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Multi Functional Role Of Stem Cells In Disease

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Multifunctional Role of Pancreatic Differentiation 2 PD2 in Pancreatic Cancer

Multifunctional Role of Pancreatic Differentiation 2  PD2  in Pancreatic Cancer Book
Author : Arokia Priyanka Vaz
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer is a devastating disease that claims the lives of countless people due to its uncontrolled growth pattern. Among various cancers, pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers due to its aggressive nature, lack of early symptoms and resistance to chemotherapy. The molecular profile of this deadly malignancy is not completely understood. Malignancy arises due to loss or gain of function in genes involved in cell cycle progression leading to disruption of tightly regulated transitions. In addition the evolving concept of cancer throws light on a small population of cells within the tumor known as the cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells that are resistant to all drugs treatment and contributes towards tumor initiation and recurrence. Several studies have been carried out to identify specific markers for the cancer stem cell population including that of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic Differentiation 2 (PD2) or human Polymerase Associated Factor 1 (hPaf1) is an important component of the multifunctional PAF1 complex initially identified to play a crucial role in transcriptional elongation of genes. During the last decade, several papers on PD2 showed that it is a multifaceted molecule playing roles in cell cycle regulation, stem cell maintenance, histone methylation, chromatin remodeling and acinar-to-ductal metaplasia. In this dissertation, the first goal was to investigate the role of PD2 in pancreatic cancer stem cells. Initially, we analyzed the expression and function of PD2 in pancreatic cancer stem cells isolated from pancreatic cancer cell lines, Kras (G12D); Pdx1 (Cre)(KC), Kras (G12D); Trp53 (R172H/+.); Pdx1(Cre) (KPC) mouse models and human pancreatic tumors. Furthermore, the expression of PD2 was significantly higher in CSCs isolated from pancreatic cancer cells along with CSC markers. These cells were shown to exhibit a cobblestone appearance, increased tumorsphere formation and significant tumor growth, characteristic of the CSC phenotype. interestingly, PD2 was found to be specifically overexpressed in a subpopulation of cells within mouse KC, KPC and human pancreatic tumors, which co-express CSC markers. The drug resistance property was impaired upon knockdown of PD2 with simultaneous alteration in the CSC phenotype and reduction in CD133 and MDR2 gene expression. Overall, my study identified that PD2 has a role in self-renewal and drug resistance of pancreatic CSCs. The second part of my dissertation was primarily focused at exploring the functional role of PD2 in pancreatic cancer cells. The ectopic overexpression of PD2 resulted in increased growth rate of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of PD2 led to increased growth, colony formation and migration. Interestingly, elevated expression of PD2 also increased the percentage of CSCs. Furthermore, in vivo studies revealed that PD2 overexpression leads to increased tumor volume and metastasis to distant secondary sites. These results were corroborated at the protein level where elevated expression of PD2 led to the up-regulation of c-Myc which is an important player in tumorigenesis and metastasis. In addition, the expression of PD2 in pancreatic cancer tissues and in vitro pancreatic progression model was elucidated. We demonstrated that the expression of PD2 was increased in the ducts present in the pancreatic cancer tissues when compared to the normal tissues. Likewise, the expression of PD2 was elevated in the transformed Human Pancreatic Nestin expressing (HPNE) cells when compared to the untransformed HPNE cells. Understanding the role of PD2 through cell lines led to my next aim to generate PD2 conditional knockout mice in order to substantiate our earlier work in cancer stem cells and acinar to ductal metaplasia during PC initiation. The animal model would be an important resource for understanding the role of PD2 in detail. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PD2 is an essential member of the oncogene family that plays a significant role in facilitating drug resistance and cancer stem cell maintenance thereby acting as a positive regulator of cancer.

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 12

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  Volume 12 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-02-20
ISBN : 9401780323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 12 in this series explores the latest experimental and clinical uses of stem cells in the treatment of disease and of injuries and reviews methods for isolating multipotent endothelial-like cells from human adipose tissue and discusses clinical applications in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The book is organized in five parts: Cancer Stem Cells, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Dendritic Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine and General Applications. The first section includes chapters on histamine in the neural and cancer stem cell niches and emerging concepts of stem cell organization in the normal lung and in lung cancer. The section on Pluripotent Stem Cells includes discussion of the differentiation of dendritic cells from human induced pluripotent stem cell and the molecular mechanisms involved in reprogramming human somatic cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. Additional chapters cover the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cardiomyocytes, characteristics of satellite cells and multipotent adult stem cells in the skeletal muscle. The section on Dendritic Stem Cells explores the critical role of notch signaling in the differentiation and function of dendrite. Other chapters cover hypertensive emergencies in children after stem cell transplantation and overcoming the radio resistance of lung cancer stem cells. The section on Regenerative Medicine reports on experiments on improved renal revascularization in pigs using stem cells and phenotypic correction of murine Hemophilia A using cell-based therapy. The concluding section, General Applications, discusses such topics as methods in mathematical modeling for stem cells, as well as molecular and functional characterization of human adipocytes. Like its eleven predecessors in the series, this volume stands out for its comprehensive approach, its roster of some 51 expert contributors representing a dozen different countries and its up-to-date review of leading-edge technology and methods.

The Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Body Microenvironment

The Pulmonary Neuroepithelial Body Microenvironment Book
Author : Inge Brouns,Line Verckist,Isabel Pintelon,Jean-Pierre Timmermans,Dirk Adriaensen
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-05
ISBN : 3030658171
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph sheds new light on pulmonary sensory receptors. Diving into the pulmonary microenvironment, the book focuses on the role of pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) as potential receptors and effectors, able to store and release neurotransmitters. It explores NEBs as potential stem cell niche and highlights the multidisciplinary approach taken to identify and study NEBs, including functional morphological investigation, live cell imaging, genetic models, and laser microdissection combined with gene expression analysis. Complexly organized NEBs are an integral part of the intrapulmonary airway epithelium of all air-breathing vertebrates. For decades a quest has been going on to unravel the functional significance of these intriguing structures that appear to be modified in the course of many pulmonary diseases. The NEB microenvironment (ME) is composed of organoid clusters of pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNECs) that are able to store and release neurotransmitters and are closely contacted by extensive nerve terminals, emphasizing a potential receptor/effector role and probable signalling to the central nervous system. PNECs are largely shielded from the airway lumen by a special type of Clara cells, the Clara-like cells, with potential stem cell characteristics. So far, functional studies of the pulmonary NEB ME revealed that PNECs can be activated by various mechanical and chemical stimuli, resulting in a calcium-mediated release of neurotransmitters. In the past decades, a number of publications have exposed NEBs as potential hypoxia sensors. Recent experimental evidence unveiled that the NEB ME is a quiescent stem cell niche in healthy postnatal lungs, and silencing may involve bone morphogenetic protein signalling mediated by vagal afferents. Only an integrated approach that takes all current information into account will be able to explain the full role of the pulmonary NEB ME in health and disease. This highly informative and carefully presented book, provides insights for researchers, PhD students with an interest in (bio)medical and veterinary science, especially in the field of the autonomic innervation of the lung, chemo-and mechanoreceptors

Stem Cells and Human Diseases

Stem Cells and Human Diseases Book
Author : Rakesh K. Srivastava,Sharmila Shankar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-02-01
ISBN : 940072800X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive review on stem cells and their role in tissue regeneration, homeostasis and therapy. In addition, the role of cancer stem cells in cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance are discussed. The cell signaling pathways and microRNA regulating stem cell self-renewal, tissue homeostasis and drug resistance are also mentioned. Overall, these reviews will provide a new understanding of the influence of stem cells in tissue regeneration, disease regulation, therapy and drug resistance in several human diseases.

Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury

Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury Book
Author : Zhang Pengyue,Yuchuan Ding,Yulong Bai,Xiangjian Zhang,Yunping Deng
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-08-24
ISBN : 2889712206
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plasticity and Reconstruction of Neural Network in Brain Injury book written by Zhang Pengyue,Yuchuan Ding,Yulong Bai,Xiangjian Zhang,Yunping Deng, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 13

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  Volume 13 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-26
ISBN : 9401772339
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the thirteenth volume in a series which presents current understanding of stem cells and cancer stem cells. This book presents many relevant topics including the different sources of cancer stem cells: the features, roles and clinical potential of stem cells emerge from engaging with this comprehensive work. Chapters explore molecular mechanisms underlying human somatic cell reprogramming to generate induced pluripotent stem cells and provide expert discussion of the advantages and limitations of applications of some of the stem cell types (pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells). Many advances are explored, including the importance of stem cell markers in diagnosis, the role of stem cells in angiogenesis and a method for isolating multi potent endothelial-like cells from human adipose tissue, to name a few. Readers will also find a consideration of mathematical models and other quantitative tools which could facilitate research and discovery in the field. The editor’s preface to the book and the series is particularly helpful in introducing the work presented in this volume. The detailed overviews, practical experience and insights of international expert authors presented in this handbook will be of value to both professional practitioners and scholars in basic research.

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 12

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  Volume 12 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-03-10
ISBN : 9789401780315
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 12 in this series explores the latest experimental and clinical uses of stem cells in the treatment of disease and of injuries and reviews methods for isolating multipotent endothelial-like cells from human adipose tissue and discusses clinical applications in cell therapy and regenerative medicine. The book is organized in five parts: Cancer Stem Cells, Pluripotent Stem Cells, Dendritic Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine and General Applications. The first section includes chapters on histamine in the neural and cancer stem cell niches and emerging concepts of stem cell organization in the normal lung and in lung cancer. The section on Pluripotent Stem Cells includes discussion of the differentiation of dendritic cells from human induced pluripotent stem cell and the molecular mechanisms involved in reprogramming human somatic cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells. Additional chapters cover the differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cardiomyocytes, characteristics of satellite cells and multipotent adult stem cells in the skeletal muscle. The section on Dendritic Stem Cells explores the critical role of notch signaling in the differentiation and function of dendrite. Other chapters cover hypertensive emergencies in children after stem cell transplantation and overcoming the radio resistance of lung cancer stem cells. The section on Regenerative Medicine reports on experiments on improved renal revascularization in pigs using stem cells and phenotypic correction of murine Hemophilia A using cell-based therapy. The concluding section, General Applications, discusses such topics as methods in mathematical modeling for stem cells, as well as molecular and functional characterization of human adipocytes. Like its eleven predecessors in the series, this volume stands out for its comprehensive approach, its roster of some 51 expert contributors representing a dozen different countries and its up-to-date review of leading-edge technology and methods.

Stem Cells as Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicles

Stem Cells as Targeted Drug Delivery Vehicles Book
Author : Rebecca Lim,Jessica E. Frith,Gina D. Kusuma,Christopher G. Sobey
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-02-03
ISBN : 2889664481
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Topic Editor RL is a patent inventor on exosome-related patents, PCT/AU2017/050821 and PCT/AU2016/050468. All other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regards to the Research Topic subject.

Stem Cells

Stem Cells Book
Author : Christine Mummery,Anja van de Stolpe,Bernard Roelen,Hans Clevers
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-05-23
ISBN : 0124115675
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The second edition of Stem Cells: Scientific Facts and Fiction provides the non-stem cell expert with an understandable review of the history, current state of affairs, and facts and fiction of the promises of stem cells. Building on success of its award-winning preceding edition, the second edition features new chapters on embryonic and iPS cells and stem cells in veterinary science and medicine. It contains major revisions on cancer stem cells to include new culture models, additional interviews with leaders in progenitor cells, engineered eye tissue, and xeno organs from stem cells, as well as new information on "organs on chips" and adult progenitor cells. In the past decades our understanding of stem cell biology has increased tremendously. Many types of stem cells have been discovered in tissues that everyone presumed were unable to regenerate in adults, the heart and the brain in particular. There is vast interest in stem cells from biologists and clinicians who see the potential for regenerative medicine and future treatments for chronic diseases like Parkinson's, diabetes, and spinal cord lesions, based on the use of stem cells; and from entrepreneurs in biotechnology who expect new commercial applications ranging from drug discovery to transplantation therapies. Explains in straightforward, non-specialist language the basic biology of stem cells and their applications in modern medicine and future therapy Includes extensive coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells both historically and in contemporary practice Richly illustrated to assist in understanding how research is done and the current hurdles to clinical practice

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 6

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  Volume 6 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-02-29
ISBN : 9400729928
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The difference among pluripotent stem cells, multipotent stem cells, and unipotent stem cells is pointed out. Vast therapeutic applications of the following specific stem cells in disease and tissue injury are discussed: human embryonic stem cells, human mesenchymal stem cells, germ cell-derived pluripotent stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells, breast tumor stem cells,and hematopoietic stem cells. Because of the potential of human embryonic stem cells to produce unlimited quantities of any human cell type, considerable focus is placed on their therapeutic potential. Because of their pluripotency, these cells have been used in various applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, pharmacological and toxicological studies, and fundamental studies of cell differentiation. The formation of embryoid bodies, which are three-dimensional aggregates of embryonic stem cells, is explained as this is the first step in cell differentiation. Such embryoid body culture has been widely used as a trigger for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells. The basic capacity of self-renewal of human embryogenic stem cells is explained. The role of TGF-beta in the propagation of human embryonic stem cells is discussed. The differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into neurons, hepatocytes, cardiomyocytes, and retinal cells is fully explained. Donor policies for hematopoietic stem cells are also explained.

Stem Cells in Development and Disease

Stem Cells in Development and Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-01-15
ISBN : 0123914353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new volume of Current Topics in Developmental Biology covers Stem Cells in Development and Disease. The chapters provide a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as the mechanisms of pluripotency in vivo and in vitro, hematopoietic stem cell development, intestinal stem cells and their defining niche, epithelial stem cells in adult skin, the mammary stem cell hierarchy, satellite cells, neural stem cells of the hippocampus, lung stem and progenitor cells in tissue homeostasis and disease, spermatogonial stem cell functions in physiological and pathological conditions, the origin, biology, and therapeutic potential of facultative adult hepatic progenitor cells, nephron progenitor cells, adult stem cell niches, cancer stem cells, pluripotency and cellular heterogeneity, and cellular mechanisms of somatic stem cell aging Covers the area of Stem Cells in Development and Disease International board of authors Provides a comprehensive set of reviews covering such topics as Intestinal Stem Cells, Nephron Stem Cells/Progenitors, Skin epithelial Stem Cells and Lung Stem Cells

Proteoglycans in Stem Cells

Proteoglycans in Stem Cells Book
Author : Martin Götte,Karin Forsberg-Nilsson
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-06-08
ISBN : 9783030734527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a state-of-the-art compendium on the role of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans during development and in cancer. It also suggests directions for novel therapeutic and biotechnological applications in stem cell biology. Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, as part of the extracellular matrix, are multifunctional modulators of growth factor, cytokine, integrin and morphogen signaling, which determine both self-renewal, senescence and/or differentiation of stem cells during development. Since proteoglycans modulate cell adhesion and migration they are important organizers of the extracellular matrix within the proper stem cell niche. A malfunctioning of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans contributes to the cancer stem cell phenotype, which is linked to therapeutic resistance and recurrence in malignant disease. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in the extracellular matrix and its role in development. The series Biology of Extracellular Matrix is published in collaboration with the American Society for Matrix Biology.

Advances in Transplantation Research and Application 2012 Edition

Advances in Transplantation Research and Application  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-26
ISBN : 1464992517
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Transplantation Research and Application / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Transplantation. The editors have built Advances in Transplantation Research and Application / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Transplantation in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Transplantation Research and Application / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Advanced Cell Culture Technologies to Boost Cell Based Therapies

Advanced Cell Culture Technologies to Boost Cell Based Therapies Book
Author : Dominik Egger,Aldo R. Boccaccini,Diego Correa,Cornelia Kasper,Fergal J. O’Brien
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 288971330X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dr. Correa is the founder of Lumos Biomed Consulting and holds shares in Cryovida Stem Cell Bank (Mexico). Dr O’Brien holds patents related to regeneration technology and was a co-founder of SurgaColl Technologies. All other Topic Editors declare no competing interests with regard to the Research Topic subject.

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 3

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 3 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-22
ISBN : 9789400724150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is pointed out that cancer stem cell is a cell type within a tumor that possesses the capacity of cell-renewal and can give rise to the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. It is emphasized that a cancer stem cell is a tumor initiating cell. That conventional chemotherapy kills most cells in a tumor, but cancer stem cells remain intact is discussed. Vast applications of stem cells, cancer stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and human pluripotent stem cells are discussed. Because human embryonic stem cells possess the potential of producing unlimited quantities of any human cell type, considerable focus is placed on their therapeutic potential in this volume. Because of the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells, this volume discusses various applications such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, pharmacological and toxicological uses. The role of these cells in cell differentiation is also included. The role of cancer stem cells of breast, colon, and melanoma tumors in response to antitumor therapy is detailed. The role of cancer stem cells, specifically in the deadliest brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, is explained. Transplantation of bone marrow-derived stem cells for myocardial infarcation and use of mesenchymal stem cells in orthopedics are described.

Calcium Signaling in the Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

Calcium Signaling in the Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells Book
Author : Wenjie Wei
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361305454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Calcium Signaling in the Cardiac Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells" by Wenjie, Wei, 魏闻捷, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract:  Intracellular Ca2+ mobilization via secondary messengers modulates multiple cell functions. Cyclic Adenosine 5'-Diphosphate-Ribose (cADPR) is one of the most well recognized endogenous Ca2+ mobilizing messengers. In mammalian, cADPR is mainly formed by CD38, a multi-functional enzyme, from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). It has previously been shown that the cADPR/CD38/Ca2+pathway mediates many cardiac functions, such as regulating the excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac myocytes and modulating the Ca2+ homeostasis during the ischemia injury of the heart. Thus it is reasonable to propose that the cADPR/CD38/Ca2+ pathway plays a role in cardiogenesis. The pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells which can be induced to differentiate into all cell types provide an ideal model for studying cardiogenesis. The first part of this dissertation is to determine the role of CD38/cADPR/Ca2+pathwayin the cardiomyogenesis of mES cells. The data showed that CD38 expression was markedly up-regulated during the in vitro embryoid body (EB) differentiation of mouse ES cells, which indicated a regulatory role of CD38 in the differentiation process. Lentivirus mediated shRNA provides a convenient method to knockdown the expression of CD38 in mES cells. Surprisingly, beating clusters appeared earlier and more in CD38 knockdown EBs than that in control EBs. Likewise, the expressions of several cardiac markers were up regulated in CD38 knockdown EBs. In addition, more cardiomyocytes (CMs) existed in CD38 knockdown or 8-Br-cADPR, a cADPR antagonist, treated EBs than those in control EBs. On the other hand, over-expression of CD38 in mouse ES cells significantly inhibited CM differentiation. Moreover, we showed that CMs derived from the CD38 knock down mES cells possessed the functional properties characteristic of CMs derived fromnormal ES cells. Last, we showed that the CD38-cADPR pathway negatively modulated the FGF4-Erks1/2cascade during CM differentiation of mES cells, and transiently inhibition of Erk1/2 blocked the enhancive effects of CD38 knockdown on the differentiation of CM from mES cells. Taken together, our data indicate that the CD38/cADPR/Ca2+ signaling pathway suppresses the cardiac differentiation of mES cells. One of the main goals of the researches on cardiac differentiation of ES cells is to enhance the production of CMs from ES cells, thereby providing sufficient amount of functional intact CMs for the treatment of severe heart disease. Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to be a powerful cardiogenesis inducer of mES cells, in that it can significantly increase the yield of ES-derived CM. The second objective of this dissertation is to explore the mechanism underlying the NO facilitated cardiomyogenesis of mES cells. We found that the NO did induce intracellular Ca2+ increases in mES cells, and this Ca2+ increase was due to internal Ca2+ release from ER through theIP3 pathway. Therefore, the expression of IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) in mES cells were knocked down by lentivirus-mediated shRNAs. Interestingly, only type 3 IP3R (IP3R3) knockdown significantly inhibited the NO induced Ca2+ release in mES cells. Moreover, NO facilitated cardiogensis of mES cells was abolished in IP3R3 knockdown EBs. In summary, our results indicate that the IP3R3-Ca2+ pathway is required for NO facilitated cardiomyogenesis of mES cells. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4961786 Subjects:

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells Volume 7

Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells  Volume 7 Book
Author : M.A. Hayat
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-06-12
ISBN : 9400742851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The seventh in Springer’s landmark series of edited volumes on one of the highest-profile subjects in contemporary medicine and scientific endeavour, this volume sets out to cover a staggering range of research into the medical applications of stem cell research. While stem cells are the very stuff of life for multicellular organisms, including us humans, the cancer stem cell is a morbid entity with a robust resistance to therapies including conventional chemotherapy. This authoritative publication explains the regenerative potential of stem cells and their mesenchymal progeny, reviewing clinical applications of the latter in the treatment of cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative pathologies. It covers the entire range of stem cells with known potential for therapeutic use, from human embryonic to germ cell-derived pluripotent stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells. The chapters also deal with the role of TGF-beta in propagating human embryonic stem cells, and in facilitating their differentiation. Featuring discussions of molecular signaling pathways that modulate mesenchymal stem cell self-renewal and much more, this book is certain to have broad appeal among academicians and physicians alike.

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease Book
Author : Emerson C. Perin,Leslie W. Miller,Doris Taylor,James T. Willerson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-08-21
ISBN : 0128018631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cell and Gene Therapy for Cardiovascular Disease is a state-of-the-art reference that combines, in one place, the breadth and depth of information available on the topic. As stem cell and gene therapies are the most cutting-edge therapies currently available for patients with heart failure, each section of the book provides information on medical trials from contributors and specialists from around the world, including not only what has been completed, but also what is planned for future research and trials. Cardiology researchers, basic science clinicians, fellows, residents, students, and industry professionals will find this book an invaluable resource for further study on the topic. Provides information on stem and gene therapy medical trials from contributors and specialists around the world, including not only what has been completed, but also what is planned for future research and trials Presents topics that can be applied to allogeneic cells, mesenchymal cells, gene therapy, cardiomyoctyes, iPS cells, MAPC's, and organogenesis Covers the three areas with the greatest clinical trials to date: chronic limb ischemia, chronic angina, and acute MI Covers the prevailing opinions on how to harness the body’s natural repair mechanisms Ideal resource for cardiology researchers, basic science clinicians, fellows, residents, students, and industry professionals

The Mast Cell

The Mast Cell Book
Author : Domenico Ribatti
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-11
ISBN : 3030241904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mast cells (MC) are phylogenetically old cells which are distributed throughout the human organism. MC are found in almost all of the major organs and tissues of the body, particularly in association with connective tissue structures such as blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves, and in proximity to surfaces that interface the external environment, such as those of the respiratory and gastrointestinal system and the skin. This selective accumulation at tissue sites where foreign material attempts to invade the host suggests that MC are among the first cells to initiate defensive mechanisms. MC have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. Several lines of evidence, however, indicate that they not only express critical effector functions in classic IgE-associated allergic disorders, but also play important roles in host defense against parasites, bacteria and perhaps even viruses. Indeed, it is now clear that MC can contribute to host defense in the context of either acquired or innate immune responses through the release of a myriad of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory molecules and the expression of a wide spectrum of surface receptors for cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, there is growing evidence that MC exert distinct non-immunological functions, playing a relevant role in tissue homeostasis, remodeling and fibrosis as well as in the processes of tissue angiogenesis.

Multifunctional Nanomaterials for Advanced Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy

Multifunctional Nanomaterials for Advanced Molecular Imaging and Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Prasad Subramaniam
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanotechnology offers tremendous potential for use in biomedical applications, including cancer and stem cell imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The development of nanosystems has aided in understanding the molecular mechanisms of many diseases and permitted the controlled nanoscale manipulation of biological phenomena. In recent years, many studies have focused on the use of several kinds of nanomaterials for cancer and stem cell imaging and also for the delivery of anticancer therapeutics to tumor cells. However, the proper diagnosis and treatment of aggressive tumors such as brain and breast cancer requires highly sensitive diagnostic agents, in addition to the ability to deliver multiple therapeutics using a single platform to the target cells. Addressing these challenges, novel multifunctional nanomaterial-based platforms that incorporate multiple therapeutic and diagnostic agents, with superior molecular imaging and targeting capabilities, has been presented in this work. The initial part of this work presents the development of novel nanomaterials with superior optical properties for efficiently delivering soluble cues such as small interfering RNA (siRNA) into brain cancer cells with minimal toxicity. Specifically, this section details the development of non-toxic quantums dots for the imaging and delivery of siRNA into brain cancer and mesenchymal stem cells, with the hope of using these quantum dots as multiplexed imaging and delivery vehicles. The use of these quantum dots could overcome the toxicity issues associated with the use of conventional quantum dots, enabled the imaging of brain cancer and stem cells with high efficiency and allowed for the delivery of siRNA to knockdown the target oncogene in brain cancer cells. The latter part of this thesis details the development of nanomaterial-based drug delivery platforms for the codelivery of multiple anticancer drugs to brain tumor cells. In particular, this part of the thesis focuses on the synthesis and use of a biodegradable dendritic polypeptide-based nanocarrier for the delivery of multiple anticancer drugs and siRNA to brain tumor cells. The co-delivery of important anticancer agents using a single platform was shown to increase the efficacy of the drugs manyfold, ensuring the cancer cell-specific delivery and minimizing dose limiting toxicities of the individual drugs. This would be of immense importance when used in vivo.