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Micropollutants And Challenges

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Micropollutants and Challenges

Micropollutants and Challenges Book
Author : Afsane Chavoshani,Majid Hashemi,Mohammad Mehdi Amin,Suresh C Ameta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-12
ISBN : 0128186135
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Micropollutants and Challenges: Emerging in the Aquatic Environments and Treatment Processes systematically summarizes the characteristics, micropollutants types, production resources, occurrence in aqueous environments, health effects, methods of detection and treatments. Throughout each chapter, the following topics will be presented: (i) The quality and quantity evaluation of aquatic micro-pollutants, (ii) The need for innovative and affordable wastewater treatment technologies, and (iii) Combinations of different conventional and advanced technologies, including the biological and plant-based strategies that seem most promising. Presents information on the micropollutants that threaten all living organisms, showing the importance and relevance of this topic Assesses the effects of micropollutants on surface and groundwater Provides solutions for the removal of micropollutants in conventional and advanced treatment processes and compares the efficiency of different processes

Micropollutants and Challenges

Micropollutants and Challenges Book
Author : Afsane Chavoshani,Majid Hashemi,Mohammad Mehdi Amin,Suresh C Ameta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-07-10
ISBN : 0128186127
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Micropollutants and Challenges: Emerging in the Aquatic Environments and Treatment Processes systematically summarizes the characteristics, micropollutants types, production resources, occurrence in aqueous environments, health effects, methods of detection and treatments. Throughout each chapter, the following topics will be presented: (i) The quality and quantity evaluation of aquatic micro-pollutants, (ii) The need for innovative and affordable wastewater treatment technologies, and (iii) Combinations of different conventional and advanced technologies, including the biological and plant-based strategies that seem most promising. Presents information on the micropollutants that threaten all living organisms, showing the importance and relevance of this topic Assesses the effects of micropollutants on surface and groundwater Provides solutions for the removal of micropollutants in conventional and advanced treatment processes and compares the efficiency of different processes

Wastewater Reuse and Current Challenges

Wastewater Reuse and Current Challenges Book
Author : Despo Fatta-Kassinos,Dionysios D. Dionysiou,Klaus Kümmerer
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-01-28
ISBN : 3319238922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume discusses the current challenges related to the reuse of wastewater. It reviews the analytical methodologies for evaluating emerging contaminants and their transformation products, the sensitivity of various bioassays for assessing the biological effects of treated wastewater, and the bioavailability and uptake of organic contaminants during crop irrigation. It describes in detail the physicochemical and microbiological alterations in soil resulting from irrigation with treated urban wastewater, and discusses our current understanding of antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment plants and in downstream environments. The book also includes an analysis of the effect of wastewater entering drinking water sources and production, and provides updated information on wastewater reuse for irrigation in North Africa. It presents an important integration tool for water recovery, known as water pinch analysis, and finally showcases two other examples of reuse – one in the paper industry and one in landfill management. It is of interest to experts from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental and sanitary engineering.

Desalination

Desalination Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Micropollutants in the Environment

Micropollutants in the Environment Book
Author : International Association on Water Pollution Research. Specialised Conference,Samuel Harry Jenkins
Publisher : Elsevier Science & Technology
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Micropollutants in the Environment book written by International Association on Water Pollution Research. Specialised Conference,Samuel Harry Jenkins, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Processes and Catalysts for the Electrochemical Removal of Persistent Organic Micropollutants from Urban Wastewater at Mild Ph

Processes and Catalysts for the Electrochemical Removal of Persistent Organic Micropollutants from Urban Wastewater at Mild Ph Book
Author : Zhihong Ye
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Organic micropollutants, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PCPs), pesticides, dyes and many other industrial chemicals have become one of the most solid barriers for the effective and safe wastewater remediation and reclamation. Some of these contaminants are able to act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), thus posing emerging concerns. Their concentration in water is usually at trace level and most of them are highly resistant to conventional treatment technologies like biodegradation and physicochemical methods. The inefficient removal of micropollutants causes their occurrence in final water distribution systems, even reaching drinking water, which jeopardizes the entire biosphere and human health.Over the last decades, the electrochemical technologies, especially the electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs), have been proven to behave as clean and effective alternatives to eliminate the organic micropollutants from wastewater effluents due to the direct or indirect generation of strong oxidizing agents such as the hydroxyl radical. However, the utilization of conventional electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) is limited by several drawbacks: (i) long time needed to destroy large contents of organics; (ii) requirement of pH adjustment to 2.5-3.5; (iii) poor electroreduction and photoreduction of Fe(III); (iv) high amount of iron catalyst required; (v) deactivation of iron species; and (vi) production of iron sludge. Aiming to overcome these disadvantages, several processes and catalysts are proposed in this Thesis to modify the conventional EF and PEF.In the first part, electrocoagulation (EC) was envisaged as a valid pre-treatment before the application of the EAOPs, thus addressing the abovementioned limitation (i). This involved the in situ generation of coagulants upon dissolution of a sacrificial anode, yielding flocs that precipitated and adsorbed part of the organics rapidly. Furthermore, when an Fe/Fe cell was employed, the residual dissolved iron species after precipitation acted as the required catalyst for subsequent EF/PEF treatment. The efficient removal of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from urban wastewater was successfully achieved by means of sequential EC/EAOPs.The second part investigated, for the first time, the feasibility of employing a soluble Fe(III)-EDDS complex as homogeneous EF or PEF catalyst to destroy micropollutants. The systems allowed working at near-neutral pH, exhibiting a high quantum yield for Fe2+ generation from Fe(III)-EDDS photoreduction. The Fe(III)- EDDS-assisted EF and PEF processes exhibited excellent performance for the degradation of BHA and fluoxetine (FLX) in sulfate medium, as well as in urban wastewater.Heterogeneous EF and PEF processes using solid catalysts have been developed in the third part as promising alternatives to overcome the drawbacks (ii)-(vi). The development of new types of catalysts with high activity, stability and recyclability is still a great challenge in the field. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted substantial attention in recent years as ordered porous materials with many potential applications. In this Thesis, raw Fe-MOFs or their derivatives were introduced as efficient and innovative heterogeneous EF or PEF catalysts to treat micropollutants in urban wastewater. FeS2/C nanocomposite, fabricated by sulfidation and pyrolysis of an Fe-MOF precursor, as EF catalyst outperformed natural pyrite and Fe2+ due to the cooperation of homogenous and heterogeneous Fenton's reaction. The thermal treatment of NH2-MIL(Fe)-88B gave rise to N-doped [email protected], which exhibited superior catalytic activity in EF. Finally, the direct use of a Fe-bpydc 2D MOF as PEF catalyst yielded a fast bezafibrate decay due to the synergy between photocatalysis and Fenton's reaction. Their unique properties conferred an unprecedented degradation ability to EF and PEF at mild pH.In conclusion, this Thesis has provided several strategies to unravel the difficulties for the future application of EAOPs at industrial scale.

Towards Tertiary Micropollutants Removal by Bioaugmented Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors MBBRS and Nanofiltration NF

Towards Tertiary Micropollutants Removal by Bioaugmented Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors  MBBRS  and Nanofiltration  NF   Book
Author : Seyed Mehran Abtahi Foroushani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9789036545594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Towards Tertiary Micropollutants Removal by Bioaugmented Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors MBBRS and Nanofiltration NF book written by Seyed Mehran Abtahi Foroushani, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Modeling the Emission Transport and Fate of Key Micropollutants and Their Treatment Using Novel Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials

Modeling the Emission  Transport  and Fate of Key Micropollutants and Their Treatment Using Novel Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials Book
Author : Maricor Jane Arlos
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Endocrine disruptive effects in fish have been observed in many watersheds worldwide. The presence of intersex (ova-testes) in particular is well-documented in the Grand River watershed in southern Ontario, and is associated with estrogenic compounds discharged from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). However, this linkage is hard to establish since no exposure data are available to suggest the relationship. In addition, the presence of estrogens in trace amounts has become a major challenge in their analytical detection and this problem is often intensified by matrix effects. Bioassays can be employed to determine the total estrogenicity in environmental samples, but the identification of specific chemicals causing the activity is still often required. In the absence of chemical and biological activity data, modeling can be used to predict the concentrations of estrogenic compounds and estimate the exposure-response relationship in fish. A model was employed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and ethinylestradiol (EE2), key estrogens that are associated with intersex. The emission, transport, and fate (ETF) of these compounds were simulated in ~80-km reach of the Grand River from 2007-2015. The modeled section included the two major WWTPs in the watershed (Kitchener and Waterloo WWTPs), one of which (Kitchener) underwent major process updates (nitrification) in 2012. The emissions of estrogens from the WWTPs were first estimated using population demographics, excretion rates, and removals through the plant. Their transport and fate in the receiving water were then predicted using a mechanistic water quality model (WASP). The model estimated relatively high emissions of E1 from both WWTPs. E1 was also predicted as the most abundant in the Grand River followed by E2 and EE2. The transport of the estrogens (advection) was observed as the primary mechanism for their distribution in the river and, therefore, flow was an important factor that influenced the environmental exposure. The highest predicted total estrogenicity in the river was associated with the Kitchener WWTP during the pre-upgrade with a low-flow (≤ 11 m3/s) average concentration of 3.4 ± 0.9 ng/L E2 eq. The average concentration dropped to 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/L E2 eq. when the upgrades were implemented. The simulated average total estrogenicity was 0.45 ± 0.1 ng/L E2 eq. below the Waterloo WWTP and the river concentrations were predicted to persist during low flows, such that they may influence the total exposure below the Kitchener outfall located ~20 km downstream. The ETF model was extended to explore the relationship of predicted total estrogenicity and field-observed intersex in rainbow darter (Etheostoma caerulum). The distribution of intersex in the Grand River was adequately described using the four-parameter Hill equation for dose-response relationship (R2 of 0.76 and 0.80 for incidence and severity respectively). High occurrence and severity of intersex were associated with fish exposure to ≥10 ng/L E2 eq. while concentrations that are ≤0.1 ng/L E2 eq. were predicted to cause minimal expression of intersex. The model projects that low levels of intersex will be observed after upgrades at both WWTPs are implemented. This study also predicted that estrogenicity levels associated with the currently proposed thresholds of exposure do not lead to adverse effects in rainbow darter, thus verifying the applicability of such recommendations. The presence of estrogens and other organic micropollutants (OMPs) in water remains a major challenge as conventional treatment processes are not designed to remove these contaminants. Innovative approaches are needed to protect the public and environment health from these chemicals. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a potential advanced treatment option for OMPs that has recently attracted worldwide attention. Upon photoactivation by UV, highly reactive hydroxyl radicals that can degrade organic compounds are produced. Unfortunately, studies that employ TiO2 for the removal of OMPs require the use of solvents such as methanol to dissolve the compounds in the test solutions (i.e., resolve solubility issues). Although these carrier solvents can act as hydroxyl radical scavengers, it was found that up to 0.002 % methanol v/v could be added without having a major effect on treatment performance for the selected OMPs. Despite this result, removal of the use of carrier solvents from future studies is desirable. Two TiO2-based membrane materials were tested for their efficiency to remove a mixture of OMPs using UV-LED as the light source (under 0.002% methanol v/v). The materials were synthesized and immobilized onto different membrane supports using the (1) sol-gel, dip-coating method with quartz fiber membranes (QFT) and (2) thermal-chemical oxidation of porous titanium sheets (PTT). The resulting treatments were selective such that negatively charged compounds were well-removed by PTT, while the positively charged ones were degraded efficiently by QFT. Neutral compounds remained recalcitrant during the treatment. The study suggested that for these materials, surface charge interactions play a major role in the removal of OMPs. This result is advantageous if specificity in treatment is required and may be optimized by simply adjusting the pH conditions. PTT was additionally tested for its efficiency to remove estrogens (E1, E2, EE2, estriol [E3], and bisphenol A [BPA]) and reduce their estrogenic activity under different pH conditions (pH 4, 8, and 11). All compounds were removed efficiently (except E2) with treatments at pH 4 and 11 showing the most and least efficient removals respectively. Although E2 was poorly degraded, the total estrogenicity of the mixture was substantially reduced and followed a similar trend as for chemical removal. Although the experiments were completed at bench-scale, the results suggest that UV/TiO2 is a promising new approach for the removal of OMPs. In summary, this thesis estimated the emission, transport, and fate of key estrogens (E1, E2, and EE2) in the Grand River via modeling. It also provided an exposure-response relationship between estrogenicity and intersex that verified the thresholds recommended by several studies in Europe and North America. Although additional work is required to improve the predictions, the model can be employed to investigate future exposure conditions and management actions. This thesis also demonstrated the potential of UV/TiO2 as a remediation option to treat surface waters contaminated with estrogens and a mixture of OMPs. Further investigations on the material synthesis and UV/TiO2 treatment configurations are essential for future large-scale operation.

The Challenge to Marine Biology in a Changing World

The Challenge to Marine Biology in a Changing World Book
Author : H.-D. Franke,Klaus Lüning
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download The Challenge to Marine Biology in a Changing World book written by H.-D. Franke,Klaus Lüning, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Groundwater Quality

Groundwater Quality Book
Author : Michael G. Trefry
Publisher : International Assn of Hydrological Sciences
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Selected and reviewed papers from the Groundwater Quality 2007 conference held in Fremantle, Australia, 2-7 December 2007.

Tailoring of the Activation Process of Carbonaceous Adsorbents for Improving Their Adsorption Effectiveness

Tailoring of the Activation Process of Carbonaceous Adsorbents for Improving Their Adsorption Effectiveness Book
Author : Liang Yan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Activated carbon adsorption is widely used to remove organic matters (both micropollutants and dissolved natural organic matter (DOM)) in water treatment systems. However, economic use and adsorption effectiveness have been major concerns due to not ideal physicochemical characteristics of most current activated carbons. Meanwhile, due to the competitive adsorption effect from DOM, it has been a great challenge to achieve effective micropollutants removal. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to develop activated carbon with specific selectivity for the removal of DOM and another type for effective removal of micropollutants. This will eventually lead to their application in water treatment facility as a sequence of two adsorber beds in series. Chemical activation of bituminous coal by KOH was applied to develop activated carbons. A total of 24 activated carbons with different porous structure and BET surface area were created under different activation conditions. The effect of the different variables of the activation process on critical carbon parameters was analyzed. In this study, phenolic compounds were selected as model compounds to represent micropollutants. In case of phenolic compounds, the oligomerization phenomenon that occurs in the presence of molecular oxygen, must be controlled by limiting the pore size of activated carbon. Therefore, BC-21 with highest microporosity was selected for phenolic compounds removal. In order to understand the impact of BC-21 on oligomerization of phenolics, single solute, binary solute and ternary solute isotherm adsorption were conducted. Meanwhile, commercial activated carbon F400 was used for comparison. These isotherms were collected under anoxic (absence of molecular oxygen) and oxic (presence of molecular oxygen) conditions. All isotherms demonstrated BC-21 has not only better adsorption capacity but also higher regeneration efficiency. BC-41 with highest mesoporosity was used as carbon precursor for DOM removal. Two novel tailoring methods (outgassing and manganese impregnation) were employed to modify the surface chemical characteristics of BC-41. The developed tailored activated carbons (BC-41-OG -argon outgassed and BC-41-MnN - manganese dioxide impregnated) showed much better DOM adsorption rate and equilibrium capacity than F400 and virgin carbon BC-41. The enhanced DOM removal by BC-41-MnN was attributed to the presence of manganese species on the carbon surface. The higher removal of BC-41-OG was due to the higher surface basicity created during the outgassing treatment. It is very common to have micropollutants such as phenolics in the treatment environment. Therefore, the role of phenolic compounds in determining the adsorption effectiveness of DOM using BC-41-OG and BC-41-MnN was further investigated. The results of the kinetic study indicated phenolic compounds have a significant positive effect on the removal rate of DOM. However, the effect on adsorptive capacity of DOM is highly dependent on the surface chemical characteristics of activated carbon. In addition, DOM with different molecular weight distribution demonstrated different extent of influence from oligomerization. The adsorption performance of BC-41-OG and BC-41-MnN was also examined by conducting small column study. The enhanced selectivity in the removal of DOM rather than phenolics was observed for both novel tailored activated carbon as compared to F400.

Recent crustal movements

Recent crustal movements Book
Author : Pavel Vyskočil
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 9780444417145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download Recent crustal movements book written by Pavel Vyskočil, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Challenges Facing European Society with the Approach of the Year 2000

The Challenges Facing European Society with the Approach of the Year 2000 Book
Author : Council of Europe,European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning
Publisher : Council of Europe
Release : 1997
ISBN : 9789287135766
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download The Challenges Facing European Society with the Approach of the Year 2000 book written by Council of Europe,European Conference of Ministers Responsible for Regional Planning, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Water Quality and Environmental Management in Asia

Water Quality and Environmental Management in Asia Book
Author : H. Utsumi,T. Kusuda
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2002-05-31
ISBN : 9781843394327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Selected Proceedings of Asian Waterqual 2001, the IWA Asia-Pacific Regional Conference, held in Fukuoka, Japan, 12-15 September 2001. The world's growing population and its rising water consumption are greatly increasing the pressure on water resources; growing wastewater discharges and expanding use of chemicals are severely affecting the water environment. The new millennium confronts the water management profession and society in general with a set of challenges of unprecedented magnitude and complexity, and many of these worldwide problems are seen at their most acute in Asia. The 8th Asian Waterqual conference provided a major forum to address these issues; these selected proceedings contain 73 high-quality papers chosen after peer review. Subjects covered include: drinking water quality, treatment and distribution; wastewater treatment and reuse; environmental remediation, ecotoxicology in the aquatic environment; hazard assessment and control of microbiology; hazard assessment of micropollutants and endocrine disruptors; water quality monitoring and modeling; ecological modeling and simulation; and water resources management and protection. These papers tackle the challenges of water management, reporting scientific and technological innovations and the institutional and administrative strategies required. These proceedings will prove a major information resource for any scientist, engineer, practitioner or regulator with an interest in water quality and environmental management.

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water Book
Author : Mamadou Diallo,Jeremiah Duncan
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"In this truly unique reference, over 80 leading experts from the global scientific community share their research and knowledge to address the global challenges of water quality and remediation in the hopes that nanotechnology can ensure that clean water is available to everyone."--BOOK JACKET.

Investment Opportunities for a Low Carbon World

Investment Opportunities for a Low Carbon World Book
Author : Will Oulton
Publisher : GMB Publishing, Limited
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Summary: "Providing insights from leading global experts from the environmental technology and finance sectors, under the guidance of Will Oulton, Director of Responsible Investment at FTSE Group, this important book looks at the prospects for low carbon technologies and services which are fundamental to mitigating climate change. The book also shows how the fast developing global environmental technology sector can provide excellent long term, sustainable and superior investment opportunities." -- Back cover.

The British National Bibliography

The British National Bibliography Book
Author : Arthur James Wells
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Download The British National Bibliography book written by Arthur James Wells, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences

Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Contaminants and Clean Technologies

Contaminants and Clean Technologies Book
Author : Pankaj Chowdhary,Abhay Raj
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-02-27
ISBN : 100003061X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contaminants and Clean Technologies provides valuable information on environmental contaminants such as industrial pollutants, micropollutants, pesticides, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceuticals, toxins, and hormones. It focuses on the various types of environmental contaminants discharged from various sources; their toxicological effects in environments, humans, animals, and plants; and their removal methods. It also covers, comprehensively, information on the contaminants released by various industries and agricultural practices, which cause severe threats to the environment. Features of the book: Elucidates systematic information on various types of environmental contaminants, and their fate and consequences Discusses contaminants such as endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical waste, and personal care products Provides an overview of physicochemical and biological treatment technologies for sustainable development Details recent research finding in the area of environmental contaminants and their future challenges

Environmental Pollution

Environmental Pollution Book
Author : Gottipolu R. Reddy,S. J. S. Flora,Riyaz Basha
Publisher : Alpha Science International Limited
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: Ecology and Human Health provides an interdisciplinary approach to the subject of Environment and health integrating biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, toxicological, behavioral and ecological responses to different types of environmental challenges. The information presented provides modern molecular insights into mechanistic basis of environmental health effects of various environmental toxicants including prevention and therapeutics. This volume with contributions from highly reputed and well known experts from USA, Kuwait, Australia, Sweden and, India is a valuable source of information for researchers working in the interdisciplinary areas of Environmental Health Science.