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Model Ecosystems In Extreme Environments

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Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments

Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-29
ISBN : 0128127430
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Ecosystems in Extreme Environments, Second Edition examines ecosystems at the most extreme habitats and their interaction with the environment, providing a key element in our understanding of the role and function of microorganisms in nature. The book highlights current topics in the field, such as biodiversity and the structure of microbial communities in extreme environments, the effects of extreme environmental conditions on microbial ecosystems, and ecological and evolutionary interactions in extreme environments, among other topics. It will be a valuable text for faculty and students working with extremophiles and/or microbial ecology and researchers, including astrobiologists, biologists, evolutionary scientists, astronomers, geochemists and oceanographers. Explores, in detail, how microbial ecosystems thrive in extreme environments Highlights the relevance of extremophiles as model ecosystems to the study of microbial ecology Examines how extreme ecosystems can help our search for life on other planets

Fungi in Extreme Environments Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance

Fungi in Extreme Environments  Ecological Role and Biotechnological Significance Book
Author : Sonia M. Tiquia-Arashiro,Martin Grube
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-22
ISBN : 3030190307
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last decades, scientists have been intrigued by the fascinating organisms that inhabit extreme environments. These organisms, known as extremophiles, thrive in habitats which for other terrestrial life-forms are intolerably hostile or even lethal. Based on such technological advances, the study of extremophiles has provided, over the last few years, ground-breaking discoveries that challenge the paradigms of modern biology. In the new bioeconomy, fungi in general, play a very important role in addressing major global challenges, being instrumental for improved resource efficiency, making renewable substitutes for products from fossil resources, upgrading waste streams to valuable food and feed ingredients, counteracting life-style diseases and antibiotic resistance through strengthening the gut biota, making crop plants more robust to survive climate change conditions, and functioning as host organisms for production of new biological drugs. This range of new uses of fungi all stand on the shoulders of the efforts of mycologists over generations. The book is organized in five parts: (I) Biodiversity, Ecology, Genetics and Physiology of Extremophilic Fungi, (II) Biosynthesis of Novel Biomolecules and Extremozymes (III) Bioenergy and Biofuel synthesis, and (IV) Wastewater and biosolids treatment, and (V) Bioremediation.

Extremophile as Astrobiological Models

Extremophile as Astrobiological Models Book
Author : Joseph Seckbach,Helga Stan-Lotter
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-01-13
ISBN : 1119591686
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The data in this book are new or updated, and will serve also as Origin of Life and evolutionary studies. Endospores of bacteria have a long history of use as model organisms in astrobiology, including survival in extreme environments and interplanetary transfer of life. Numerous other bacteria as well as archaea, lichens, fungi, algae and tiny animals (tardigrades, or water bears) are now being investigated for their tolerance to extreme conditions in simulated or real space environments. Experimental results from exposure studies on the International Space Station and space probes for up to 1.5 years are presented and discussed. Suggestions for extaterrestrial energy sources are also indicated. Audience Researchers and graduate students in microbiology, biochemistry, molecular biology and astrobiology, as well as anyone interested in the search for extraterrestrial life and its technical preparations.

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Advances in Applied Microbiology Book
Author : Geoffrey M. Gadd,Sima Sariaslani
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-16
ISBN : 0128207108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 113, continues the comprehensive reach of this widely read and authoritative review source in microbiology. Users will find invaluable references and information on a variety of areas relating to the topic, with this release focusing on Gaps in the Assortment of Rapid Assays for Microorganisms of Interest to the Dairy Industry, Metal reduction and corrosion by bacterial biofilms, The microbiology of red brines, Clostridium thermocellum: a microbial platform for high-value chemical production from lignocellulose, and The zincophore system in pathogenic yeasts. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of microbiology Includes discussions on the role of specific molecules in pathogen life stages, interactions, and much more

Mars Geological Enigmas

Mars Geological Enigmas Book
Author : Richard Soare,Susan Conway,Jean-Pierre Williams,Dorothy Oehler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-23
ISBN : 0128202467
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mars Geological Enigmas: From the Late Noachian Epoch to the Present Day presents outstanding questions on the geology of Mars and divergent viewpoints based on varying interpretations and analyses. The result is a robust and comprehensive discussion that provides opportunities for planetary scientists to develop their own opinions and ways forward. Each theme opens with an introduction that includes background on the topic and lays out questions to be addressed. Alternate perspectives are covered for each topic, including methods, observations, analyses, and in-depth discussion of the conclusions. Chapters within each theme reference each other to facilitate comparison and deeper understanding of divergent opinions. Offers a transchronological view of the geological history of Mars, addressing thematic questions from a broad temporal perspective Discusses outstanding questions on Mars from diverging perspectives Includes key questions and answers, as well as a look ahead to which puzzles remain to be solved

Microbial Ecology of Extreme Environments

Microbial Ecology of Extreme Environments Book
Author : Caroline Chénard,Federico M. Lauro
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-15
ISBN : 3319516868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explores microbial lifestyles, biochemical adaptations, and trophic interactions occurring in extreme environments. By summarizing the latest findings in the field it provides a valuable reference for future studies. Spark ideas for biotechnological and commercial exploitation of microbiomes at the extremes of life are presented. Chapters on viruses complement this highly informative book. In a vertical journey through the microbial biosphere it covers aspects of cold environments, hot environments, extreme saline environments, and extreme pressure environments, and more. From the deep sea, through polar deserts, up to the clouds in the air - the diversity of microbial life in all habitats is described, explored, and comprehensively reviewed. Possible biotechnical applications are discussed. This book aims to provide a useful reference for those who want to start a research program in extreme microbiology and, hopefully, inspire new research directions.

Great Salt Lake Biology

Great Salt Lake Biology Book
Author : Bonnie K. Baxter,Jaimi K. Butler
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-03
ISBN : 3030403521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Great Salt Lake is an enormous terminal lake in the western United States. It is a highly productive ecosystem, which has global significance for millions of migrating birds who rely on this critical feeding station on their journey through the American west. For the human population in the adjacent metropolitan area, this body of water provides a significant economic resource as industries, such as brine shrimp harvesting and mineral extraction, generate jobs and income for the state of Utah. In addition, the lake provides the local population with ecosystem services, especially the creation of mountain snowpack that generates water supply, and the prevention of dust that may impair air quality. As a result of climate change and water diversions for consumptive uses, terminal lakes are shrinking worldwide, and this edited volume is written in this urgent context. This is the first book ever centered on Great Salt Lake biology. Current and novel data presented here paint a comprehensive picture, building on our past understanding and adding complexity. Together, the authors explore this saline lake from the microbial diversity to the invertebrates and the birds who eat them, along a dynamic salinity gradient with unique geochemistry. Some unusual perspectives are included, including the impact of tar seeps on the lake biology and why Great Salt Lake may help us search for life on Mars. Also, we consider the role of human perceptions and our effect on the biology of the lake. The editors made an effort to involve a diversity of experts on the Great Salt Lake system, but also to include unheard voices such as scientists at state agencies or non-profit advocacy organizations. This book is a timely discussion of a terminal lake that is significant, unique, and threatened.

Life in Extreme Environments

Life in Extreme Environments Book
Author : Guido di Prisco,Howell G. M. Edwards,Josef Elster,Ad H. L. Huiskes
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-09-30
ISBN : 1108580270
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From deep ocean trenches and the geographical poles to outer space, organisms can be found living in remarkably extreme conditions. This book provides a captivating account of these systems and their extraordinary inhabitants, 'extremophiles'. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of experts discuss responses and adaptations to change; biodiversity, bioenergetic processes, and biotic and abiotic interactions; polar environments; and life and habitability, including searching for biosignatures in the extraterrestrial environment. The editors emphasize that understanding these systems is important for increasing our knowledge and utilizing their potential, but this remains an understudied area. Given the threat to these environments and their biota caused by climate change and human impact, this timely book also addresses the urgency to document these systems. It will help graduate students and researchers in conservation, marine biology, evolutionary biology, environmental change and astrobiology better understand how life exists in these environments and their susceptibility or resilience to change.

In Search of Mycotopia

In Search of Mycotopia Book
Author : Doug Bierend
Publisher : Chelsea Green Publishing
Release : 2021-03-10
ISBN : 1603589805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The author’s sharp ear for dialogue imbues his word portraits with vivid detail. . . . Mushrooms are having a moment. [A] natural sequel for the many readers who enjoyed Merlin Sheldrake’s Entangled Life."—Library Journal "Comprehensive and enthusiastic . . . This fascinating, informative look into a unique subculture and the fungi at its center is a real treat." —Publishers Weekly "Nothing is impossible if you bring mushrooms into your life, and reading this book is a great way to begin your journey." —Tradd Cotter, author of Organic Mushroom Farming and Mycoremediation From ecology to fermentation, in pop culture and in medicine—mushrooms are everywhere. With an explorer’s eye, author Doug Bierend guides readers through the weird, wonderful world of fungi and the amazing modern mycological movement. In Search of Mycotopia introduces us to an incredible, essential, and oft-overlooked kingdom of life—fungi—and all the potential it holds for our future, through the work and research being done by an unforgettable community of mushroom-mad citizen scientists and microbe devotees. This entertaining and mind-expanding book will captivate readers who are curious about the hidden worlds and networks that make up our planet. Bierend uncovers a vanguard of mycologists; growers, independent researchers, ecologists, entrepreneurs, and amateur enthusiasts exploring and advocating for fungi’s capacity to improve and heal. From decontaminating landscapes and waterways to achieving food security, In Search of Mycotopia demonstrates how humans can work with fungi to better live with nature—and with one another.

Large Scale Ecology Model Systems to Global Perspectives

Large Scale Ecology  Model Systems to Global Perspectives Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-10-05
ISBN : 0128110953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Ecological Research is one of the most successful series in the highly competitive field of ecology. This thematic volume focuses on large scale ecology, publishing important reviews that contribute to our understanding of the field. Presents the most updated information on the field of large scale ecology, publishing topical and important reviews Provides all information that relates to a thorough understanding of the field Includes data on physiology, populations, and communities of plants and animals

Membrane based Hybrid Processes for Wastewater Treatment

Membrane based Hybrid Processes for Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-27
ISBN : 0128241888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membrane-Based Hybrid Processes for Wastewater Treatment analyzes and discusses the potential of membrane-based hybrid processes for the treatment of complex industrial wastewater, the recovery of valuable compounds, and water reutilization. In addition, recent and future trends in membrane technology are highlighted. Industrial wastewater contains a large variety of compounds, such as heavy metals, salts and nutrients, which makes its treatment challenging. Thus, the use of conventional water treatment methods is not always effective. Membrane-based hybrid processes have emerged as a promising technology to treat complex industrial wastewater. Discusses the properties, mechanisms, advantages, limitations and promising solutions of different types of membrane technologies Addresses the optimization of process parameters Describes the performance of different membranes Presents the potential of Nanotechnology to improve the treatment efficiency of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Covers the application of membrane and membrane-based hybrid treatment technologies for wastewater treatment Includes forward osmosis, electrodialysis, and diffusion dialysis Considers hybrid membrane systems expanded to cover zero liquid discharge, salt recovery, and removal of trace contaminants

Microbial Ecosystems in Central Andes Extreme Environments

Microbial Ecosystems in Central Andes Extreme Environments Book
Author : María Eugenia Farías
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-27
ISBN : 3030361926
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Central Andean Altiplane represents a unique extreme environment due to its high altitude, closed basins that modulate the salt pans and saline wetlands surrounded by deserts, as well as the considerable influence of volcanic activity. UV radiation, arsenic content, high salinity, alkalinity and low dissolved oxygen levels, together with extreme daily temperature fluctuations and oligotrophic conditions, shape an environment that resembles the early Earth and, even more, extraterrestrial conditions. By developing simple biofilms stratified microbial mats or complex microbialites, extreme microbial ecosystems, colonize and thrived in different environments like salt flats, wetlands, lakes volcano vents, geysers and deserts. This book presents our current understanding of these amazing ecosystems, providing a basis for their protection and sustainable utilization. The main audience for this book included researchers and graduate students as well as professionals working in the government, mining industry and similar activities.

Thermophilic and Halophilic Extremophiles in Eurasian Environments

Thermophilic and Halophilic Extremophiles in Eurasian Environments Book
Author : Hongchen Jiang,Wen-Jun Li,Nils-Kaare Birkeland,Dilfuza Egamberdieva
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-05-17
ISBN : 2889458350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The eBook is the product of a partnership between the Norwegian Eurasia Program and the China Silk Road Program. At the present, our knowledge on microbiology and biogeochemistry from Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems is limited. Such information is essential to the field and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of microbial metabolic pathways and functions involved in biogeochemical processes in extreme ecosystems. This eBook includes a series of recent progress in microbial diversity, ecological functions, and biogeochemistry in Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems with the use of next generation sequencing, omics technologies and interdisciplinary collaboration. We hope that this eBook would serve as a model for international cooperation and as a source of inspiration for more achievements in Eurasian (hyper)saline and thermal ecosystems in the future. The complete list of authors and co-authors includes 68 highly-qualified specialists from 9 countries. All chapters in the eBook were edited by authoritative experts. We would like to emphasize the great goodwill, esteem and cooperation extended to each other among the authors, reviewers and editors who contributed to the successful completion of this eBook.

Life at Extremes

Life at Extremes Book
Author : Elanor Bell
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1845938143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From arid deserts to icy poles, outer space to the depths of the sea, this exciting new work studies the remarkable life forms that have made these inhospitable environments their home. Covering not only micro-organisms, but also higher plants and animals such as worms, fish and polar plants, this book details the ecological, biological and biogeochemical challenges these organisms face and unifying themes between environments. Equally useful for the expert, student and casual scientific reader, this book also explores the impact of climate change, rapid seasonal changes and pollution on these extraordinary creatures.

Risk in Extreme Environments

Risk in Extreme Environments Book
Author : Vicki M. Bier
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-10-19
ISBN : 131702995X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Risk in Extreme Environments presents a wide-ranging discussion of approaches for assessing and managing extreme risks. Extreme events are not only severe, but also outside the normal range of experience of the system in question, and can include environmental catastrophe; engineering failure; financial or business meltdown; and nuclear or other extreme terrorism. The book focuses on synthesizing research results in a way that provides insights useful to decision makers, and enables them to ask probing questions about the risks faced by their organizations, identify creative solutions, and minimize the neglect of extreme risks that can come from a focus on mundane or ordinary management challenges. The book details case studies on nuclear power, infectious diseases, and global catastrophic risks, in addition to sections on risk assessment, risk management, and risk perceptions. Since effective management benefits from an interdisciplinary perspective, the chapter authors include experts in economics, engineering, geography, law, political science, psychology, sociology, and science in addition to risk analysis. Risk in Extreme Environments is an accessible and valuable resource for risk managers and other decision makers responsible for large complex business and government decisions, while also providing enough detail and references to be informative for risk analysts interested in learning more about technical aspects of the various methods.

Microbial Diversity in the Genomic Era

Microbial Diversity in the Genomic Era Book
Author : Surajit Das,Hirak Ranjan Dash
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09-20
ISBN : 0128148500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial Diversity in the Genomic Era presents insights on the techniques used for microbial taxonomy and phylogeny, along with their applications and respective pros and cons. Though many advanced techniques for the identification of any unknown bacterium are available in the genomics era, a far fewer number of the total microbial species have been discovered and identified to date. The assessment of microbial taxonomy and biosystematics techniques discovered and practiced in the current genomics era with suitable recommendations is the prime focus of this book. Discusses the techniques used for microbial taxonomy and phylogeny with their applications and respective pros and cons Reviews the evolving field of bacterial typing and the genomic technologies that enable comparative analysis of multiple genomes and the metagenomes of complex microbial environments Provides a uniform, standard methodology for species designation

Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions

Microbial Evolution under Extreme Conditions Book
Author : Corien Bakermans
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2015-03-10
ISBN : 3110340712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Today's microorganisms represent the vast majority of biodiversity on Earth and have survived nearly 4 billion years of evolutionary change. However, we still know little about the processes of evolution as applied to microorganisms and microbial populations. Microbial evolution occurred and continues to take place in a vast variety of environmental conditions that range from anoxic to oxic, from hot to cold, from free-living to symbiotic, etc. Some of these physicochemical conditions are considered "extreme", particularly when inhabitants are limited to microorganisms. It is easy to imagine that microbial life in extreme environments is somehow more constrained and perhaps subjected to different evolutionary pressures. But what do we actually know about microbial evolution under extreme conditions and how can we apply that knowledge to other conditions? Appealingly, extreme environments with their relatively limited numbers of inhabitants can serve as good model systems for the study of evolutionary processes. A look at the microbial inhabitants of today's extreme environments provides a snapshot in time of evolution and adaptation to extreme conditions. These adaptations manifest at different levels from established communities and species to genome content and changes in specific genes that result in altered function or gene expression. But as a recent (2011) report from the American Academy of Microbiology observes: "A complex issue in the study of microbial evolution is unraveling the process of evolution from that of adaptation. In many cases, microbes have the capacity to adapt to various environmental changes by changing gene expression or community composition as opposed to having to evolve entirely new capabilities." We have learned much about how microbes are adapted to extreme conditions but relatively little is known about these adaptations evolved. How did the different processes of evolution such as mutation, immigration, horizontal (lateral) gene transfer, recombination, hybridization, genetic drift, fixation, positive and negative selection, and selective screens contribute to the evolution of these genes, genomes, microbial species, communities, and functions? What are typical rates of these processes? How prevalent are each of these processes under different conditions? This book explores the current state of knowledge about microbial evolution under extreme conditions and addresses the following questions: What is known about the processes of microbial evolution (mechanisms, rates, etc.) under extreme conditions? Can this knowledge be applied to other systems and what is the broader relevance? What remains unknown and requires future research? These questions will be addressed from several perspectives including different extreme environments, specific organisms, and specific evolutionary processes.

Coping With Extreme Environments A Physiological Psychological Approach

Coping With Extreme Environments  A Physiological Psychological Approach Book
Author : Costantino Balestra,Jacek Kot,Shai Efrati,François Guerrero,Jean-Eric Blatteau,Stéphane Besnard
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-06-25
ISBN : 2889457400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding how humans cope in extreme environments has expanded our knowledge of the physiological and psychological challenges involved and helped us to quit our comfortable paradigms built on “steady states”. Furthermore, measuring our reactions to intermittent stressors and determining the oscillations of our coping mechanisms has led us to unexpected understandings. This methodology has also directly improved our translational or multidisciplinary approach to the subject. Studying healthy individuals in extreme environments could improve our understanding of patients with impaired physiological capacities (who are coping with an environment that becomes extreme to them) and also improve our understanding of physiology and psychology in the elderly.This eBook collects articles that address this translational multidisciplinary approach in an integrative way. As a whole, this Research Topic aims to better understand human/animal physiology and psychology.

Strategies of Microbial Life in Extreme Environments

Strategies of Microbial Life in Extreme Environments Book
Author : Moshe Shilo,Peter Hirsch
Publisher : Wiley-VCH
Release : 1979
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Strategies of Microbial Life in Extreme Environments book written by Moshe Shilo,Peter Hirsch, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Extreme Environments

Extreme Environments Book
Author : Milton R. Heinrich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483271633
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Extreme Environments: Mechanisms of Microbial Adaptation is a collection of papers presented at the symposium on Extreme Environments: Mechanisms of Microbial Adaptation, held at Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California in June 1974. The meeting emphasizes research work leading to an understanding of the molecular mechanisms that allow the organism to survive extreme environments. The book presents lectures and papers on the general aspects of microbial adaptation; effects of temperature and high salt concentration on the various steps in information transfer; and on microbial enzymes. Effects of temperature, salt, and pressure on membrane structure and function are analyzed as well. The book will be of interest to biologists, microbiologists, biochemists, zoologists, and students of life sciences.