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Nanobiosensors For Biomolecular Targeting

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Nanobiosensors for Biomolecular Targeting

Nanobiosensors for Biomolecular Targeting Book
Author : Subash C.B. Gopinath,Thangavel Lakshmipriya
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-10-26
ISBN : 0128139013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiosensors for Bio-molecular Targeting presents the latest analytical methods for the detection of different substances in the range of small molecules to whole cells, exploring the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Biosensors combine the component of biological origin and physicochemical detector to show the presence of analytes in a given sample. The use of bionanotechnology has led to a significant advancement in the progression of nanobiosensors and has been effectively used for biomedical diagnosis. Explains the detection techniques used by nanosensors, exploring the strengths and weaknesses of each for the detection of disease Shows how biosensors are used to detect various types of biomolecules Demonstrates how the use of nanomaterials makes biosensors both cheaper and more efficient

Nanosensors and Nanodevices for Smart Multifunctional Textiles

Nanosensors and Nanodevices for Smart Multifunctional Textiles Book
Author : Andrea Ehrmann,Tuan Anh Nguyen,Phuong Nguyen Tri
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-09-16
ISBN : 0128209410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology has been incorporated into a wide range of garments to improve the durability of clothing / apparel and create new properties for a special end-used application. It also incorporates wearable electronics into clothing to make it smarter. Smart nano-textiles refers to the uses and integration of smart nanocoatings, nanosensors and nanodevices in multifunctional textiles, since they are both low cost and have low power consumption. Various organic and inorganic nanomaterials can be used in garments to improve their properties and create new properties such as anti-bacterial, superhydrophobic, auto-cleaning, self-cleaning, stain repellent, wrinkle-free, static eliminating, fire resistant and electrically conductive properties. This book focuses on the fundamental concepts and approaches for the preparation of smart nanotextiles, their properties, and their applications in multifarious industries, including smart garments, biomedicine, construction/building materials, energy conversion/storage, automotive/aerospace industries and agriculture. Shows how nanotechnology is being used to be able to enhance textiles with smart properties, including anti-bacterial, superhydrophobic and auto-cleaning Explores which nanomaterial types are most compatible with particular textile classes Assesses the major challenges of integrating nanosensors and nanodevices into textiles

Technology in Forensic Science

Technology in Forensic Science Book
Author : Deepak Rawtani,Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2020-11-02
ISBN : 3527347623
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book "Technology in Forensic Science" provides an integrated approach by reviewing the usage of modern forensic tools as well as the methods for interpretation of the results. Starting with best practices on sample taking, the book then reviews analytical methods such as high-resolution microscopy and chromatography, biometric approaches, and advanced sensor technology as well as emerging technologies such as nanotechnology and taggant technology. It concludes with an outlook to emerging methods such as AI-based approaches to forensic investigations.

Micro Nano Technology Systems for Biomedical Applications

Micro Nano Technology Systems for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Chih-Ming Ho
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2010-03-25
ISBN : 0199219699
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing a clear guide that moves from molecules through to devices, this book shows how state-of-the-art micro- and nanotechnologies are already having an impact on human health, and presents the areas of research that will lead to the next generation of micro/nano-based systems for biomedical applications.

Nanoscale Processing

Nanoscale Processing Book
Author : Sabu Thomas,Preetha Balakrishnan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-10-22
ISBN : 0128205709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanoscale Processing outlines recent advances in processing techniques for a range of nanomaterial types. New developments in the processing of nanostructured materials are being applied in diverse fields. This book offers in-depth information and analysis of a range of processing techniques for nanostructures, and also covers nanocharacterization aspects thoroughly. Topics covered include zero dimensional nanostructures, nanostructured biomaterials, carbon-based nanostructures, polymeric and liposomal nanostructures, and quantum dots. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers looking to learn more about a variety of processing techniques for various nanomaterial classes, for use in both the industrial and biomedical sectors. Explains major nanoscale processing techniques, outlining in which situations each should be used Discuses a range of nanomaterial classes, including nanobiomaterials, polymeric nanomaterials, optical nanomaterials and magnetic nanomaterials Explores the challenges of using certain processing techniques for certain classes of nanomaterial

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis Book
Author : Samahe Sadjadi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-09-24
ISBN : 0128176040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emerging Carbon Materials for Catalysis covers various carbon-based materials with a focus on their utility for catalysis. Each chapter examines the photo and electrocatalytic applications of a material, including hybrid systems composed of carbon materials. The range of chemical reactions that can be catalyzed with each material—as well as the potential drawbacks of each—are discussed. Covering nanostructured systems, as well as other microstructured materials, the book reviews emerging carbon-based structures, including carbon organic frameworks. Written by a global team of experts, this volume is ideal for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials. Introduces novel and emerging carbon materials with utility for photocatalysis and electrocatalysis Covers a wide range of photochemical and electrochemical processes that can be catalyzed by carbon-based catalysts Addresses the hybrid systems composed of carbon materials for catalysis Serves as an ideal reference for graduate students and researchers working in organic chemistry, catalysis, nanochemistry, and nanomaterials.

Crop Improvement

Crop Improvement Book
Author : Pankaj Kumar,Ajay Kumar Thakur
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 1000381234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Crop Improvement: Biotechnological Advances – Biomedical Science The field of biotechnology is advancing at a fast pace. The availability of low-cost DNA/genome sequencing technologies has led to the discovery and functional characterization of myriad of genes imparting stress tolerance and quality traits. The ‘omics’ group of technologies including genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics has revolutionized the agricultural biotechnology sector. The Nobel Prize-winning technology, such as the genome editing technique, is being employed to edit various gene functions in plants aiding in crop improvement. This technology may be adopted very quickly by consumers compared with the transgenic technique because the genome-edited plants have no adverse effects on the genome of the plant itself and on the environment and related species/non-target organisms. In this book, authors have attempted to compile the latest techniques of agricultural biotechnology and their applications in crop improvement. Certain chapters have been dedicated to describe the use of nanotechnology, a fast emerging new technique in the agriculture sector. Features Development, potential and safety issues in biotechnology Advances in genomics, proteomics and transcriptomics in agriculture Protein bioinformatics and its applications Genetically modified (GM) technology and its implications Genome editing in crop improvement Marker-assisted selection (MAS) in crop improvement Mutation breeding Cryobiotechnology Nanotechnology and biosensors This book includes real-world examples and applications making it accessible to a broader interdisciplinary readership. We hope that it will serve as a reference book for researchers engaged in molecular biology and biotechnology and will act as a ready reckoner for postgraduate (PG) students in the biotechnology discipline.

Green Nanoparticles

Green Nanoparticles Book
Author : Jayanta Kumar Patra,Leonardo F. Fraceto,Gitishree Das,Estefânia Vangelie Ramos Campos
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-06
ISBN : 3030392465
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology is the application of science to control matter at the molecular level. It has become one of the most promising applied technologies in all areas of science. Nanoparticles have multi-functional properties and have created very interesting applications in various fields such as medicine, nutrition, bioenergy, agriculture and the environment. But the biogenic syntheses of monodispersed nanoparticles with specific sizes and shapes have been a challenge in biomaterial science. Nanoparticles are of great interest due to their extremely small size and large surface-to-volume ratio, which lead to both chemical and physical differences in their properties (e.g., mechanical properties, biological and sterical properties, catalytic activity, thermal and electrical conductivity, optical absorption and melting point) compared to bulk of the same chemical composition. Recently, however, synthesizing metal nanoparticles using green technology via microorganisms, plants, viruses, and so on, has been extensively studied and has become recognized as a green and efficient way for further exploiting biological systems as convenient nanofactories. Thus the biological synthesis of nanoparticles is increasingly regarded as a rapid, ecofriendly, and easily scaled-up technology. Today researchers are developing new techniques and materials using nanotechnology that may be suitable for plants to boost their native functions. Recently, biological nanoparticles were found to be more pharmacologically active than physico-chemically synthesized nanoparticles. Various applications of biosynthesized nanoparticles have been discovered, especially in the field of biomedical research, such as applications to specific delivery of drugs, use for tumor detection, angiogenesis, genetic disease and genetic disorder diagnosis, photoimaging, and photothermal therapy. Further, iron oxide nanoparticles have been applied to cancer therapy, hyperthermia, drug delivery, tissue repair, cell labeling, targeting and immunoassays, detoxification of biological fluids, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetically responsive drug delivery therapy. Nanoparticle synthesis for plant byproducts for biomedical applications has vast potential. This book offers researchers in plant science and biomedicine the latest research and opportunity to develop new tools for the synthesis of environmentally friendly and cost-effective nanoparticles for applications in biomedicine as well as other various fields.

Applications of Nanomaterials in Agriculture Food Science and Medicine

Applications of Nanomaterials in Agriculture  Food Science  and Medicine Book
Author : Bhat, Mohd Amin,Wani, Irshad Ahmad,Ashraf, Shah
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2020-12-04
ISBN : 1799855651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The uses of nanotechnologies continue to rise exponentially. Due to their multifaceted nature, nanomaterials have a vast amount of potential uses in various scientific professions. Professionals in sectors including agriculture, nutrition, and healthcare are discovering the numerous benefits that nanomaterials carry when applied to traditional practices. In order to understand the dynamic properties of nanomaterials and how to utilize them in specific fields, significant research is required. Applications of Nanomaterials in Agriculture, Food Science, and Medicine is an essential reference source that discusses the emerging development of nanotechnology in various sectors of the scientific community as well as the current benefits and future uses. Industries that the book covers include energy storage and renewable energy, environmental science and wastewater treatment, food and agriculture, and medicine and bioinformatics. This book is ideally designed for researchers, engineers, practitioners, industrialists, educators, strategists, policymakers, scientists, and students seeking coverage on the strategic role of nanomaterials in these imperative fields.

Nanomaterials for Medical Applications

Nanomaterials for Medical Applications Book
Author : Zoraida Aguilar
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0123850894
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title covers recent advances in a variety of biomedical applications of nanostructured materials, as the field evolves from prototype device to real-world application. It presents the main types of nanomaterial used in medical application today: semiconductor nanomaterials, Magnetic nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles, Carbon nanomaterials, Hydrogel nanocomposites, Liposomes, Dendrimers, Polymer nanocomposites, and Biodegradable polymers. Structurally the work is demarcated into the six most popular areas of research: (1) biocompatibility of nanomaterials with living organisms in their various manifestations (2) nanobiosensors for clinical diagnostics, detecting biomolecules which are useful in the clinical diagnosis of genetic, metabolically acquired, induced or infectious disease (3) targeted drug delivery for nanomaterials in their various modifications (4) nanomedical devices and structures which are used in the development of implantable medical devices and structures such as nanorobots (5) nanopharmacology, as novel nanoparticles are increasingly engineered to diagnose conditions and recognize pathogens, identify ideal pharmaceutical agents to treat the condition or pathogens,fuel high-yield production of matched pharmaceuticals (potentially in vivo), locate, attach or enter target tissue, structures or pathogens; and dispense the ideal mass of matched biological compound to the target regions (6) nanotoxicology and remediation, which focuses on finished and on-going various toxicity evaluations on various nanomaterials that are used and currently being developed for medical applications Discusses the most important biomedical applications and devices of nanomaterials: drug delivery, medical imaging, gene therapy, nanorobots, biosensors and diagnostics Focuses on current commercialized techniques and applications, ensuring the work is entirely relevant to a rapidly evolving field Reviews the most recent studies on nanomaterial toxicity, thereby responding to the widescale private, policy and public interest in nanoscience

Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses

Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses Book
Author : Mun'delanji C. Vestergaard,Kagan Kerman,I-Ming Hsing,Eiichi Tamiya
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-03-18
ISBN : 4431551905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive review of established, cutting-edge, and future trends in the exponentially growing field of nanomaterials and their applications in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part I focuses on the key principles and transduction approaches, reviewing the timeline featuring the important historical milestones in the development and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses. Part II reviews various architectures used in nanobiosensing designs focusing on nanowires, one- and two-dimensional nanostructures, and plasmonic nanobiosensors with interferometric reflectance imaging. Commonly used nanomaterials, functionalization of the nanomaterials, and development of nanobioelectronics are discussed in detail in Part III with examples from screen-printed electrodes, nanocarbon films, and semiconductor quantum dots. Part IV reviews the current applications of carbon nanotubes, nanoneedles, plasmonic sensors, electrochemical scanning microscopes, and field-effect transistors with the future outlook for emerging technologies. Attention is also given to potential challenges, in particular, of taking these technologies at the point-of-need. The book concludes by providing a condensed summary of the contents, with emphasis on future directions. Nanomaterials have become an essential part of biosensors and bioanalyses in the detection and monitoring of medical, pharmaceutical, and environmental conditions, from cancer to chemical warfare agents. This book, with its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, will be an essential guide for all those involved in the research, design, development, and application of nanomaterials in biosensors and bioanalyses.

Bionanotechnology

Bionanotechnology Book
Author : Anil Kumar Anal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-02-02
ISBN : 1351643630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book deals with a subject of high interest and importance in all sectors, including biomedical, food, agriculture, energy, and environment. Biological systems are essential in nanotechnology, and many new applications are being developed by mimicking the natural systems. Approaching these topics from an engineering perspective, the book offers insight on the details of nanoscale fabrication processes as well as cell biology. The basics of biology and chemistry, with a focus on how to engineer the behavior of molecules at the nanoscale, are also explored and analyzed. The aim of the text is to provide the reader with broader knowledge of biological methods for signal transduction and molecular recognitions systems and how they can be replicated in bio-sensing applications. The reader will learn the basic structures and interactions of biomacromolecules for developing biocompatible and eco-friendly devices.

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications Book
Author : Fernando Gomes de Souza Junior
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-18
ISBN : 0128235551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanofabrication for Smart Nanosensor Applications addresses the design, manufacture and applications of a variety of nanomaterials for sensing applications. In particular, the book explores how nanofabrication techniques are used to create more efficient nanosensors, examines their major applications in biomedicine and environmental science, discusses the fundamentals of how nanosensors work, explores different nanofabrication techniques, and comments on toxicity and safety issues relating to the creation of nanosensors using certain nanomaterial classes. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers who want to make materials selection decisions for the creation of new nansensor devices. Summarizes current research and applications of a variety of nanofabrication techniques for the creation of efficient sensing devices Provides readers with an understanding of surfaces and interfaces, a key challenge for those working on hybrid nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes, graphene, polymers and liquid crystal electro-optical imaging Discusses the variability and sight recognition of biopolymers, such as DNA molecules, which offer a wide range of opportunities for the self-organization of nanostructures into much more complex patterns

Polymeric Nanomaterials in Nanotherapeutics

Polymeric Nanomaterials in Nanotherapeutics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-10-26
ISBN : 0128139331
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymeric Nanomaterials in Nanotherapeutics describes how polymeric nanosensors and nanorobotics are used for biomedical instrumentation, surgery, diagnosis and targeted drug delivery for cancer, pharmacokinetics, monitoring of diabetes and healthcare. Key areas of coverage include drug administration and formulations for targeted delivery and release of active agents (drug molecules) to non-healthy tissues and cells. The book demonstrates how these are applied to dental work, wound healing, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious diseases, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases, and more. Methods of administration discussed include oral, dental, topical and transdermal, pulmonary and nasal, ocular, vaginal, and brain drug delivery and targeting. Drug delivery topics treated in several subchapters includes materials for active targeting and cases study of polymeric nanomaterials in clinical trials. The toxicity and regulatory status of therapeutic polymeric nanomaterials are also examined. The book gives a broad perspective on the topic for researchers, postgraduate students and professionals in the biomaterials, biotechnology, and biomedical fields. Shows how the properties of polymeric nanomaterials can be used to create more efficient medical treatments/therapies Demonstrates the potential and range of applications of polymeric nanomaterials in disease prevention, diagnosis, drug development, and for improving treatment outcomes Accurately explains how nanotherapeutics can help in solving problems in the field through the latest technologies and formulations

The Handbook of Nanomedicine

The Handbook of Nanomedicine Book
Author : Kewal K. Jain
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-07-06
ISBN : 1617799831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomedicine is defined as the application of nanobiotechnology in clinical medicine, which is currently being used to research the pathomechanism of disease, refine molecular diagnostics, and aid in the discovery, development, and delivery of drugs. In The Handbook of Nanomedicine, Second Edition, Prof. Kewal K. Jain updates, reorganizes, and replaces information in the comprehensive first edition in order to capture the most recent advances in this dynamic field. Important components of nanomedicine such as nanodiagnostics and nanopharmaceuticals, where the greatest number of advances are occurring, are covered extensively. As this text is aimed at nonmedical scientists, pharmaceutical personnel, as well as physicians, descriptions of the technology involved and other medical terminology are kept as clear and simple as possible. In depth and cutting-edge, The Handbook of Nanomedicine, Second Edition informs its readers of the ever-growing field of nanomedicine, destined to play a significant role in the future of healthcare.

OMICS

OMICS Book
Author : Debmalya Barh,Kenneth Blum,Margaret A. Madigan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1439850097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A reflection of the explosion of research and development in this field, OMICS: Biomedical Perspectives and Applications explores applications of omics in bioinformatics, cancer research and therapy, diabetes research, plant science, molecular biology, and neurosciences. A select editorial panel of experts discusses their cutting edge omics research and novel technologies, supplying a basic platform of methods and applications and a resource for enhanced cross-pollination in a multiomics approach to future endeavors in the fertile fields of omics research. After an introduction on the omics universe, the book presents modern omics and its applications in nanotechnology, genomics, proteomics, metagenomics, toxicogenomics, immunomics, nutrigenomics, diabetes, neurology, cardiology, and cancer to name just a few. The book begins with an overview of omics and omic technologies such as cellomics, glycomics, and lipidomics. It also discusses bioinformatics, demonstrating how it can be a tool in omics, and examines the various approaches of omics technology in toxicology research and applications in biomedical sciences. While there are a long list of omics books available, most focus narrowly on one area. Presenting a wide view of the current status of integrative omics, this resource contains complete coverage of omics in research and therapy, ranging from neuroscience to cardiology. It collates recent developments in the field into a state-of-the-art framework for this discipline.

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine

Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine Book
Author : Tuan Vo-Dinh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-10-03
ISBN : 1439893799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine is intended to serve as an authoritative reference source for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice of nanotechnology in life sciences. This technology, which is on the scale of molecules, has enabled the development of devices smaller and more efficient than anything currently available. To understand complex biological nanosystems at the cellular level, we urgently need to develop a next-generation nanotechnology tool kit. It is believed that the new advances in genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, medicine, and biotechnology will depend on our mastering of nanotechnology in the coming decades. The integration of nanotechnology, material sciences, molecular biology, and medicine opens the possibility of detecting and manipulating atoms and molecules using nanodevices, which have the potential for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the cellular level. This book presents the most recent scientific and technological advances of nanotechnology for use in biology and medicine. Each chapter provides introductory material with an overview of the topic of interest; a description of methods, protocols, instrumentation, and applications; and a collection of published data with an extensive list of references for further details. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most recent advances in instrumentation, methods, and applications in areas of nanobiotechnology, integrating interdisciplinary research and development of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, and students.

Advances in Polymeric Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications

Advances in Polymeric Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications Book
Author : Anil Kumar Bajpai,Rajesh Kumar Saini
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-02
ISBN : 0128146575
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Polymeric Nanomaterials for Biomedical Applications examines advanced polymer synthetic strategies for developing novel biomaterials for use in medicine. With a strong focus on fundamentals and structure, the authors also explore their fabrication, along with their current and potential biomedical applications. The book begins with a look at the fundamentals of polymeric nanomaterials and their properties and then discusses the design of biomaterials and their applications in drug delivery. Further chapters explore important applications, such as imaging and regenerative medicine, including current challenges and future trends. This valuable resource is especially useful for materials and polymer scientists, and bioengineers wishing to broaden their knowledge of polymeric nanobiomaterials. Covers the complete spectrum of polymer nanomaterials used in biomedical applications Includes various applications, such as drug delivery, gene delivery, bio-imaging, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, anti-microbial agents, and neuroscience Explores fundamental correlations between structures, properties and applications, as well as synthetic strategies for polymer nanomaterials

Biotechnological Approaches in Food Adulterants

Biotechnological Approaches in Food Adulterants Book
Author : Madan L Verma
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-18
ISBN : 1000219917
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book highlights the biotechnological advancement in the area of food adulterants and outlines the current state of art technologies in the detection of food adulterants using omics and nanobiotechnology. The book provides insights to the most recent innovations, trends, concerns, and challenges in food adulterants. It identifies key research topics and practical applications of modern cutting-edge technologies employed for detection of food adulterants including: expansion of food adulterants market, potential toxicity of food adulterants and the prevention of food adulteration act, cutting-edge technology for food adulterants detection, and biosensing and nanobiosensing based detection of food adulterants. There is need for new resources in omics technologies for the application of new nanobiotechnology. Biotechnological Approaches in Food Adulterants provides an overview of the contributions of food safety and the most up-to-date advances in omics and nanobiotechnology approaches to a diverse audience from postgraduate students to researchers in biochemical engineering, biotechnology, food technologist, environmental technologists, and pharmaceutical professionals.

Biosensing

Biosensing Book
Author : Jerome Schultz,Milan Mrksich,Sangeeta N. Bhatia,David J. Brady,Antionio J. Ricco,David R. Walt,Charles L. Wilkins
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-07-15
ISBN : 140204058X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We have come to know that our ability to survive and grow as a nation to a very large degree depends upon our scientific progress. Moreover, it is not enough simply to keep abreast of the rest of the world in scientific matters. 1 We must maintain our leadership. President Harry Truman spoke those words in 1950, in the aftermath of World War II and in the midst of the Cold War. Indeed, the scientific and engineering leadership of the United States and its allies in the twentieth century played key roles in the successful outcomes of both World War II and the Cold War, sparing the world the twin horrors of fascism and totalitarian communism, and fueling the economic prosperity that followed. Today, as the United States and its allies once again find themselves at war, President Truman’s words ring as true as they did a half-century ago. The goal set out in the Truman Administration of maintaining leadership in science has remained the policy of the U.S. Government to this day: Dr. John Marburger, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology (OSTP) in the Executive Office of the President made remarks to that effect during his confirmation hearings in October 2 2001.