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Molten Salt Reactors And Thorium Energy

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Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy

Molten Salt Reactors and Thorium Energy Book
Author : Thomas James Dolan
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2017-06-08
ISBN : 0081012438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molten Salt Reactors is a comprehensive reference on the status of molten salt reactor (MSR) research and thorium fuel utilization. There is growing awareness that nuclear energy is needed to complement intermittent energy sources and to avoid pollution from fossil fuels. Light water reactors are complex, expensive, and vulnerable to core melt, steam explosions, and hydrogen explosions, so better technology is needed. MSRs could operate safely at nearly atmospheric pressure and high temperature, yielding efficient electrical power generation, desalination, actinide incineration, hydrogen production, and other industrial heat applications. Coverage includes: Motivation -- why are we interested? Technical issues – reactor physics, thermal hydraulics, materials, environment, ... Generic designs -- thermal, fast, solid fuel, liquid fuel, ... Specific designs – aimed at electrical power, actinide incineration, thorium utilization, ... Worldwide activities in 23 countries Conclusions This book is a collaboration of 58 authors from 23 countries, written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten Salt Forum. It can serve as a reference for engineers and scientists, and it can be used as a textbook for graduate students and advanced undergrads. Molten Salt Reactors is the only complete review of the technology currently available, making this an essential text for anyone reviewing the use of MSRs and thorium fuel, including students, nuclear researchers, industrial engineers, and policy makers. Written in cooperation with the International Thorium Molten-Salt Forum Covers MSR-specific issues, various reactor designs, and discusses issues such as the environmental impact, non-proliferation, and licensing Includes case studies and examples from experts across the globe

Liquid Fuel Molten Salt Reactors for Thorium Utilization

Liquid Fuel Molten Salt Reactors for Thorium Utilization Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molten salt reactors (MSRs) represent a class of reactors that use liquid salt, usually fluoride- or chloride-based, as either a coolant with a solid fuel (such as fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors) or as a combined coolant and fuel with fuel dissolved in a carrier salt. For liquid-fuelled MSRs, the salt can be processed online or in a batch mode to allow for removal of fission products as well as introduction of fissile fuel and fertile materials during reactor operation. The MSR is most commonly associated with the 233U/thorium fuel cycle, as the nuclear properties of 233U combined with the online removal of parasitic absorbers allow for the ability to design a thermal-spectrum breeder reactor; however, MSR concepts have been developed using all neutron energy spectra (thermal, intermediate, fast, and mixed-spectrum zoned concepts) and with a variety of fuels including uranium, thorium, plutonium, and minor actinides. Early MSR work was supported by a significant research and development (R & D) program that resulted in two experimental systems operating at ORNL in the 1960s, the Aircraft Reactor Experiment and the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment. Subsequent design studies in the 1970s focusing on thermal-spectrum thorium-fueled systems established reference concepts for two major design variants: (1) a molten salt breeder reactor (MSBR), with multiple configurations that could breed additional fissile material or maintain self-sustaining operation; and (2) a denatured molten salt reactor (DMSR) with enhanced proliferation-resistance. T MSRs has been selected as one of six most promising Generation IV systems and development activities have been seen in fast-spectrum MSRs, waste-burning MSRs, MSRs fueled with low-enriched uranium (LEU), as well as more traditional thorium fuel cycle-based MSRs. This study provides an historical background of MSR R & D efforts, surveys and summarizes many of the recent development, and provides analysis comparing thorium-based MSRs.

Thorium Energy for the Future

Thorium   Energy for the Future Book
Author : A.K. Nayak,Bal Raj Sehgal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-30
ISBN : 9811326584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book comprises selected proceedings of the ThEC15 conference. The book presents research findings on various facets of thorium energy, including exploration and mining, thermo-physical and chemical properties of fuels, reactor physics, challenges in fuel fabrication, thorium fuel cycles, thermal hydraulics and safety, material challenges, irradiation experiences, and issues and challenges for the design of advanced thorium fueled reactors. Thorium is more abundant than uranium and has the potential to provide energy to the world for centuries if used in a closed fuel cycle. As such, technologies for using thorium for power generation in nuclear reactors are being developed worldwide. Since there is a strong global thrust towards designing nuclear reactors with thorium-based fuel, this book will be of particular interest to nuclear scientists, reactor designers, regulators, academics and policymakers.

Initial Fuel Possibilities for the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor

Initial Fuel Possibilities for the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Book
Author : Dustin Gage Green
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The Generation IV International Forum placed six reactors as priority for research and development to compensate for the world's increasing energy demands. Among the six were Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs). These reactors utilize the Th/233U fuel cycle using molten fluoride or chloride salts as coolants. MSRs also have the possibility to use other fissile fuels especially with the first fleet of reactors given the low amount of Uranium-233 available commercially. With the possibility of diverting from using 233U initially, the research presented here will benchmark 233U as a main fuel for MSRs using the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) designed by Billebaud Annick and her team at the Laboratory for Subatomic Particles and Cosmology in France. Uranium-235 and Plutonium-239 will then be tested as suitable initial fuels for the first fleet of TMSRs. These fuels will be compared to the reference data based on neutron flux spectra and breeding capabilities."--Abstract, page iii.

Thorium

Thorium Book
Author : Source Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release : 2013-09
ISBN : 9781230589404
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 34. Chapters: Berzelium, Carolinium, Compton-Belkovich Thorium Anomaly, Flibe Energy, Ionium-thorium dating, Isotopes of thorium, Liquid fluoride thorium reactor, Sylvania Electric Products explosion, Thorium-based nuclear power, Thorium fuel cycle, Thorotrast, THTR-300. Excerpt: The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (acronym LFTR; spoken as lifter) is a thermal breeder reactor which uses the thorium fuel cycle in a fluoride-based molten (liquid) salt fuel to achieve high operating temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The LFTR is a type of thorium molten salt reactor (TMSR). Molten-salt-fueled reactors (MSRs) such as LFTR, where the nuclear fuel itself is in the form of liquid molten salt mixture, should not be confused with the solid-fueled molten salt-cooled high temperature reactors (Fluoride High-temperature Reactors, FHRs). In a LFTR, thorium and uranium-233 are dissolved in carrier salts, forming a liquid fuel. Typical operation sees the liquid fuel salt being pumped between a critical core and an external heat exchanger, where the heat is transferred to a nonradioactive secondary salt, that then transfers its heat again to a steam turbine or closed-cycle gas turbine. This technology was first investigated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment in the 1960s. It has recently been the subject of a renewed interest worldwide. Japan, China, the UK, as well as private US, Czech and Australian companies have expressed intent to develop and commercialize the technology. Thorium is relatively abundant in the earth's crust. Tiny crystals of Thorite, a thorium mineral, under magnification. Molten Salt Reactor at Oak RidgeBy 1946, eight years after the discovery of nuclear fission, three fissile isotopes had been publicly identified for use as nuclear fuel: Th-232, U-235 and U-238 are primordial nuclides, ..

Advances in Molten Salt Reactors

Advances in Molten Salt Reactors Book
Author : Mark Ho,Guan Heng Yeoh,Massimiliano Fratoni
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing Limited
Release : 2020-02
ISBN : 9780081026069
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Molten Salt Reactors combines and presents the latest research and developments in one single resource. It comprehensively reviews a variety of molten salt reactor designs, focussing on aspects of neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, chemistry, material and safety characteristics to give the reader a detailed understanding of each design's underlying dynamic and purpose. Editors Dr. Mark Ho, Professor Massimiliano Frantoni and Professor Huan Heng Yeoh, with their team of expert contributors, combine their experience and knowledge to analyse the variety of design options to ensure engineers are able to make well informed decisions for the most effective energy spectrum for their plants, including salt and material selection, instrumentation challenges and experimental capabilities. This book presents the rapid developments made in molten salt designs from investing countries such as China, the US, UK, Canada and others, considering the work of a variety of key pioneering companies, and is particularly valuable to practising and researching nuclear engineers, and graduate students of advanced nuclear reactor development.

SuperFuel

SuperFuel Book
Author : Richard Martin
Publisher : St. Martin's Press
Release : 2012-05-08
ISBN : 0230341918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A riveting look at how an alternative source of energy is revoluntionising nuclear power, promising a safe and clean future for millions, and why thorium was sidelined at the height of the Cold War In this groundbreaking account of an energy revolution in the making, award-winning science writer Richard Martin introduces us to thorium, a radioactive element and alternative nuclear fuel that is far safer, cleaner, and more abundant than uranium. At the dawn of the Atomic Age, thorium and uranium seemed to be in close competition as the fuel of the future. Uranium, with its ability to undergo fission and produce explosive material for atomic weapons, won out over its more pacific sister element, relegating thorium to the dustbin of science. Now, as we grapple with the perils of nuclear energy and rogue atomic weapons, and mankind confronts the specter of global climate change, thorium is re-emerging as the overlooked energy source as a small group of activists and outsiders is working, with the help of Silicon Valley investors, to build a thorium-power industry. In the first book mainstream book to tackle these issues, Superfuel is a story of rediscovery of a long lost technology that has the power to transform the world's future, and the story of the pacifists, who were sidelined in favour of atomic weapon hawks, but who can wean us off our fossil-fuel addiction and avert the risk of nuclear meltdown for ever.

Impact of Thorium Based Molten Salt Reactor on the Closure of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle

Impact of Thorium Based Molten Salt Reactor on the Closure of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Book
Author : Safwan Qasim Mohammad Jaradat
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Molten salt reactor (MSR) is one of six reactors selected by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). The liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) is a MSR concept based on thorium fuel cycle. LFTR uses liquid fluoride salts as a nuclear fuel. It uses 232Th and 233U as the fertile and fissile materials, respectively. Fluoride salt of these nuclides is dissolved in a mixed carrier salt of lithium and beryllium (FLiBe). The objective of this research was to complete feasibility studies of a small commercial thermal LFTR. The focus was on neutronic calculations in order to prescribe core design parameter such as core size, fuel block pitch (p), fuel channel radius, fuel path, reflector thickness, fuel salt composition, and power. In order to achieve this objective, the applicability of Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) to MSR modeling was verified. Then, a prescription for conceptual small thermal reactor LFTR and relevant calculations were performed using MCNP to determine the main neutronic parameters of the core reactor. The MCNP code was used to study the reactor physics characteristics for the FUJI-U3 reactor. The results were then compared with the results obtained from the original FUJI-U3 using the reactor physics code SRAC95 and the burnup analysis code ORIGEN2. The results were comparable with each other. Based on the results, MCNP was found to be a reliable code to model a small thermal LFTR and study all the related reactor physics characteristics. The results of this study were promising and successful in demonstrating a prefatory small commercial LFTR design. The outcome of using a small core reactor with a diameter/height of 280/260 cm that would operate for more than five years at a power level of 150 MWth was studied. The fuel system 7LiF - BeF2 - ThF4 - UF4 with a (233U/232Th) = 2.01 % was the candidate fuel for this reactor core"--Abstract, page iii.

FLUID FUEL REACTORS

FLUID FUEL REACTORS Book
Author : James A. Lane,H. G. MacPherson,Frank Maslan
Publisher : Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.
Release : 1958-01-01
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Landmark book written at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the auspices of the Atomic Energy Commission as part of its Atoms for Peace program. FLUID FUEL REACTORS approaches to the subject of nuclear power from a chemical standpoint, rather than from the point of view of mechanical engineering. Today, the value of this approach has (finally) been recognized by venture capitalists such as Peter Thiel, philanthropists such as Bill Gates, and policy makers in Washington who have recently been passing advanced-reactor friendly legislation year after year. China's Navy is funding the Chinese Academy of Science Thorium Molten Salt Reactor program. The DoE (through GAIN) has funded essential Molten Salt research in the United States. Canada has funded Molten Salt research, and is currently conducting a pre-licensing vendor review. Dr. Anil Kokodkar, the former-head of India's nuclear program has stated, given a do-over he'd have pursued a liquid fuel (as opposed to a conventional solid fuel) approach to advanced nuclear. Molten Salt Reactor startups are flourishing, and typically, a single copy of FLUID FUEL REACTORS can be found in their head-office. The founders of these startups are driven to provide clean energy to developing nations, and replace today's polluting energy options which power western industry and prosperity. First printed in 1958, FLUID FUEL REACTORS continues to be cited as a useful reference by ORNL engineers, MSR startup employees, and those in academia. Alvin Weinberg suggested people should re-examine "dusty old books" such as FLUID FUEL REACTORS in his last recorded public interview (2 years before his death) at the University of Tennessee on 2004. Used physical copies have sold online for well over $1,000. 60 years after FLUID FUEL REACTORS was first published, it can now, for the first time, be enjoyed on digital reading devices, in a manner that supports adjustable font sizes and easy-to-read formatting... as opposed to looking at a series of bitmap images of words, like an animal.

Thorium Energy for the World

Thorium Energy for the World Book
Author : Jean-Pierre Revol,Maurice Bourquin,Yacine Kadi,Egil Lillestol,Jean-Christophe de Mestral,Karel Samec
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-04-05
ISBN : 3319265423
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Thorium Energy Conference (ThEC13) gathered some of the world’s leading experts on thorium technologies to review the possibility of destroying nuclear waste in the short term, and replacing the uranium fuel cycle in nuclear systems with the thorium fuel cycle in the long term. The latter would provide abundant, reliable and safe energy with no CO2 production, no air pollution, and minimal waste production. The participants, representatives of 30 countries, included Carlo Rubbia, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics and inventor of the Energy Amplifier; Jack Steinberger, Nobel Prize Laureate in physics; Hans Blix, former Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Rolf Heuer, Director General of CERN; Pascal Couchepin, former President of the Swiss Confederation; and Claude Haegi, President of the FEDRE, to name just a few. The ThEC13 proceedings are a source of reference on the use of thorium for energy generation. They offer detailed technical reviews of the status of thorium energy technologies, from basic R&D to industrial developments. They also describe how thorium can be used in critical reactors and in subcritical accelerator-driven systems (ADS), answering the important questions: – Why is thorium so attractive and what is the role of innovation, in particular in the nuclear energy domain? – What are the national and international R&D programs on thorium technologies and how are they progressing? ThEC13 was organized jointly by the international Thorium Energy Committee (iThEC), an association based in Geneva, and the International Thorium Energy Organisation (IThEO). It was held in the Globe of Science and Innovation at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland, in October 2013.

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten Salt Reactors

Accelerators for Subcritical Molten Salt Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

Thorium Energy Futures

Thorium Energy Futures Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The potential for thorium as an alternative or supplement to uranium in fission power generation has long been recognised, and several reactors, of various types, have already operated using thorium-based fuels. Accelerator Driven Subcritical (ADS) systems have benefits and drawbacks when compared to conventional critical thorium reactors, for both solid and molten salt fuels. None of the four options - liquid or solid, with or without an accelerator - can yet be rated as better or worse than the other three, given today's knowledge. We outline the research that will be necessary to lead to an informed choice.

A Review of Thorium Utilization as an Option for Advanced Fuel Cycle Potential Option for Brazil in the Future

A Review of Thorium Utilization as an Option for Advanced Fuel Cycle  Potential Option for Brazil in the Future Book
Author : J. R. Maiorino,T. Carluccio
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the beginning of Nuclear Energy Development, Thorium was considered as a potential fuel, mainly due to the potential to produce fissile uranium 233. Several Th/U fuel cycles, using thermal and fast reactors were proposed, such as the Radkwoski once through fuel cycle for PWR and VVER, the thorium fuel cycles for CANDU Reactors, the utilization in Molten Salt Reactors, the utilization of thorium in thermal (AHWR), and fast reactors (FBTR) in India, and more recently in innovative reactors, mainly Accelerator Driven System, in a double strata fuel cycle. All these concepts besides the increase in natural nuclear resources are justified by non proliferation issues (plutonium constrain) and the waste radiological toxicity reduction. The paper intended to summarize these developments, with an emphasis in the Th/U double strata fuel cycle using ADS. Brazil has one of the biggest natural reserves of thorium, estimated in 1.2 millions of tons of ThO{sub 2}, as will be reviewed in this paper, and therefore R & D programs would be of strategically national interest. In fact, in the past there was some projects to utilize Thorium in Reactors, as the ''Instinto/Toruna'' Project, in cooperation with France, to utilize Thorium in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor, in the mid of sixties to mid of seventies, and the thorium utilization in PWR, in cooperation with German, from 1979-1988. The paper will review these initiatives in Brazil, and will propose to continue in Brazil activities related with Th/U fuel cycle.

Preliminary Examination on the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors in Comparison with the Small Thorium Molten salt Reactor

Preliminary Examination on  the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors  in Comparison with the Small Thorium Molten salt Reactor Book
Author : Kazuo Furukawa,Alfred Lecocq
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Preliminary Examination on the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors in Comparison with the Small Thorium Molten salt Reactor book written by Kazuo Furukawa,Alfred Lecocq, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Performance of Molten Salt Breeder Reactors

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Performance of Molten Salt Breeder Reactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1964
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nuclear Fuel Cycle Performance of Molten Salt Breeder Reactors book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sustainable Thorium Nuclear Fuel Cycles

Sustainable Thorium Nuclear Fuel Cycles Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This paper presents analyses of possible reactor representations of a nuclear fuel cycle with continuous recycling of thorium and produced uranium (mostly U-233) with thorium-only feed. The analysis was performed in the context of a U.S. Department of Energy effort to develop a compendium of informative nuclear fuel cycle performance data. The objective of this paper is to determine whether intermediate spectrum systems, having a majority of fission events occurring with incident neutron energies between 1 eV and 105 eV, perform as well as fast spectrum systems in this fuel cycle. The intermediate spectrum options analyzed include tight lattice heavy or light water-cooled reactors, continuously refueled molten salt reactors, and a sodium-cooled reactor with hydride fuel. All options were modeled in reactor physics codes to calculate their lattice physics, spectrum characteristics, and fuel compositions over time. Based on these results, detailed metrics were calculated to compare the fuel cycle performance. These metrics include waste management and resource utilization, and are binned to accommodate uncertainties. The performance of the intermediate systems for this selfsustaining thorium fuel cycle was similar to a representative fast spectrum system. However, the number of fission neutrons emitted per neutron absorbed limits performance in intermediate spectrum systems.

MSR Review

MSR Review Book
Author : Rory O'Sullivan,Jasper Tomlinson
Publisher : Lulu.com
Release : 2021-07-27
ISBN : 1326409638
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download MSR Review book written by Rory O'Sullivan,Jasper Tomlinson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nuclear Power

Nuclear Power Book
Author : David Elliott
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2017-05-02
ISBN : 1681745062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book looks at the early history of nuclear power, at what happened next, and at its longer-term prospects. The main question is: can nuclear power overcome the problems that have emerged? It was once touted as the ultimate energy source, freeing mankind from reliance on dirty, expensive fossil energy. Sixty years on, nuclear only supplies around 11.5% of global energy and is being challenged by cheaper energy options. While the costs of renewable sources, like wind and solar, are falling rapidly, nuclear costs have remained stubbornly high. Its development has also been slowed by a range of other problems, including a spate of major accidents, security concerns and the as yet unresolved issue of what to do with the wastes that it produces. In response, a new generation of nuclear reactors is being developed, many of them actually revised versions of the ideas first looked at in the earlier phase. Will this new generation of reactors bring nuclear energy to the forefront of energy production in the future?