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Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : A. Kleber,B. Terhorst
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079444
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cover beds form a rather uniform veil of most slopes in Central Europe and, most likely, all over the mid-latitudes. Accordingly, their properties are of utmost importance for the formation of soils, for slope hydrology, and for slope dynamics. More research is, however, needed, as there is still insufficient information on the properties of cover-bed successions reaching deeper than 1 m, and there are still many areas where cover beds have not yet been studied at all. The potential use of cover beds for paleoenvironmental reconstructions is also still limited by the unsatisfactory techniques that are currently available for their numerical dating. Furthermore, better techniques for modeling the distribution and the properties of cover beds are required to forecast their influence on flooding events.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : B. Damm,B. Terhorst,F. Ottner
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 012807941X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The occurrence and spatial distribution of cover beds are decisive for modern hillslope morphodynamics. This aspect is strongly associated with the geotechnical properties of cover beds and especially with their anisotropy. The impact of periglacial cover beds on mass movements, in particular landslides in subdued mountains, will be discussed in this section. The case studies in this chapter show that soil-physical and soil-mechanical properties significantly influence the forces in periglacial cover beds and, thus, directly control the slope stability. In contrast to long-lasting stable geomorphological factors, the reduction of shear strength, friction angle, and cohesion as well as the deformability may induce abrupt instability. Abrupt instabilities in periglacial cover beds particularly arise, when the soil-water content increases and, consequently, both the pore water and the hydrostatic pressures rise. In particular, we show that landslides to a large extent occur in hillslope sediments which are weakly consolidated and sensitive to water penetration.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : K.-M. Moldenhauer,K. Heller,P. Chifflard,R. Hübner,A. Kleber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079401
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Numerous case studies carried out in the subdued mountains of Germany during the last decades have revealed that periglacial cover beds play a decisive role in hillslope hydrology. Considering the omnipresence of cover beds in sloped terrain of the mid-latitudes, knowledge of slope-water paths is crucial not only for flood forecast but also for understanding how contaminants pass through ecosystems. Since periglacial cover beds are usually composed of different sedimentary layers, they show a high spatial variability of physical soil parameters, which are, in turn, responsible for small-scale variations of the hydraulic properties. Regardless of bedrock type, the observations reported in this chapter from different regions lead to the conclusion that there is a clear relationship between subsurface layering and runoff-generation processes. The hydraulic anisotropic structure of the deepest (basal) layer is the major factor controlling subsurface water-flow paths. On one hand, this layer acts as an aquitard for seeping water because of its high bulk density. On the other hand, once water has percolated into this layer, it is able to flow in lateral directions because of the coarse clasts oriented parallel to the slope. Therefore, such a cover bed may be treated neither as an aquifer nor as an aquiclude. Besides, as a function of pre-moisture, a nonlinear runoff response to precipitation or snow-melt of the investigated catchments was identified.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : A. Kleber,B. Terhorst
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Slope deposits that formed by unconcentrated dislocation and that cover slopes in a rather uniform way are referred to as “cover beds” in this book. They consist of materials from upslope but may contain admixed eolian matter. They are commonly multilayered with the individual layers separated by disconformities (lithological discontinuities). The main scope of this book is to provide a comprehensive state of the art of this particular type of slope deposits in the mid-latitudes. Being a major component of the near-surface ground, cover beds should be included as an integral part into the so-called critical-zone concept and may partially replace the existing “biomantle concept” for the mid-latitudes.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : A. Kleber,M. Leopold,C. Vonlanthen,J. Völkel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Slope deposits, which veil entire slopes or large parts of them in a rather uniform manner (cover beds), are ubiquitous in the subdued mountains of Central Europe (e.g., ). Here, we show that successions of cover beds are not restricted to this area but occur in many other regions of rather different natural inventories, such as the European Alps, the Russian Plain, south-central Turkey, and the western USA (Great Basin and Rocky Mountains). Cover beds usually form sequences of two or more distinct layers, and their distribution depends on the geomorphic, climate-driven processes of their formation. As they influence pedogenesis, they contribute to the understanding of soil properties and soil distribution: horizon boundaries occur at depths where cover-bed properties change. The properties of the layers and of the soils developed in them are different per region: in humid areas layers free of admixed loess components, thus being solely influenced by weathered local materials, are frequent, whereas in dry regions such layers have not yet been reported. In several areas studied in this chapter, paleosols either occur within cover-bed successions or have been reallocated and incorporated into the cover beds. This provides handles to the ages of layers. The layer successions slowly change with elevation but show a drastic break at around the timberline where Holocene rather than Pleistocene periglacial slope processes gained supremacy.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0080932193
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Slope deposits are common in any inclined relief. So-called cover beds may veil entire landscapes, in which case they are commonly overlooked or confused with soil horizons. This book focuses on these widespread deposits and discusses their properties, genesis, and age mainly in subdued mountains of Central Europe, where to date most research on the matter has been conducted. The ecological consequences of such slope deposits on soils, slope water dynamics, and slope failures are addressed. Finally, transfer of the cover-bed concept to other mid-latitude regions is attempted for the reconstruction of landscape evolution. This unique compilation, covering several decades of a facies-oriented approach to slope-deposit research, delivers deep insight into the wide field of research on cover beds and encourages researchers all over the world to take an in-depth look at the critical zone as to its possible stratified nature. Unique compilation of several decades of slope-deposit research Facies-oriented approach Addresses ecological consequences on soils, slope water dynamics, and slope failures

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : A. Kleber,B. Terhorst,H. Bullmann,D. Hülle,M. Leopold,S. Müller,T. Raab,D. Sauer,T. Scholten,M. Dietze,P. Felix-Henningsen,J. Heinrich,E.-D. Spies,H. Thiemeyer
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 012807938X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Slope deposits, which veil entire slopes or large parts of them in a rather uniform manner (cover beds), are ubiquitous in the subdued mountains of Central Europe. Here we provide an overview of the current state of knowledge on these deposits. The Central European cover beds are divided into (1) the upper layer that is ubiquitously distributed and displays a relatively constant thickness; (2) the intermediate layer the distribution of which is mainly restricted to flat relief, to slope depressions, and to lee-ward facing slopes; and (3) the basal layer, which is rather widespread again. Both the upper and intermediate layer contain intermixed loess, whereas the basal layer is free of loess and typically has a high bulk density. Aside from the loess content, the composition of the layers differs, reflecting varying portions of crushed and chemically weathered rock allocated from up-slope. This causes notable diversity depending on bedrock and, thus, induces remarkable regional differences. Cover beds were mainly formed by periglacial gelifluction. The upper layer formed in the Late Glacial possibly during several short episodes of activity. In contrast, the underlying layers may be diachronous; nevertheless, they display recurring vertical sequences. This is probably due to the fact that loess-free layers usually could not deposit as long as there was loess in the environs, which may have been inherited from older deposits. Thus, the last phase of surface wash, during which older loess was removed, determines the age of the lower layers.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : B. Terhorst,A. Kleber,E. Bibus
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079436
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cover beds are usually not regarded of use for relative dating. The examples discussed in this chapter demonstrate otherwise. Central European cover beds usually are of Pleistocene age, and they can be utilized for distinguishing older landforms, such as slope failures, covered by one or more cover beds, from those which are not covered by periglacial deposits. In the western USA, where intervening soil-forming episodes provide a stratigraphic framework for such deposits, the stratigraphic value of cover-bed and soil successions is tested on various types of landforms. However, dating landforms relatively by overlying cover beds calls for due consideration of erosion-induced hiatuses and of tectonically induced processes out of phase with those driven by climate.

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits Cover Beds

Mid Latitude Slope Deposits  Cover Beds  Book
Author : C. Lorz,M. Frühauf,R. Mailänder,J.D. Phillips,A. Kleber
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-26
ISBN : 0128079398
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The genesis of soils has been seen mostly as an autochthonistic process, that is, formation in situ. However, soil geomorphologists have recognized addition and loss of materials, for example, through eolian and colluvial processes, as a major contribution to allochthonistic soil formation. The most important characteristic of these soils is the lithological discontinuity, which separates the lower residual material from the upper allochthonic soil. The chapter deals with (1) developing a model joining the ideas of in situ formation and near-surface processes such as adding or removing material, (2) the pedogenetic processes in soils with lithological discontinuities, and (3) the effect of lithological discontinuities on physical and chemical properties of soils.

Sedimentary Environments

Sedimentary Environments Book
Author : Harold G. Reading
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-07-15
ISBN : 144431369X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sedimentary Environments is one of the most distinguished and influential textbooks in the earth sciences published in the last 20 years. The first and second editions both won universal praise and became classic works in sedimentology. Since the publication of the last edition, the study of sedimentary environments and facies has made great strides, with major advances in facies modelling, sequence stratigraphy and basin modelling. The 3rd edition of this classic text will likely set the benchmark even higher, and needless to say, will continue being the textbook of choice for sedimentology students. The latest edition of a classic text. Incorporates all the latest advances in dynamic stratigraphy. Will remain the textbook of choice for upper level undergraduate and graduate students in sedimentology.

Trench forearc Geology

Trench forearc Geology Book
Author : Jeremy K. Leggett
Publisher : Wiley-Blackwell
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Trench forearc Geology book written by Jeremy K. Leggett, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Periglacial Environment

The Periglacial Environment Book
Author : Hugh M. French
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-10-27
ISBN : 1119132797
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Periglacial Environment, Fourth Edition, is an authoritative overview of the world’s cold, non-glacial environments. First published in 1976 and subsequently revised in 1996 and 2007, the text has been the international standard for nearly 40 years. The Fourth Edition continues to be a personal interpretation of the frost-induced conditions, geomorphic processes and landforms that characterize periglacial environments. Part One discusses the periglacial concept and describes the typical climates and ecosystems that are involved. Part Two describes the geocryology (permafrost science) associated with frozen ground. Part Three outlines the weathering and geomorphic processes associated with cold-climate conditions. Part Four provides insight into the periglacial environments of the Quaternary, especially the Late Pleistocene. Part Five describes some of the problems associated with human occupancy in regions that experience frozen ground and cold-climate conditions. Extensively revised and updated Written by an expert with over 50 years of field research Draws upon the author’s personal experience from Northern Canada, Alaska, Siberia, Tibet, Antarctica, Svalbard, Scandinavia, southern South America, Western Europe and eastern North America This book is an invaluable reference for advanced undergraduates in geography, geology, earth sciences and environmental sciences programs, and to resource managers and geotechnical engineers interested in cold regions.

Abstracts

Abstracts Book
Author : International Union for Quaternary Research. Congress
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Abstracts book written by International Union for Quaternary Research. Congress, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sagalassos V

Sagalassos V Book
Author : Marc Waelkens,Lieven Loots
Publisher : Leuven University Press
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9789058670793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sagalassos V book written by Marc Waelkens,Lieven Loots, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Quaternary of Virginia

The Quaternary of Virginia Book
Author : Virginia. Division of Mineral Resources
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1986
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Quaternary of Virginia book written by Virginia. Division of Mineral Resources, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Mediterranean Cold Water Corals Past Present and Future

Mediterranean Cold Water Corals  Past  Present and Future Book
Author : Covadonga Orejas,Carlos Jiménez
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-10
ISBN : 3319916084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What do we know about Mediterranean Cold (Deep)-Water coral ecosystems? In this book, specialists offer answers and insights with a series of chapters and short papers about the paleoecology, biology, physiology and ecology of the corals and other organisms that comprise these ecosystems. Structured on a temporal axis—Past, Present and Future—the reviews and selected study cases cover the cold and deep coral habitats known to date in the Mediterranean Basin. This book illustrates and explains the deep Mediterranean coral habitats that might have originated similar thriving ecosystems in today’s Atlantic Ocean.

High Resolution Archaeology and Neanderthal Behavior

High Resolution Archaeology and Neanderthal Behavior Book
Author : Eudald Carbonell i Roura
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-03-13
ISBN : 9400739222
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this book is to provide a new insight on Neanderthal behaviour using the data recovered in level J of Romaní rockshelter (north-eastern Spain). Due to the sedimentary dynamics that formed the Romaní deposit, the occupation layers are characterized by a high temporal resolution, which makes it easier to interprete the archaeological data in behavioural terms. In addition, the different analytical domains (geoarchaeology, lithic technology, zooarchaeology, taphonomy, anthracology, palaeontology) are addressed from a spatial perspective that is basic to understand human behaviour, but also to evaluate the behavioural inferences in the framework of the archaeological formation processes.​

Geoarchaeology

Geoarchaeology Book
Author : George Robert Rapp,Christopher L. Hill,Rapp,MR Christopher L Hill
Publisher : Yale University Press
Release : 2006-01-01
ISBN : 9780300109665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Considering the history and theory of geoarchaeology, this book discusses soils and environmental interpretations; initial context and site formation; methods of discovery and spatial analyses; estimating time; and others. It is for all professionals and students interested in the field of geoarchaeology

Stratigraphic Architecture and Eustatic Setting of Slope Grainstones Associated with Peak Icehouse Conditions

Stratigraphic Architecture and Eustatic Setting of Slope Grainstones Associated with Peak Icehouse Conditions Book
Author : Joseph Assaad El-Azzi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-latitude Gondwanan glaciation is widely recognized during Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian (Wolfcampian) time. Accompanying high-amplitude glacioeustatic fluctuations (up to120m) have been documented from North American midcontinent cyclothems and southwestern shelf-margin carbonates. Complex stratal architectures and facies juxtapositions are commonly associated with such settings. Autochthonous lowstand prograding wedge deposits of shallow shelf origin can generate stratal architectures that superficially resemble those of deeper water allochthonous slope facies. This study uses outcrop data collected from the Southern Outlier of the Hueco Mountains to provide documentation of deposit types and architectures observed on a platform margin and slope setting. Data collected for this study include traditional measured section, hand sample, and petrographic thin section analysis. Ten detailed measured sections were logged and surveyed with RTK-GPS in order to allow integration with ground-based LIDAR data. Key sequence stratigraphic surfaces and geobody boundaries were mapped on photomosaics and spatially constrained using RTK-GPS and later are integrated into a geo-referenced LIDAR pointcloud dataset. A 3D geocellular model was constructed using upper and lower bounding surfaces to define zones and subsequently the LIDAR points with assigned facies attributes were used to distribute facies within the cells of each of the defined zones. A constructed depositional model reveals five depositional environments 1) toe of slope to basin, 2) lower slope, 3) middle slope, 4) upper slope and 5) platform edge. Mud-dominated fabrics compose much of the lower slope to basin environments represented by low-energy fine-grained gravity settling deposits. Intermittent grain-dominated fabrics in form of turbidites are deposited within the lower slope. Matrix-supported lithoclastic debris flow type deposits form backfilling aprons on the middle slope. Grain-dominated grain flows develop stacked shingled wedges within the middle slope. Karsted breccias mark a depositional hiatus formed by subaerial exposure and siginifcant erosion on the slope. Boundstone fabrics within tabular and mounded algal buildups mark the platform edge environments. These superimposed deposits are interpreted to record an overall regression from the toe-of-slope to the middle slope capped by a subaerially exposed surface marking a depositional hiatus followed by a transgression to the platform margin.

Late Quaternary Environmental Change

Late Quaternary Environmental Change Book
Author : Martin Bell,M.J.C. Walker
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-07-10
ISBN : 1317904796
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Late Quaternary Environmental Change addresses the interaction between human agency and other environmental factors in the landscapes, particularly of the temperate zone. Taking an ecological approach, the authors cover the last 20,000 years during which the climate has shifted from arctic severity to the conditions of the present interglacial environment.