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Modeling Evolution Of Heterogenous Populations

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Modeling Evolution of Heterogeneous Populations

Modeling Evolution of Heterogeneous Populations Book
Author : Irina Kareva,Georgy Karev
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-10-16
ISBN : 0128144327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modeling Evolution of Heterogeneous Populations: Theory and Applications describes, develops and provides applications of a method that allows incorporating population heterogeneity into systems of ordinary and discrete differential equations without significantly increasing system dimensionality. The method additionally allows making use of results of bifurcation analysis performed on simplified homogeneous systems, thereby building on the existing body of tools and knowledge and expanding applicability and predictive power of many mathematical models. Introduces Hidden Keystone Variable (HKV) method, which allows modeling evolution of heterogenous populations, while reducing multi-dimensional selection systems to low-dimensional systems of differential equations Demonstrates that replicator dynamics is governed by the principle of maximal relative entropy that can be derived from the dynamics of selection systems instead of being postulated Discusses mechanisms behind models of both Darwinian and non-Darwinian selection Provides examples of applications to various fields, including cancer growth, global demography, population extinction, tragedy of the commons and resource sustainability, among others Helps inform differences in underlying mechanisms of population growth from experimental observations, taking one from experiment to theory and back

Extensions of Markov Models of Social Mobility to Heterogeneous Populations

Extensions of Markov Models of Social Mobility to Heterogeneous Populations Book
Author : Burton Singer,Seymour Spillerman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1973
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Extensions of Markov Models of Social Mobility to Heterogeneous Populations book written by Burton Singer,Seymour Spillerman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Introduction to Modeling for Biosciences

Introduction to Modeling for Biosciences Book
Author : David J. Barnes,Dominique Chu
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-07-23
ISBN : 1849963266
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mathematical modeling can be a useful tool for researchers in the biological scientists. Yet in biological modeling there is no one modeling technique that is suitable for all problems. Instead, different problems call for different approaches. Furthermore, it can be helpful to analyze the same system using a variety of approaches, to be able to exploit the advantages and drawbacks of each. In practice, it is often unclear which modeling approaches will be most suitable for a particular biological question, a problem which requires researchers to know a reasonable amount about a number of techniques, rather than become experts on a single one. "Introduction to Modeling for Biosciences" addresses this issue by presenting a broad overview of the most important techniques used to model biological systems. In addition to providing an introduction into the use of a wide range of software tools and modeling environments, this helpful text/reference describes the constraints and difficulties that each modeling technique presents in practice, enabling the researcher to quickly determine which software package would be most useful for their particular problem. Topics and features: introduces a basic array of techniques to formulate models of biological systems, and to solve them; intersperses the text with exercises throughout the book; includes practical introductions to the Maxima computer algebra system, the PRISM model checker, and the Repast Simphony agent modeling environment; discusses agent-based models, stochastic modeling techniques, differential equations and Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm; contains appendices on Repast batch running, rules of differentiation and integration, Maxima and PRISM notation, and some additional mathematical concepts; supplies source code for many of the example models discussed, at the associated website http://www.cs.kent.ac.uk/imb/. This unique and practical guide leads the novice modeler through realistic and concrete modeling projects, highlighting and commenting on the process of abstracting the real system into a model. Students and active researchers in the biosciences will also benefit from the discussions of the high-quality, tried-and-tested modeling tools described in the book. Dr. David J. Barnes is a lecturer in computer science at the University of Kent, UK, with a strong background in the teaching of programming. Dr. Dominique Chu is a lecturer in computer science at the University of Kent, UK. He is an internationally recognized expert in agent-based modeling, and has also in-depth research experience in stochastic and differential equation based modeling.

Computational Modeling of Biological Systems

Computational Modeling of Biological Systems Book
Author : Nikolay V Dokholyan
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-02-10
ISBN : 1461421462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational modeling is emerging as a powerful new approach to study and manipulate biological systems. Multiple methods have been developed to model, visualize, and rationally alter systems at various length scales, starting from molecular modeling and design at atomic resolution to cellular pathways modeling and analysis. Higher time and length scale processes, such as molecular evolution, have also greatly benefited from new breeds of computational approaches. This book provides an overview of the established computational methods used for modeling biologically and medically relevant systems.

Artificial Life VII

Artificial Life VII Book
Author : Mark A. Bedau,John S. McCaskill,Norman H. Packard,Steen Rasmussen
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2000-08-01
ISBN : 9780262522908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The term "artificial life" describes research into synthetic systems that possess some of the essential properties of life. This interdisciplinary field includes biologists, computer scientists, physicists, chemists, geneticists, and others. Artificial life may be viewed as an attempt to understand high-level behavior from low-level rules—for example, how the simple interactions between ants and their environment lead to complex trail-following behavior. An understanding of such relationships in particular systems can suggest novel solutions to complex real-world problems such as disease prevention, stock-market prediction, and data mining on the Internet. Since their inception in 1987, the Artificial Life meetings have grown from small workshops to truly international conferences, reflecting the field's increasing appeal to researchers in all areas of science.

Evolution Dynamics of Some Population Models in Heterogeneous Environments

Evolution Dynamics of Some Population Models in Heterogeneous Environments Book
Author : Ruiwen Wu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spatial and/or temporal evolutions are very important topics in epidemiology and ecology. This thesis is devoted to the study of the global dynamics of some population models incorporating with environmental heterogeneities. Vector-borne diseases such as West Nile virus and malaria, pose a threat to public health worldwide. Both vector life cycle and parasite development are highly sensitive to climate factors. To understand the role of seasonality on disease spread, we start with a periodic West Nile virus transmission model with time-varying incubation periods. Apart from seasonal variations, another important feature of our environment is the spatial heterogeneity. Hence, we incorporate the movement of both vectors and hosts, temperature-dependent incubation periods, seasonal fluctuations and spatial heterogeneity into a general reaction-diffusion vector-borne disease model. By using the theory of basic reproduction number, R0, and the theory of infinite dimensional dynamical systems, we derive R0 and establish a threshold-type result for the global dynamics in terms of R0 for each model. As biological invasions have significant impacts on ecology and human society, how the growth and spatial spread of invasive species interact with environment becomes an important and challenging problem. We first propose an impulsive integro-differential model to describe a single invading species with a birth pulse in the reproductive stage and a nonlocal dispersal stage. Next, we study the propagation dynamics for a class of integro-difference two-species competition models in a spatially periodic habitat.

The Evolutionary Emergence of Language

The Evolutionary Emergence of Language Book
Author : Chris Knight,Michael Studdert-Kennedy,James Hurford,Emeritus Professor of General Linguistics James R Hurford
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2000-11-20
ISBN : 9780521786966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the origins of language, combining social and natural science perspectives.

Genetic and Evolutionary Computing

Genetic and Evolutionary Computing Book
Author : Jeng-Shyang Pan,Jerry Chun-Wei Lin,Bixia Sui,Shih-Pang Tseng
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-05-11
ISBN : 9811358419
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing highlights papers presented at the 12th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing (ICGEC 2018). Held from 14 to 17 December 2018 in Changzhou, Jiangsu, China, the conference was co-sponsored by Springer, Changzhou College of Information Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Lab of Big Data Mining and Applications, Fujian University of Technology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Electronic Information and Electrical Technology Education, Fujian University of Technology, Tajen University, National University of Kaohsiung, and Shandong University of Science and Technology, China. The conference is intended as an international forum for the researchers and professionals in all areas of genetic and evolutionary computing.

Guide to Simulation and Modeling for Biosciences

Guide to Simulation and Modeling for Biosciences Book
Author : David J. Barnes,Dominique Chu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 1447167627
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This accessible text presents a detailed introduction to the use of a wide range of software tools and modeling environments for use in the biosciences, as well as the fundamental mathematical background. The practical constraints presented by each modeling technique are described in detail, enabling the researcher to determine which software package would be most useful for a particular problem. Features: introduces a basic array of techniques to formulate models of biological systems, and to solve them; discusses agent-based models, stochastic modeling techniques, differential equations, spatial simulations, and Gillespie’s stochastic simulation algorithm; provides exercises; describes such useful tools as the Maxima algebra system, the PRISM model checker, and the modeling environments Repast Simphony and Smoldyn; contains appendices on rules of differentiation and integration, Maxima and PRISM notation, and some additional mathematical concepts; offers supplementary material at an associated website.

Heterogeneous Agent Modeling

Heterogeneous Agent Modeling Book
Author : Cars Hommes,Blake LeBaron
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-06-27
ISBN : 0444641327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Computational Economics: Heterogeneous Agent Modeling, Volume Four, focuses on heterogeneous agent models, emphasizing recent advances in macroeconomics (including DSGE), finance, empirical validation and experiments, networks and related applications. Capturing the advances made since the publication of Volume Two (Tesfatsion & Judd, 2006), it provides high-level literature with sections devoted to Macroeconomics, Finance, Empirical Validation and Experiments, Networks, and other applications, including Innovation Diffusion in Heterogeneous Populations, Market Design and Electricity Markets, and a final section on Perspectives on Heterogeneity. Helps readers fully understand the dynamic properties of realistically rendered economic systems Emphasizes detailed specifications of structural conditions, institutional arrangements and behavioral dispositions Provides broad assessments that can lead researchers to recognize new synergies and opportunities

Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics

Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics Book
Author : Odo Diekmann,Hans Heesterbeek,Tom Britton
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2012-11-18
ISBN : 0691155399
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mathematical modeling is critical to our understanding of how infectious diseases spread at the individual and population levels. This book gives readers the necessary skills to correctly formulate and analyze mathematical models in infectious disease epidemiology, and is the first treatment of the subject to integrate deterministic and stochastic models and methods. Mathematical Tools for Understanding Infectious Disease Dynamics fully explains how to translate biological assumptions into mathematics to construct useful and consistent models, and how to use the biological interpretation and mathematical reasoning to analyze these models. It shows how to relate models to data through statistical inference, and how to gain important insights into infectious disease dynamics by translating mathematical results back to biology. This comprehensive and accessible book also features numerous detailed exercises throughout; full elaborations to all exercises are provided. Covers the latest research in mathematical modeling of infectious disease epidemiology Integrates deterministic and stochastic approaches Teaches skills in model construction, analysis, inference, and interpretation Features numerous exercises and their detailed elaborations Motivated by real-world applications throughout

Game Theoretical Models in Biology

Game Theoretical Models in Biology Book
Author : Mark Broom,Jan Rychtář
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-08-03
ISBN : 1000623726
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering the major topics of evolutionary game theory, Game-Theoretical Models in Biology, Second Edition presents both abstract and practical mathematical models of real biological situations. It discusses the static aspects of game theory in a mathematically rigorous way that is appealing to mathematicians. In addition, the authors explore many applications of game theory to biology, making the text useful to biologists as well. The book describes a wide range of topics in evolutionary games, including matrix games, replicator dynamics, the hawk-dove game, and the prisoner’s dilemma. It covers the evolutionarily stable strategy, a key concept in biological games, and offers in-depth details of the mathematical models. Most chapters illustrate how to use Python to solve various games. Important biological phenomena, such as the sex ratio of so many species being close to a half, the evolution of cooperative behaviour, and the existence of adornments (for example, the peacock’s tail), have been explained using ideas underpinned by game theoretical modelling. Suitable for readers studying and working at the interface of mathematics and the life sciences, this book shows how evolutionary game theory is used in the modelling of these diverse biological phenomena. In this thoroughly revised new edition, the authors have added three new chapters on the evolution of structured populations, biological signalling games, and a topical new chapter on evolutionary models of cancer. There are also new sections on games with time constraints that convert simple games to potentially complex nonlinear ones; new models on extortion strategies for the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma and on social dilemmas; and on evolutionary models of vaccination, a timely section given the current Covid pandemic. Features Presents a wide range of biological applications of game theory. Suitable for researchers and professionals in mathematical biology and the life sciences, and as a text for postgraduate courses in mathematical biology. Provides numerous examples, exercises, and Python code.

Epidemic Dynamics in Heterogeneous Populations

Epidemic Dynamics in Heterogeneous Populations Book
Author : Thomas Joseph Hladish
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epidemiological models traditionally make the assumption that populations are homogeneous. By relaxing that assumption, models often become more complicated, but better representations of the real world. Here we describe new computational tools for studying heterogeneous populations, and we examine consequences of two particular types of heterogeneity: that people are not all equally likely to interact, and that people are not all equally likely to become infected if exposed to a pathogen. Contact network epidemiology provides a robust and flexible paradigm for thinking about heterogeneous populations. Despite extensive mathematical and algorithmic methods, however, we lack a programming framework for working with epidemiological contact networks and for the simulation of disease transmission through such networks. We present EpiFire, a C++ applications programming interface and graphical user interface, which includes a fast and efficient library for generating, analyzing and manipulating networks. EpiFire also provides a variety of traditional and network-based epidemic simulations. Heterogeneous population structure may cause multi-wave epidemics, but urban populations are generally assumed to be too well mixed to have such structure. Multi-wave epidemics are not predicted by simple models, and are particularly problematic for public health officials deploying limited resources. Using a unique empirical interaction network for 103,000 people in Montreal, Canada, we show that large, urban populations may feature sufficient community structure to drive multi-wave dynamics, and that highly connected individuals may play an important role in whether communities are synchronized. Finally, we show that heterogeneous immunity is an important determinant of influenza epidemic size. While many epidemic models assume a homogeneously susceptible population and describe dynamics for one season, the trans-seasonal dynamics of partially immunizing diseases likely play a critical role in determining both future epidemic size and pathogen evolution. We present a multi-season network model of a population exposed to a pathogen conferring partial cross-immunity that decays over time. We fit the model to 25 years of influenza-like illness epidemic data from France using a novel Bayesian technique. Using conservative priors, we estimate important epidemiological quantities that are consistent with empirical studies.

Disease Evolution

Disease Evolution Book
Author : Zhilan Feng,Ulf Dieckmann,Simon A. Levin
Publisher : American Mathematical Soc.
Release : 2022-10-04
ISBN : 9780821885857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Infectious diseases are continuing to threaten humankind. While some diseases have been controlled, new diseases are constantly appearing. Others are now reappearing in forms that are resistant to drug treatments. A capacity for continual re-adaptation furnishes pathogens with the power to escape our control efforts through evolution. This makes it imperative to understand the complex selection pressures that are shaping and reshaping diseases. Modern models of evolutionaryepidemiology provide powerful tools for creating, expressing, and testing such understanding. Bringing together international leaders in the field, this volume offers a panoramic tour of topical developments in understanding the mechanisms of disease evolution. The volume's first part elucidates the generalconcepts underlying models of disease evolution. Methodological challenges addressed include those posed by spatial structure, stochastic dynamics, disease phases and classes, single- and multi-drug resistance, the heterogeneity of host populations and tissues, and the intricate coupling of disease evolution with between-host and within-host dynamics. The book's second part shows how these methods are utilized for investigating the dynamics and evolution of specific diseases, includingHIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, SARS, malaria, and human rhinovirus infections. This volume is particularly suited for introducing young scientists and established researchers with backgrounds in mathematics, computer science, or biology to the current techniques and challenges of mathematical evolutionaryepidemiology.

Advances in the Evolutionary Synthesis of Intelligent Agents

Advances in the Evolutionary Synthesis of Intelligent Agents Book
Author : Mukesh Patel,Vasant Honavar,Karthik Balakrishnan
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780262162012
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explores a central issue in artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and artificial life: how to design information structures and processes that create and adapt intelligent agents through evolution and learning. Among the first uses of the computer was the development of programs to model perception, reasoning, learning, and evolution. Further developments resulted in computers and programs that exhibit aspects of intelligent behavior. The field of artificial intelligence is based on the premise that thought processes can be computationally modeled. Computational molecular biology brought a similar approach to the study of living systems. In both cases, hypotheses concerning the structure, function, and evolution of cognitive systems (natural as well as synthetic) take the form of computer programs that store, organize, manipulate, and use information. Systems whose information processing structures are fully programmed are difficult to design for all but the simplest applications. Real-world environments call for systems that are able to modify their behavior by changing their information processing structures. Cognitive and information structures and processes, embodied in living systems, display many effective designs for biological intelligent agents. They are also a source of ideas for designing artificial intelligent agents. This book explores a central issue in artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and artificial life: how to design information structures and processes that create and adapt intelligent agents through evolution and learning. The book is organized around four topics: the power of evolution to determine effective solutions to complex tasks, mechanisms to make evolutionary design scalable, the use of evolutionary search in conjunction with local learning algorithms, and the extension of evolutionary search in novel directions.

Social Cultural and Behavioral Modeling

Social  Cultural  and Behavioral Modeling Book
Author : Dongwon Lee,Yu-Ru Lin,Nathaniel Osgood,Robert Thomson
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-06-26
ISBN : 3319602403
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Modeling & Prediction and Behavior Representation in Modeling and Simulation, SBP-BRiMS 2017, held in Washington, DC, USA, in July 2017. The 16 full papers and 27 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 79 submissions. Owing to its strong multi-disciplinary heritage, the papers represent a large range of disciplines including computer science, psychology, sociology, communication science, public health, bioinformatics, political science, and organizational science and use numerous types of computational methods such as machine learning, language technology, social network analysis and visualization, agent-based simulation, and statistics. They are organized in the following topical sections: behavioral and social sciences; cyber and intelligence applications; information, systems, and network sciences; and methodology.

Bio Inspired Models of Network Information and Computing Systems

Bio Inspired Models of Network  Information  and Computing Systems Book
Author : Junichi Suzuki,Tadashi Nakano
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2012-07-25
ISBN : 3642326153
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 5th International ICST Conference on Bio-Inspired Models of Network, Information, and Computing Systems (BIONETICS 2010) which was held in Boston, USA, in December 2010. The 78 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions for inclusion in the proceedings. BIONETICS 2010 aimed to provide the understanding of the fundamental principles and design strategies in biological systems and leverage those understandings to build bio-inspired systems.

Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling and Simulation

Advances in Applied Digital Human Modeling and Simulation Book
Author : Vincent G. Duffy
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-07-26
ISBN : 3319416278
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the predictive capabilities derived from digital representation of humans in simulation or virtual environments. It reports on models that facilitate prediction of safety and performance, and describes both innovative visualization techniques as well as the underlying mathematics and science. Contributions cover a wealth of topics, including simulation tools and platforms, virtual interactive design, model optimization methods, ontologies and knowledge-based decision support, human-computer interaction, human augmentation, and many others. The book gives special emphasis to cutting-edge simulation applications of human system modeling and optimization, including aviation, manufacturing and service industries, automotive design, product design, healthcare, sustainability, and emergency management. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Simulation, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, it is intended as timely survey for researchers, engineers, designers, applied mathematicians and practitioners working in the field of Human Factors and Ergonomics.

Social Cultural and Behavioral Modeling

Social  Cultural  and Behavioral Modeling Book
Author : Robert Thomson,Christopher Dancy,Ayaz Hyder,Halil Bisgin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-02
ISBN : 3319933728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Social, Cultural, and Behavioral Modeling, SBP-BRiMS 2018, held in Washington, DC, USA, in July 2018. The total of 27 short and 18 full papers presented in this volume was carefully reviewed and selected from 85 submissions. The contributions were organized in topical sections named: advances in sociocultural and behavioral process modeling; information, systems, and network science; applications for health and well-being; military and intelligence applications; cybersecurity.

Old Questions and Young Approaches to Animal Evolution

Old Questions and Young Approaches to Animal Evolution Book
Author : José M. Martín-Durán,Bruno C. Vellutini
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-22
ISBN : 3030182029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Animal evolution has always been at the core of Biology, but even today many fundamental questions remain open. The field of animal ‘evo-devo’ is leveraging recent technical and conceptual advances in development, paleontology, genomics and transcriptomics to propose radically different answers to traditional evolutionary controversies. This book is divided into four parts, each of which approaches animal evolution from a different perspective. The first part (chapters 2 and 3) investigates how new sources of evidence have changed conventional views of animal origins, while the second (chapters 4–8) addresses the connection between embryogenesis and evolution, and the genesis of cellular, tissue and morphological diversity. The third part (chapters 9 and 10) investigates how big data in molecular biology is transforming our understanding of the mechanisms governing morphological change in animals. In closing, the fourth part (chapters 11–13) explores new theoretical and conceptual approaches to animal evolution. ‘Old questions and young approaches to animal evolution’ offers a comprehensive and updated view of animal evolutionary biology that will serve both as a first step into this fascinating field for students and university educators, and as a review of complementary approaches for researchers.