapid, inexpensive, and safe alternative technologies that monitor, test, and detect harmful or potentially dangerous foods. Due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, nanobiosensors have attracted attention for their use in monitoring not only biological contaminants in food, but also potential chemical and physical hazards. This book offers a broad overview regarding the current progress made in the field of nanosensors, including cutting-edge technological progress and the impact of these devices on the food industry. Special attention is given to the detection of microbial contaminants and harmful metabolotes, such as toxins and hormones, which have a great impact on both humans and animal health and feed. Includes the most up-to-date information on nanoparticles based biosensors and quantum dots for biological detection Provides application methods and techniques for research analysis for bacteriological detection and food testing Presents studies using analytical tools to improve food safety and quality analysis

Nanosensors for Smart Cities

Nanosensors for Smart Cities Book
Author : Baoguo Han,Vijay Tomer,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Ali Farmani,Pradeep Kumar Singh
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-02-13
ISBN : 0128199237
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanosensors for Smart Cities covers the fundamental design concepts and emerging applications of nanosensors for the creation of smart city infrastructures. Examples of major applications include logistics management, where nanosensors could be used in active transport tracking devices for smart tracking and tracing, and in agri-food productions, where nanosensors are used in nanochips for identity, and food inspection, and smart storage. This book is essential reading for researchers working in the field of advanced sensors technology, smart city technology and nanotechnology, and stakeholders involved in city management. Nanomaterials based sensors (nanosensors) can offer many advantages over their microcounterparts, including lower power consumption, high sensitivity, lower concentration of analytes, and smaller interaction distance between object and sensor. With the support of artificial intelligence (AI) tools, such as fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, neural networks, and ambient-intelligence, sensor systems are becoming smarter. Provides information on the fabrication and fundamental design concepts of nanosensors for intelligent systems Explores how nanosensors are being used to better monitor and maintain infrastructure services, including street lighting, traffic management and pollution control Assesses the challenges for creating nanomaterials-enhanced sensors for mass-market consumer products

NanoBiosensing

NanoBiosensing Book
Author : Huangxian Ju,Xueji Zhang,Joseph Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-08-18
ISBN : 9781441996220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book will cover the full scope of nanobiosensing, which combines the newest research results in the cross-disciplines of chemistry, biology, and materials science with biosensing and bioanalysis to develop novel detection principles, sensing mechanisms, and device engineering methods. It not only covers the important types of nanomaterials for biosensing applications, including carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, quantum dots, fullerenes, fluorescent and biological molecules, etc., but also illustrates a wide range of sensing principles, including electrochemical detection, fluorescence, chemiluminesence, antibody-antigen interactions, and magnetic detection. The book details novel developments in the methodology and devices of biosensing and bioanalysis combined with nanoscience and nanotechnology, as well as their applications in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Furthermore, the reported works on the application and biofunction of nanoparticles have attracted extensive attention and interest, thus they are of particular interest to readers. The reader will obtain a rich survey of nanobiosensing technology, including the principles and application of biosensing, the design and biofunctionalization of bionanomaterials, as well as the methodology to develop biosensing devices and bioanalytical systems.

Nanobiosensors for Biomolecular Targeting

Nanobiosensors for Biomolecular Targeting Book
Author : Subash C.B. Gopinath,Thangavel Lakshmipriya
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-10-26
ISBN : 0128139013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiosensors for Bio-molecular Targeting presents the latest analytical methods for the detection of different substances in the range of small molecules to whole cells, exploring the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Biosensors combine the component of biological origin and physicochemical detector to show the presence of analytes in a given sample. The use of bionanotechnology has led to a significant advancement in the progression of nanobiosensors and has been effectively used for biomedical diagnosis. Explains the detection techniques used by nanosensors, exploring the strengths and weaknesses of each for the detection of disease Shows how biosensors are used to detect various types of biomolecules Demonstrates how the use of nanomaterials makes biosensors both cheaper and more efficient

Environmental Nanotechnology

Environmental Nanotechnology Book
Author : Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-15
ISBN : 3319760904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the environmental benefits of nanomaterials in agriculture, water purification and nanomedicine. Nanotechnology will modify the environment both in a positive and negative way. On the one hand, new nanomaterials are promising for reducing greenhouse gases, cleaning toxic wastes and building alternative energy sources. On the other hand, some toxic nanoparticles enter and disrupt ecosystems. Therefore, research should focus on the sustainable use of nanomaterials to avoid environmental contamination. This volume is the first of several volumes on Environmental Nanotechnology, which will be published in the series Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World.

Nanotechnology for Infectious Diseases

Nanotechnology for Infectious Diseases Book
Author : Saif Hameed,Suriya Rehman
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
ISBN : 9811691908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to cover the applications of nanotechnology against human infectious diseases. The chapters of the book discuss the role of nanotechnology in the efficient diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. It explicitly provides an overview of nanodiagnostics for infectious diseases from nanoparticles-based, nanodevice-based, and point-of-care platforms. The book also covers the state-of-the-art review of recent progress in biomimetic and bioengineered nanotherapies to treat infectious diseases. It also presents a nano carrier-based CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system for gene editing and its applications for developing interventional approaches against communicable diseases. Further, it reviews the recent developments in nanotechnology to engineer nanoparticles with desired physicochemical properties as a line of defense against multi-drug resistance micro-organisms. Cutting across the disciplines, this book serves as a guide for researchers in biotechnology, parasitology, and nanotechnology.

Biogenic Nano Particles and their Use in Agro ecosystems

Biogenic Nano Particles and their Use in Agro ecosystems Book
Author : Mansour Ghorbanpour,Prachi Bhargava,Ajit Varma,Devendra K. Choudhary
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 981152985X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Several nano-scale devices have emerged that are capable of analysing plant diseases, nutrient deficiencies and any other ailments that may affect food security in agro-ecosystems. It has been envisioned that smart delivery systems can be developed and utilised for better management of agricultural ecosystems. These systems could exhibit beneficial, multi-functional characteristics, which could be used to assess and also control habitat-imposed stresses to crops. Nanoparticle-mediated smart delivery systems can control the delivery of nutrients or bioactive and/or pesticide molecules in plants. It has been suggested that nano-particles in plants might help determine their nutrient status and could also be used as cures in agro-ecosystems. Further, to enhance soil and crop productivity, nanotechnology has been used to create and deliver nano fertilizers, which can be defined as nano-particles that directly help supply nutrients for plant growth and soil productivity. Nano-particles can be absorbed onto clay networks, leading to improved soil health and more efficient nutrient use by crops. Additionally, fertilizer particles can be coated with nano-particles that facilitate slow and steady release of nutrients, reducing loss of nutrients and enhancing their efficiency in agri-crops. Although the use of nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems is still in its early stages and needs to be developed further, nano-particle-mediated delivery systems are promising solutions for the successful management of agri-ecosystems. In this context, the book offers insights into nanotechnology in agro-ecosystems with reference to biogenic nanoparticles. It highlights the: • occurrence and diversity of Biogenic Nanoparticles • mechanistic approach involved in the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticles • synthesis of nanoparticles using photo-activation, and their fate in the soil ecosystem • potential applications of nanoparticles in agricultural systems • application and biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their characterization • impact of biogenic nanoparticles on biotic stress to plants • mechanistic approaches involved in the antimicrobial effects and cytotoxicity of biogenic nanoparticles • role of biogenic nanoparticles in plant diseases management • relevance of biological synthesized nanoparticles in the longevity of agricultural crops • design and synthesis of nano-biosensors for monitoring pollutants in water, soil and plant systems • applications of nanotechnology in agriculture with special refer to soil, water and plant sciences A useful resource for postgraduate and research students in the field of plant and agricultural sciences, it is also of interest to researchers working in nano and biotechnology.

21st Century Nanoscience A Handbook

21st Century Nanoscience     A Handbook Book
Author : Klaus D. Sattler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-04-22
ISBN : 1000702537
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 21st Century Nanoscience Handbook will be the most comprehensive, up-to-date large reference work for the field of nanoscience. Handbook of Nanophysics by the same editor published in the fall of 2010 and was embraced as the first comprehensive reference to consider both fundamental and applied aspects of nanophysics. This follow-up project has been conceived as a necessary expansion and full update that considers the significant advances made in the field since 2010. It goes well beyond the physics as warranted by recent developments in the field. This eighth volume in a ten-volume set covers nanopharmaceuticals, nanomedicine, and food nanoscience. Key Features: Provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date large reference work for the field. Chapters written by international experts in the field. Emphasises presentation and real results and applications. This handbook distinguishes itself from other works by its breadth of coverage, readability and timely topics. The intended readership is very broad, from students and instructors to engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, biomedical researchers, industry professionals, governmental scientists, and others whose work is impacted by nanotechnology. It will be an indispensable resource in academic, government, and industry libraries worldwide. The fields impacted by nanophysics extend from materials science and engineering to biotechnology, biomedical engineering, medicine, electrical engineering, pharmaceutical science, computer technology, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, food science, and beyond.

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Nanobiosensors

Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Nanobiosensors Book
Author : Yi-Tao Long,Chao Jing
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-04-10
ISBN : 3642547958
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces the fundamentals and applications of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property of noble metallic nanoparticles, with an emphasis on the biosensing applications of plasmonic nanoparticles, especially in living cell imaging and photothermal therapy. It provides an overview of the different operating principles of plasmonic sensors, particularly the single-nanoparticle-based detections, and a series of creative biosensors based on the modulation of different parameters of nanoparticles (particle size, shape, composition and surrounding medium) for label-free detection. The interparticle coupling effect, plasmon resonance energy transfer, electron transfer on plasmonics surface are also covered in this book. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the interdisciplinary field combining chemistry, biology, material science and nanophotonics. Yi-Tao Long is a Professor at the School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, China.

Nanosensors for Environment Food and Agriculture Vol 1

Nanosensors for Environment  Food and Agriculture Vol  1 Book
Author : Vineet Kumar,Praveen Guleria,Shivendu Ranjan,Nandita Dasgupta,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 3030632458
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanosensors enable us to specifically detect pollutants that can adversely affect the quality of life. This book covers the design, application and safety aspects of nanomaterial-based sensors. The focus is on nanosensors useful for application in Environment, Food and Agriculture. It discusses in detail the advances in nanosensor design and application. It also emphasizes on the strategies for toxicity assessment and safe use of nanosensors.

Nanobiosensors for Personalized and Onsite Biomedical Diagnosis

Nanobiosensors for Personalized and Onsite Biomedical Diagnosis Book
Author : Pranjal Chandra
Publisher : IET
Release : 2016-07-21
ISBN : 1849199507
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the emerging nanobiosensor technologies which are geared towards onsite clinical applications and those which can be used as a personalised diagnostic device.

Nanoscale Electrochemistry

Nanoscale Electrochemistry Book
Author : Andrew J. Wain,Edmund J. F. Dickinson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-14
ISBN : 0128200561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoscale Electrochemistry focuses on challenges and advances in electrochemical nanoscience at solid–liquid interfaces, highlighting the most prominent developments of the last decade. Nanotechnology has had a tremendous effect on the multidisciplinary field of electrochemistry, yielding new fundamental insights that have broadened our understanding of interfacial processes and stimulating new and diverse applications. The book begins with a tutorial chapter to introduce the principles of nanoscale electrochemical systems and emphasize their unique behavior compared with their macro/microscopic counterparts. Building on this, the following three chapters present analytical applications, such as sensing and electrochemical imaging, that are familiar to the traditional electrochemist but whose extension to the nanoscale is nontrivial and reveals new chemical information. The subsequent three chapters present exciting new electrochemical methodologies that are specific to the nanoscale, including "single entity"-based methods and surface-enhanced electrochemical spectroscopy. These techniques, now sufficiently mature for exposition, have paved the way for major developments in our understanding of solid–liquid interfaces and continue to push electrochemical analysis toward atomic-length scales. The final three chapters address the rich overlap between electrochemistry and nanomaterials science, highlighting notable applications in energy conversion and storage. This is an important reference for both academic and industrial researchers who are seeking to learn more about how nanoscale electrochemistry has developed in recent years. Outlines the major applications of nanoscale electrochemistry in energy storage, spectroscopy and biology Summarizes the major principles of nanoscale electrochemical systems, exploring how they differ from similar system types Discusses the major challenges of electrochemical analysis at the nanoscale

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine Book
Author : Tuan Vo-Dinh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-10-03
ISBN : 1439893799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine is intended to serve as an authoritative reference source for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice of nanotechnology in life sciences. This technology, which is on the scale of molecules, has enabled the development of devices smaller and more efficient than anything currently available. To understand complex biological nanosystems at the cellular level, we urgently need to develop a next-generation nanotechnology tool kit. It is believed that the new advances in genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, medicine, and biotechnology will depend on our mastering of nanotechnology in the coming decades. The integration of nanotechnology, material sciences, molecular biology, and medicine opens the possibility of detecting and manipulating atoms and molecules using nanodevices, which have the potential for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the cellular level. This book presents the most recent scientific and technological advances of nanotechnology for use in biology and medicine. Each chapter provides introductory material with an overview of the topic of interest; a description of methods, protocols, instrumentation, and applications; and a collection of published data with an extensive list of references for further details. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most recent advances in instrumentation, methods, and applications in areas of nanobiotechnology, integrating interdisciplinary research and development of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, and students.

Recent Advancements in Biomarkers and Early Detection of Gastrointestinal Cancers

Recent Advancements in Biomarkers and Early Detection of Gastrointestinal Cancers Book
Author : Pallaval Veera Bramhachari,Nageswara Rao Reddy Neelapu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-21
ISBN : 981154431X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes various novel biomarkers for the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. It also highlights recent advances in understanding the role of molecular markers and biomarkers, such as volatile biomarkers, serum biomarkers, predictive and prognostic molecular markers for the early detection of GI cancers. Further, it discusses novel biomarkers, including circulating microRNAs, serum microRNA and plasma microRNA in GI cancer. The book presents breakthrough technologies like ultra-sensitive nano-chips, nanosensors, nanodevices, biosensors, electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, DNA biosensors, synthetic biology devices, and 'omics' technologies for the early diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer. In addition it examines the potential of genome-wide association studies, big data analytics, computation biology, systems biology, and nanotechnology for early diagnostics and therapeutics for gastrointestinal cancer, with a focus on personalized cancer treatment. The book is a valuable source for researchers and clinicians engaged in detection and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers.

Emerging Technologies in Sport

Emerging Technologies in Sport Book
Author : Cheryl Mallen
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2019-03-07
ISBN : 1351117882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in technology have always had a significant impact on sport. This book surveys the next generation of emerging technologies and considers how sport managers, governing bodies and officials can meet the challenges that they pose for sport competition, participation and events. It explores cutting edge developments in areas such as gene doping, vision and brain technologies, 3D printing technologies, molecular communication technologies and our ability to "rebuild" bodies. Each chapter considers the implications of a particular technology in terms of ethics, rules and regulations, facilities and resourcing, as well as the emergence of completely new forms of sport, and offers strategies for future sport management. Emerging Technologies in Sport is a valuable resource for sport industry professionals, undergraduate students in the fields of sport management, sport tourism, and sport business, and a fascinating read for anyone with an interest in sport and future applications of emerging technologies within sport.

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications Book
Author : Fernando Gomes de Souza Junior
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 0128235551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications addresses the design, manufacture and applications of a variety of nanomaterials for sensing applications. In particular, the book explores how nanofabrication techniques are used to create more efficient nanosensors, examines their major applications in biomedicine and environmental science, discusses the fundamentals of how nanosensors work, explores different nanofabrication techniques, and comments on toxicity and safety issues relating to the creation of nanosensors using certain nanomaterial classes. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to make materials selection decisions for the creation of new nansensor devices. Summarizes current research and applications of a variety of nanofabrication techniques for the creation of efficient sensing devices Provides readers with an understanding of surfaces and interfaces, a key challenge for those working on hybrid nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, polymers and liquid crystal electro-optical imaging Discusses the variability and sight recognition of biopolymers, such as DNA molecules, which offer a wide range of opportunities for the self-organization of nanostructures into much more complex patterns