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Micrornas And Epigenetic Regulation

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Epigenetics and Cancer

Epigenetics and Cancer Book
Author : Fazlul H. Sarkar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-29
ISBN : 9400766122
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Overall, this book illustrates the complexities of the regulation and deregulation of genes mediated through epigenetics in the development and progression of human malignancies. All the articles have been carefully chosen to represent several cancer systems with state of our knowledge on the role of epigenetic deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target mRNAs along with epigenetic deregulation of mRNAs. This book also illustrates the role of several dietary agents, collectively called nutraceuticals or natural agents in modulating the epigenetic reprogramming of miRNAs and mRNAs for the prevention and/or treatment of human malignancies. It is well known that genetic aberrations, especially inherited through parents (somatic genetic alterations) contribute to the development of less than 10% of all cancer yet epigenetic alterations in genes especially through selective methylation and acetylation appears to be responsible for the development and progression of the vast majority of all cancers. Therefore, understanding the role of epigenetics in the regulation of genes especially through deregulated expression of miRNAs as presented in this book will allow scientists to devise targeted therapeutic strategies for re-expression of the lost genes or down-regulate the genes that are over-expressed in order to eradicate cancer. It is hoped that targeting epigenetics will not only target cancer cells but it will also target the tumor microenvironment (more like the entire tumor environment such as the entire host) for achieving better treatment outcomes for patients diagnosed with cancer which will lead to achieve the long-term objective for complete eradication of cancer. This book contains fifteen chapters which begins with the concept of systems and network biology for investigating the epigenetics of cancer followed by a series of articles on the role of miRNAs and their target genes in the biology of pancreatic cancer and other cancers such as breast, kidney, prostate and and colon. Since it is becoming increasingly clear that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are important in the development and progression of cancer, and CSCs are important in therapeutic resistance, treatment failure and tumor recurrence, thus the importance of CSCs and epigenetics has been highlighted by a very timely article on epigenetic variations of stem cell markers in cancer including miRNAs. Moreover, just targeting heterogeneous cancer cell populations may not be optimal to eradicate tumors and for which one must take a holistic approach for developing drugs that could also target the tumor microenvironment and tumor dormancy that are regulated through epigenetics. Keeping abreast with this thought process the concluding chapter provides a concept towards curative cancer therapy with maspin, which could be a unique window of opportunity to target tumor dormancy. Therefore, it suggest that targeting the tumor dormancy and the tumor microenvironment using novel therapeutics specifically by targeting epigenetics would become the future of medicine.

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell

Alterations of Epigenetics and MicroRNAs in Cancer and Cancer Stem Cell Book
Author : Yoshimasa Saito
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 2889193454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Studies have shown that alterations of epigenetics and microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the initiation and progression of human cancer. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in cancer cells is generally mediated by DNA hypermethylation of CpG island promoter and histone modification such as methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and tri-methylation of H3K27. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of various target genes. Specific miRNAs are aberrantly expressed and play roles as tumor suppressors or oncogenes during carcinogenesis. Important tumor suppressor miRNAs are silenced by epigenetic alterations, resulting in activation of target oncogenes in human malignancies. Stem cells have the ability to perpetuate themselves through self-renewal and to generate mature cells of various tissues through differentiation. Accumulating evidence suggests that a subpopulation of cancer cells with distinct stem-like properties is responsible for tumor initiation, invasive growth, and metastasis formation, which is defined as cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are considered to be resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, suggesting that these cells are important targets of cancer therapy. DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNAs may be deeply involved in stem-like properties in cancer cells. Restoring the expression of tumor suppressor genes and miRNAs by chromatin modifying drugs may be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer stem cells. In this Research Topic, we discuss about alterations of epigenetics and miRNAs in cancer and cancer stem cell and understand the molecular mechanism underlying the formation of cancer stem cell, which may provide a novel insight for treatment of refractory cancer.

Epigenetic Shaping of Sociosexual Interactions From Plants to Humans

Epigenetic Shaping of Sociosexual Interactions  From Plants to Humans Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-08-22
ISBN : 0128003332
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Shaping of Sociosexual Interactions: From Plants to Humans is the first attempt to interpret the higher social functions of organisms. This volume covers an extraordinarily wide range of biological research and provides a novel framework for understanding human-specific brain functions. Covers an extraordinarily wide range of biological research Provides a novel framework for understanding human-specific brain functions.

Plant Epigenetics

Plant Epigenetics Book
Author : Nikolaus Rajewsky,Stefan Jurga,Jan Barciszewski
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-04-27
ISBN : 3319555200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents, in 26 chapters, the status quo in epigenomic profiling. It discusses how functional information can be indirectly inferred and describes the new approaches that promise functional answers, collectively referred to as epigenome editing. It highlights the latest important advances in our understanding of the functions of plant epigenomics and new technologies for the study of epigenomic marks and mechanisms in plants. Topics include the deposition or removal of chromatin modifications and histone variants, the role of epigenetics in development and response to environmental signals, natural variation and ecology, as well as applications for epigenetics in crop improvement. Discussing areas ranging from the complex regulation of stress and heterosis to the precise mechanisms of DNA and histone modifications, it presents breakthroughs in our understanding of complex phenotypic phenomena.

Epigenetics of B Cells and Antibody Responses

Epigenetics of B Cells and Antibody Responses Book
Author : Paolo Casali
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-04-12
ISBN : 2889197905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene activity that are heritable but not caused by changes in the DNA sequence. By modulating gene activities, epigenetic changes regulate cell functions. They include DNA methylation, histone posttranslational modifications and gene silencing by the action of non-coding RNAs, particularly microRNAs. It is now clear that epigenetic changes regulate B cell development. By acting in concert with networks of transcription factors, they modulate the activation of B cell lineage specific gene programs and repress inappropriate gene transcription in particular B cell differentiation states.

A hallmark of B cell development in the bone marrow is the assembly of the B cell receptor (BCR) for antigen through rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy (IgH) and light (IgL) chain V(D)J genes, as mediated by RAG1/RAG2 recombinases. Ig V(D)J rearrangement critically times the progression from pro-B cell to pre-B cell and, finally, mature B cell. Such progression is modulated by epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, that increase chromatin accessibility and target RAG/RAG2 to V, D and J DNA. It is also dependent on the expression of multiple microRNAs. Mice deficient in Ago2, which is essential for microRNA biogenesis and function, have B cell development blocked at the pro-B cell stage. In agreement with this, B cell specific ablation of microRNA by B cell-specific knockout of Dicer virtually blocks B cell differentiation at the pro-B to pre-B cell transition.

After mature B cells encounter antigen, changes of the epigenetic landscape are induced by the same stimuli that drive the antibody response; such epigenetic changes underpin the maturation of the antibody response itself. They instruct those B cell differentiation processes, somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and plasma cell differentiation, that are central to the maturation of the antibody response as well as differentiation of memory B cells. Inducible histone modifications, together with DNA methylation and microRNAs modulate the transcriptome, particularly the expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), central to SHM and CSR, and B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), which is central to plasma cell differentiation.

Combinatorial histone modifications also function as histone codes in the targeting of the CSR and, possibly, the SHM machinery to the Ig locus by recruiting specific adaptors (histone code readers) that can in turn target and/or stabilize CSR/SHM factors. Epigenetic alterations in memory B cells contribute to their functionally distinction from their naive counterparts. Memory B cells inherit epigenetic information from their precursors and acquire new epigenetic marks, which make these resting B cells poised to promptly respond to antigen. The cross/feedback regulation of different epigenetic modifications/elements further increases the complexity of the B cell epigenome, which interacts with the genetic information for precise modulation of gene expression. It is increasingly evident that epigenetic dysregulation in B cells, including aberrant expression of microRNAs, can result in aberrant antibody responses to microbial pathogens, emergence of pathogenic autoantibodies or B cell neoplastic transformation. Epigenetic marks are potential targets for new therapeutics in autoimmunity and B cell malignancy.

RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression

RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression Book
Author : Kevin V. Morris
Publisher : Horizon Scientific Press
Release : 2008
ISBN : 1904455255
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The role of RNA in regulating gene expression has become a topic of intense interest. In this book, internationally recognized experts in RNA research explore and discuss the methods whereby RNA can regulate gene expression with examples in yeast, Drosophila, mammals, and viral infection, as well as highlight the application of this knowledge in therapeutics and research. Topics include: gene silencing and gene activation, the hammerhead ribozyme, epigenetic regulation, RNAi, microRNA, and pyknons. This comprehensive publication is intended for readers with teaching or research interests in RNA, the regulation of gene expression, genetics, genomics, and molecular biology.

Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology

Recent Advances of Epigenetics in Crop Biotechnology Book
Author : Clelia De-la-Peña,Raúl Alvarez-Venegas,Christopher Cullis
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-05-31
ISBN : 2889198545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is a new field that explains gene expression at the chromatin structure and organization level. Three principal epigenetic mechanisms are known and hundreds of combinations among them can develop different phenotypic characteristics. DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs have been identified, and their functions are being studied in order to understand the mechanisms of interaction and regulation among the different biological processes in plants. Although, fundamental epigenetic mechanisms in crop plants are beginning to be elucidated, the comprehension of the different epigenetic mechanisms, by which plant gene regulation and phenotype are modified, is a major topic to develop in the near future in order to increase crop productivity. Thus, the importance of epigenetics in improving crop productivity is undoubtedly growing. Current research on epigenetics suggest that DNA methylation, histone modifications and small RNAs are involved in almost every aspect of plant life including agronomically important traits such as flowering time, fruit development, responses to environmental factors, defense response and plant growth. The aim of this Research Topic is to explore the recent advances concerning the role of epigenetics in crop biotechnology, as well as to enhance and promote interactions among high quality researchers from different disciplines such as genetics, cell biology, pathology, microbiology, and evolutionary biology in order to join forces and decipher the epigenetic mechanisms in crop productivity.

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-29
ISBN : 0128140712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain, Volume Nine, presents comprehensive information on the role of epigenetics in chronic pain sensitivity, providing a detailed, but accessible, view of the field from basic principles, to clinical application. Leading international researchers discuss essential mechanisms of chronic pain epigenetics, including the molecular processes of chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and the microRNAs and noncoding RNAs involved in regulating genes tied to pain sensitivity. The influence of epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral and other pain models is examined, with data derived from epigenetic studies on peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitivity in animal models and clinical cases studies. The studies and case examples cited highlight therapeutic pathways of significance and next steps for researchers to develop epigenetic-based treatments for chronic pain. In recent years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to play a central role in managing human pain sensitivity. Findings show that expression of many genes critical to increases or decreases in pain sensitivity are indeed regulated by DNA methylation and its enzymes, histone-involved chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs. Compiles all known information on epigenetic regulation of chronic pain in one volume Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in pain management, applications of recent research in understanding different types of chronic pain, and pathways for developing therapeutics Leading international researchers from across academia, clinical settings, and the pharmaceutical industry discuss epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral, and other pain models in-depth Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to better understand and treat chronic pain

Epigenetic Regulation of Steroid Inactivating UDP glucuronosyltransferases by MicroRNAs in Prostate Cancer

Epigenetic Regulation of Steroid Inactivating UDP glucuronosyltransferases by MicroRNAs in Prostate Cancer Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2016
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Highlights: UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 enzymes are involved in androgen inactivation in cancer cells. miR-376c represses UGT expression and DHT inactivation in prostate cancer cells. miR-376c is inversely linked to UGT2B15/17 in high-grade disease and in metastasis. Abstract: Androgens play a central role in prostate cancer progression. Systemic and local androgen bioavailability is controlled by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases conjugating enzymes (UGT), namely UGT2B15, UGT2B17 and UGT2B28. Reporter vector assays in HEK293 cells initially validated in silico- predicted regulatory potential of candidate miRNAs to target UGT transcripts, including miR-376c, miR-409 and miR-494 for UGT2B17, miR-331-5p and miR-376c for UGT2B15 while none were efficient for UGT2B28 . miR-376c was shown as the most effective to downregulate UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 through interactions with a site conserved in both UGTs. Ectopic miR-376c expression in prostate cancer cells significantly reduced UGT2B15 and UGT2B17 expression (>32%; P

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration

Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration Book
Author : Vladimir A. Botchkarev,Sarah E. Millar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 3319167693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This indispensable volume highlights recent studies identifying epigenetic mechanisms as essential regulators of skin development, stem cell activity and regeneration. Chapters are contributed by leading experts and promote the skin as an accessible model system for studying mechanisms that control organ development and regeneration. The timely discussions contained throughout are of broad relevance to other areas of biology and medicine and can help inform the development of novel therapeutics for skin disorders as well as new approaches to skin regeneration that target the epigenome. Part of the highly successful Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine series, Epigenetic Regulation of Skin Development and Regeneration uncovers the fundamental significance of epigenetic mechanisms in skin development and regeneration, and emphasizes the development of new therapies for a number of skin disorders, such as pathological conditions of epidermal differentiation, pigmentation and carcinogenesis. At least six categories of researchers will find this book essential, including stem cell, developmental, hair follicle or molecular biologists, and gerontologists or clinical dermatologists.

Nutrition Epigenetic Mechanisms and Human Disease

Nutrition  Epigenetic Mechanisms  and Human Disease Book
Author : Nilanjana Maulik,Gautam Maulik
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-12-03
ISBN : 1439804826
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As nutrition research is shifting its focus from epidemiology and physiology to effects of nutrients at the molecular level, a uniquely tailored diet that corresponds to the demands of our genetic signature is emerging as an indispensable need. Using high-throughput genomic tools, nutrigenomics unravels the influence of micro- and macronutrients as

Livestock Epigenetics

Livestock Epigenetics Book
Author : Hasan Khatib
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-02-21
ISBN : 0470958596
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Livestock Epigenetics reviews advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of epigenetic mechanisms in gene expression in livestock species. Epigenetics impact many economically important traits from growth and development to more efficient reproduction and breeding strategies. The book opens with a broad introductory chapter that discusses the importance of an understanding of epigenetics to efficient and sustainable livestock production. In subsequent chapters the role of epigenetics in specific aspects of animal production are reviewed. The final chapter provides researchers with a valuable basis for the use of comparative epigenetics research to allow research to apply advances across organisms. Livestock Epigenetics provides detailed information on this rapidly expanding field of research with contributions from a global team of experts.

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-12
ISBN : 0128197544
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, provides a thorough overview and discussion of epigenetics in reproduction and implications for reproductive medicine. Twenty international researchers discuss epigenetic mechanisms operating during the formation of male and female gametes, fertilization and subsequent embryo and placental development, particularly in mammals and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This volume also addresses aberrant epigenetic changes influencing male and female infertility, pregnancy related disorders, and those potentially linked to therapeutic manipulations and assisted reproductive technologies. Emphasis is placed on identifying biomarkers for early detection of aberrant epigenetic mechanisms. Later chapters examine the possibility of correcting these epigenetic dysfunctions, as well as current challenges and next steps in research, enabling new translational discoveries and efforts towards developing therapeutics. Thoroughly examines the influence of aberrant epigenetics during gametogenesis and embryogenesis, affecting parents, gametes and embryos, offspring and future generations Explores health outcomes for reproductive senescence, endocrine disruption, testicular cancer, prostrate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian, cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancers Features chapter contributions from international researchers in the field

Epigenetics in Health and Disease

Epigenetics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Igor Kovalchuk,Olga Kovalchuk
Publisher : FT Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 013259708X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"After reviewing the field's history and context, the authors introduce and explain each key epigenetic mechanism. Next, they extensively discuss the roles these mechanisms may play in inheritance, development, health and disease, behavior, evolution, ecology, and the interactions of individual organisms with their environments"--Cover, p. [4].

miRNA and Cancer

miRNA and Cancer Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-09-04
ISBN : 0128119233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

miRNA and Cancer, Volume 135, the latest volume in the Advances in Cancer Research series, provides invaluable information on the exciting and fast-moving field of cancer research. This volume presents original reviews on research bridging oncology and gene expression, and includes specific chapters on Non-coding RNAs as Biomarkers of Cancer, The Enigma of microRNA Regulation in Cancer, Animal Models to Study microRNA functions, Non-coding RNAs and Cancer, microRNAs in Cancer Susceptibility, ts-RNAs versus microRNAs, microRNAs and AML, and microRNAs and Epigenetics. Provides information on cancer research Offers outstanding and original reviews on a range of cancer research topics Serves as an indispensable reference for researchers and students alike

Stem Cells in Craniofacial Development and Regeneration

Stem Cells in Craniofacial Development and Regeneration Book
Author : George T.J. Huang,Irma Thesleff
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-04-15
ISBN : 1118279239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration is an introduction to stem cells with an emphasis on their role in craniofacial development. Divided into five sections, chapters build from basic introductory information on the definition and characteristics of stem cells to more indepth explorations of their role in craniofacial development. Section I covers embryonic and adult stem cells with a focus on the craniofacial region, while sections II-IV cover the development and regeneration of craniofacial bone, tooth, temporomandibular joint, salivary glands and muscle. Concluding chapters describe the current, cutting-edge research utilizing stem cells for craniofacial tissue bioengineering to treat lost or damaged tissue. The authoritative resource for dentistry students as well as craniofacial researchers at the graduate and post-graduate level, Stem Cells, Craniofacial Development and Regeneration explores the rapidly expanding field of stem cells and regeneration from the perspective of the dentistry and craniofacial community, and points the way forward in areas of tissue bioengineering and craniofacial stem cell therapies.

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections

Epigenetic Modifications and Viral Infections Book
Author : Silvia Carolina Galvan,Alejandro García Carrancá,Félix Recillas-Targa,Jiuzhou Song
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-07-09
ISBN : 2889195872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics is defined as the study of modifications of the genome, heritable during cell division that does not involve changes in DNA sequences. Up to date, epigenetic modifications involve at least three general mechanisms regulating gene expression: histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). For the past two decades, an explosion in our interest and understanding of epigenetic mechanisms has been seen. This mainly based on the influence that epigenetic alterations have on an amazing number of biological processes, such as gene expression, imprinting, programmed DNA rearrangements, germ line silencing, developmentally cued stem cell division, and overall chromosomal stability and identity. It has become also evident that the constant exposure of living organisms to environment factors affects their genomes through epigenetic mechanisms. Viruses infecting animal cells are thought to play central roles in shaping the epigenetic scenario of infected cells. In this context it has become obvious that knowing the impact that viral infections have on the epigenetic control of their host cells will certainly lead to a better understanding of the interplay viruses have with animal cells. In fact, DNA viruses use host transcription factors as well as epigenetic regulators in such a way that they affect epigenetic control of gene expression that extends to host gene expression. At the same time, animal cells employ mechanisms controlling transcription factors and epigenetic processes, in order to eliminate viral infections. In summary, epigenetic mechanisms are involved in most virus-cell interactions. We now know that some viruses exhibit epigenetic immune evasion mechanisms to survive and propagate in their host; however, there is still much ambiguity over these epigenetic mechanisms of viral immune evasion, and most of the discovered mechanisms are still incomplete. Other animal viruses associated to cancer often deregulate cellular epigenetic mechanisms, silencing cellular tumor-suppressor genes and/or activating either viral or host cell oncogenes. In addition, in several cancers the down-regulation of tumor suppressor protein-coding genes and ncRNAs with growth inhibitory functions, such as miRNAs, have been closely linked to the presence of cell CpG island promoter hypermethylation. The goal of the aforementioned Research Topic is to bring together the key experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in animal virus-cell interactions.