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Microgrids And Methods Of Analysis

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Microgrids and Methods of Analysis

Microgrids and Methods of Analysis Book
Author : Gevork Garehpetian,Hamid Reza Baghaee,Masoud M. Shabestary,S. Mohammad Mousavi Agah
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-08
ISBN : 9780128161722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microgrids and Methods of Analysis addresses systematic analysis, control/protection systems design, and optimal operation of a distribution system under high-depth of DER penetration and the required, appropriate methods and software tools that are analogous to large interconnected power systems. Topics covered have been presented in many research papers, but there is still a need to summarize and categorize the presented and existing knowledge on this subject. This book presents the concept of the microgrid and the methods to analyze them systematically. Presents new analytical solutions for solving microgrid operational problems Develops the old methods for microgrid analysis Provides a new systematic insight to study in the field of microgrids

Microgrid Architectures Control and Protection Methods

Microgrid Architectures  Control and Protection Methods Book
Author : Naser Mahdavi Tabatabaei,Ersan Kabalci,Nicu Bizon
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-01
ISBN : 3030237230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents intuitive explanations of the principles of microgrids, including their structure and operation and their applications. It also discusses the latest research on microgrid control and protection technologies and the essentials of microgrids as well as enhanced communication systems. The book provides solutions to microgrid operation and planning issues using various methodologies including planning and modelling; AC and DC hybrid microgrids; energy storage systems in microgrids; and optimal microgrid operational planning. Written by specialists, it is filled in innovative solutions and research related to microgrid operation, making it a valuable resource for those interested in developing updated approaches in electric power analysis, design and operational strategies. Thanks to its in-depth explanations and clear, three-part structure, it is useful for electrical engineering students, researchers and technicians.

Optimization of Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Genetic Algorithm and Mixed Integer Linear Programming

Optimization of Unit Commitment and Economic Dispatch in Microgrids Based on Genetic Algorithm and Mixed Integer Linear Programming Book
Author : Mohsen Shiralizadeh Nemati
Publisher : kassel university press GmbH
Release : 2018-04-16
ISBN : 3737604649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Energy Management System (EMS) applications of modern power networks like microgrids have to respond to a number of stringent challenges due to current energy revolution. Optimal resource dispatch tasks must be handled with specific regard to the addition of new resource types and the adoption of novel modeling considerations. In addition, due to the comprehensive changes concerning the multi cell grid structure, new policies should be fulfilled via microgrids’ EMS. At the same time achieving a variety of conflicting goals in different microgrids requires a universal and a multi criteria optimization tool. In this work two dispatch-optimizers based on genetic algorithm and mixed integer linear programming for a centralized EMS are introduced which can schedule the unit commitment and economic dispatch of microgrid units. In the proposed methods, different network restrictions like voltages and equipment loadings and unit constraints have been considered.

Distributed Control Methods and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids

Distributed Control Methods and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids Book
Author : Wenchao Meng,Xiaoyu Wang,Shichao Liu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-03-20
ISBN : 012816946X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Distributed Control and Cyber Security Issues in Microgrids presents a thorough treatment of distributed control methods and cyber security issues for power system researchers and engineers. With the help of mathematical tools, this reference gives a deep understanding of microgrids and new research directions, addressing emerging concepts, methodologies and applications of monitoring, control and protection in smart microgrids with large-scale renewables. With the integration of more distributed or aggregated renewables and the wide utilization of power electronic devices, the smart microgrid is facing new stability and security challenges.

Modeling techniques and control strategies for inverter dominated microgrids

Modeling techniques and control strategies for inverter dominated microgrids Book
Author : Gkountaras, Aris
Publisher : Universitätsverlag der TU Berlin
Release : 2017-02-15
ISBN : 3798328722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The character of modern power systems is changing rapidly and inverters are taking over a considerable part of the energy generation. A future purely inverter-based grid could be a viable solution, if its technical feasibility can be first validated. The focus of this work lies on inverter dominated microgrids, which are also mentioned as 'hybrid' in several instances throughout the thesis. Hybrid, as far as the energy input of each generator is concerned. Conventional fossil fuel based generators are connected in parallel to renewable energy sources as well as battery systems. The main contributions of this work comprise of: The analysis of detailed models and control structures of grid inverters, synchronous generators and battery packs and the utilization of these models to formulate control strategies for distributed generators. The developed strategies accomplish objectives in a wide time scale, from maintaining stability during faults and synchronization transients as well as optimizing load flow through communication-free distributed control. Die Struktur der modernen Energieversorgung hat sich in den letzten Jahrzehnten massiv geändert. Dezentrale Generatoren, die auf Wechselrichtern basieren, übernehmen einen großen Teil der Energieerzeugung. Ein ausschließlich wechselrichterbasiertes Netz wäre ein realistischer Ansatz, wenn seine technische Machbarkeit verifiziert werden könnte. Die wichtigste Beiträge dieser Arbeit sind: Die Analyse von Modellen und Regelstrukturen von Netzwechselrichtern, Synchrongeneratoren und Batterieanlagen. Die entwickelten Modelle werden verwendet, um Regelstrategien für dezentrale Generatoren in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen zu formulieren. Die erste Strategie ist eine Synchronisationsmethode für netzbildende Wechselrichter. Zweitens wird die Leistungsaufteilung in Mittelspannungsinselnetzen mittels Droop Regelung analysiert. Weiterhin erfolgt die Untersuchung der transienten Lastaufteilung zwischen netzbildenden Einheiten mit unterschiedlichen Zeitkonstanten. Beim Betrieb mehrerer paralleler Wechselrichter wird der Einfluss der Netzimpedanz auf die transiente Lastaufteilung analysiert. Die dritte entworfene Regelstrategie umfasst die Integration der Sekundärregelung in die Primärregelung. Der Ladezustand von Batterien wird mit der Lastaufteilung gekoppelt, um die Autonomie des Netzes zu stärken. Abschließend wird eine Kurzschlussstrategie für netzbildende und netzspeisende Wechselrichter entwickelt. Ziel der Strategie ist die Maximierung des Kurzschlussstromes. Als zusätzliche Randbedingung soll keine Kommunikation zwischen Generatoren stattfinden.

A Framework for Microgrid Analysis Using OpenDSS

A Framework for Microgrid Analysis Using OpenDSS Book
Author : Sryang Tera Sarena
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2014-02
ISBN : 9783659461101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, along with the rise of global warming issue, researches of renewable energy usage for producing electricity are sprung up. The penetration of renewable energy usage to microgrid brings new challenge as most of the renewable energy are unpredictable. In order to get optimal microgrid operation, integration of methods and softwares are needed in microgrid analysis. This study will use OpenDSS in cooperation with Matlab. Thus optimization algorithm implementation can be achieved by Matlab and simulations of microgrid performed in OpenDSS. The establishment constructs a flexible framework for microgrid analysis which is extensible for various practical studies.

Microgrids

Microgrids Book
Author : Mònica Aragüés-Peñalba,Andreas Sumper
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-01-07
ISBN : 3039218689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electrical power systems are evolving at the generation, transmission, and distribution levels. At distribution level, small generating and storage units—the so-called distributed energy sources (DERs)—are being installed close to consumption sites. The expansion of DERs is empowering renewable energy source integration and, as a consequence, new actors are appearing in electrical systems. Among them, the prosumer is a game-changer; the fruit of the behavior transformation of the consumer who has not only the ability to consume power but also to produce it. Microgrids can be understood as DER installations that have the capability of both grid-connected and grid-isolated operation. During the last decades, there has been a significant deployment of microgrids (e.g., in countries like the United States, Switzerland, and Denmark) and a consequent increase in renewable energy generation. This is contributing to the decarbonization of electrical power systems. However, the variability and intermittency of renewable sources introduce uncertainty, which implies a more complex operation and control. Taking into account that existing and future planned microgrids are being/going to be interconnected to the current electrical network, challenges in terms of design, operation, and control at power system level need to be addressed, considering existing regulations.

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids Book
Author : Hina Fathima,Prabaharan N,Palanisamy K,Akhtar Kalam,Saad Mekhilef,Jackson J. Justo
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2018-06-02
ISBN : 0081024940
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid-Renewable Energy Systems in Microgrids: Integration, Developments and Control presents the most up-to-date research and developments on hybrid-renewable energy systems (HRES) in a single, comprehensive resource. With an enriched collection of topics pertaining to the control and management of hybrid renewable systems, this book presents recent innovations that are molding the future of power systems and their developing infrastructure. Topics of note include distinct integration solutions and control techniques being implemented into HRES that are illustrated through the analysis of various global case studies. With a focus on devices and methods to integrate different renewables, this book provides those researching and working in renewable energy solutions and power electronics with a firm understanding of the technologies available, converter and multi-level inverter considerations, and control and operation strategies. Includes significant case studies of control techniques and integration solutions which provide a deeper level of understanding and knowledge Combines existing research into a single informative resource on micro grids with HRES integration and control Includes architectural considerations and various control strategies for the operation of hybrid systems

Analysis and Mitigation of Frequency Disturbances in an Islanded Microgrid

Analysis and Mitigation of Frequency Disturbances in an Islanded Microgrid Book
Author : Abrez Mondal
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The advent of microgrids has shifted the focus from centralized power generation to a more distributed manner, involving a mix of different distributed energy resources (DERs). Reciprocating engine driven synchronous generators (referred as gensets) are a common DER used for distributed generation. One of the key concerns with such power networks is the aspect of frequency regulation under large disturbances, especially in an islanded mode of operation, without the support of the utility grid. This works looks at possible solution methods for mitigating large frequency disturbances in an islanded microgrid. Due to steep load changes, the gensets undergo large frequency swings and can be even vulnerable to stalling. The benefits of smart loads are analyzed in this work to prevent such occurrence by temporarily reducing the transient overload on gensets. Another solution to mitigate large frequency deviation is the integration of energy storage system (ESS), but the effectiveness depends on its operation as a grid-forming or a grid-following unit. Important metrics such as frequency nadir during load changes in the islanded microgrid are computed to show the usefulness of ESS in islanded microgrids. For this purpose, analytical methods using reduced-order models are developed and found to provide accurate estimates of frequency deviations under power system disturbances. Generally, ESS units are interfaced with an inverter and when operated in grid-forming mode can offer desired dynamic frequency behavior in an islanded microgrid. Similarly, other inverter-based DERs can also provide good frequency regulation as they share the larger portion of the transient overload compared to gensets. However, under certain scenarios the inverter-based DERs are found to collapse due to this large transient loading and can bring down the whole microgrid system as a result. A better coordination between the different DERs in a mixed source microgrid is facilitated in this work to guarantee adequate inertial response. Such a scheme redistributes the unequal transient load sharing between gensets and inverter-based DERs and provides improved frequency regulation, without compromising on the survivability of islanded microgrids. The use of smart loads is also incorporated as an additional feature in the overall coordinated scheme for withstanding extreme scenarios.

Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods

Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems  Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods Book
Author : Obara, Shin’ya
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2014-03-31
ISBN : 1466657979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The management of global warming is a relevant issue throughout the world and has experts of various fields considering various methods to control Earth’s atmospheric temperature. While microgrid technology is emerging as the next generation energy supply system, renewable energy is often unstable and requires the support of conventional energy equipment. Optimum Design of Renewable Energy Systems: Microgrid and Nature Grid Methods investigates the development of highly efficient energy storage equipment and of operation optimization technology of compound energy systems. This book is an essential reference source for technical consultants, urban environment engineers, and energy researchers interested in the development of efficient energy systems and operation optimization technology.

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids Book
Author : Ersan Kabalci
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-27
ISBN : 012823248X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems and Microgrids covers the modeling and analysis for each type of integrated and operational hybrid energy system. Looking at the fundamentals for conventional energy systems, decentralized generation systems, RES technologies and hybrid integration of RES power plants, the most important contribution this book makes is combining emerging energy systems that improve micro and smart grid systems and their components. Sections cover traditional system characteristics, features, challenges and benefits of hybrid energy systems over the conventional power grid, the deployment of emerging power electronic technologies, and up-to-date electronic devices and systems, including AC and DC waveforms. Conventional, emerging and hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations are covered to give researchers and practitioners the information needed to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of implemented hybrid energy systems. Presents detailed contents on emerging power networks provided by decentralized and distributed generation approaches Covers driving factors, photovoltaic based power plant modeling and planning studies Introduces hierarchical control methods and technologies applied in microgrid operations to ensure reliability, resilience and flexibility of hybrid energy systems

Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids

Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids Book
Author : Rajeev Kumar Chauhan,Kalpana Chauhan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-08-17
ISBN : 0128177756
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Distributed Energy Resources in Microgrids: Integration, Challenges and Optimization unifies classically unconnected aspects of microgrids by considering them alongside economic analysis and stability testing. In addition, the book presents well-founded mathematical analyses on how to technically and economically optimize microgrids via distributed energy resource integration. Researchers and engineers in the power and energy sector will find this information useful for combined scientific and economical approaches to microgrid integration. Specific sections cover microgrid performance, including key technical elements, such as control design, stability analysis, power quality, reliability and resiliency in microgrid operation. Addresses the challenges related to the integration of renewable energy resources Includes examples of control algorithms adopted during integration Presents detailed methods of optimization to enhance successful integration

Energy Efficient Computing and Networking

Energy Efficient Computing and Networking Book
Author : Nikos Hatziargyriou,Aris Dimeas,Thomai Tomtsi,Anke Weidlich
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-03-07
ISBN : 3642193218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the postproceedings of the First International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, E-Energy, held in Passau, Germany in April 2010. The 23 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the post-proceedings. The papers are organized in topical sections on energy market and algorithms, ICT technology for the energy market, implementation of smart grid and smart home technology, microgrids and energy management, and energy efficiency through distributed energy management and buildings.

Fuel Cell Micro grids

Fuel Cell Micro grids Book
Author : Shin’ya Obara
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-03
ISBN : 1848003404
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fuel Cell Micro-grids describes an energy supply method based on a network of two or more proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM-FC). Such a network enables the effective use of exhaust heat, the simplification of the transmission network, the possibility of backup during disruptive hazards and the consideration of regional factors. Furthermore, green energy and renewable energy systems can be connected to the network, to function in cooperation with the fuel cells. For these reasons, it is believed that an increasing number of applications will make use of such fuel cell energy networks. Fuel Cell Micro-grids analyses the operation plan of these new energy supply methods using genetic algorithms. The book explains the results of the analysis of the optimization operation plan, energy cost, and greenhouse gas discharge characteristics for many application cases of the fuel cell network.

Modeling Analysis and Control of Mixed Source Microgrid

Modeling  Analysis and Control of Mixed Source Microgrid Book
Author : Ajit Anbiah Renjit
Publisher :
Release : 2016
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microgrids with natural gas engine driven distributed energy resources (DERs) are more likely to be favored by both industries and utilities in the near future because of their low costs, which, in turn, is due to the newly found shale deposits at many places in the world. Such DERs can be connected either directly or through an inverter to the utility/load. Therefore, they are referred to as synchronous generator-based DERs and inverter - based DERs respectively. In this research work, the synchronous generator-based DER and inverter-based DER installed at the CERTS Microgrid test bed have been modeled. The dynamic and steady-state performance of the models were evaluated by verifying the model results against experimental tests conducted at the CERTS microgrid. A key contribution of this modeling effort is that the developed models of the DERs are simple and can fairly represent to a reasonable degree of accuracy the dynamic behavior without infringing on the confidential information of the commercial equipment manufacturers. Such models can easily be multiplied wherever necessary with appropriate scaling to facilitate analysis of numerous scenarios and case studies that may be otherwise impractical due to resource limitations at the field site to undertake actual testing ¿ or at the very least expensive and time consuming.

Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids

Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids Book
Author : Suleiman M. Sharkh,Mohammad A. Abu-Sara,Georgios I. Orfanoudakis,Babar Hussain
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-04-14
ISBN : 0470828323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As concerns about climate change, energy prices, and energy security loom, regulatory and research communities have shown growing interest in alternative energy sources and their integration into distributed energy systems. However, many of the candidate microgeneration and associated storage systems cannot be readily interfaced to the 50/60 Hz grid. In Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids, Sharkh and Abu-Sara introduce the basics and practical concerns of analyzing and designing such micro-generation grid interface systems. Readers will become familiar with methods for stably feeding the larger grid, importing from the grid to charge on-site storage, disconnecting from the grid in case of grid failure, as well as connect multiple microgrids while sharing their loads appropriately. Sharkh and Abu-Sara introduce not only the larger context of the technology, but also present potential future applications, along with detailed case studies and tutorials to help the reader effectively engineer microgrid systems.

Advances in Energy Science and Technology

Advances in Energy Science and Technology Book
Author : Xiao Chun Tang,Xiao Hong Chen,Yu Xiang Dong,Xiu Guo Wei,Qing Sheng Yang
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2013-02-13
ISBN : 3038260150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Selected, peer reviewed papers from the 2012 International Conference on Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering (ICSEEE 2012), December 29 -30, 2012, Guangzhou, China. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The studies cover topics such as: Development and Utilization of Solar Energy, Development and Utilization of Biomass Energy, Development and Utilization of Wind Energy, Nuclear Energy, Hydrogen, Fuel Cell and Other New Energy, Energy Storage Technologies and Energy-Saving Technologies, Energy Materials and Energy Chemical Engineering, Energy Security and Clean Use, New Energy Vehicles and Electric Vehicles, Green Building, Energy-Saving Buildings and Construction Technology, Development and Management of the Energy and Resource Industry, Power System and Automation.

Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators

Power Quality in Microgrids Based on Distributed Generators Book
Author : Ambrish Chandra,Hua Geng
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-12-10
ISBN : 3039280066
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book comprises ten articles covering different aspects of power quality issues in microgrids and distributed generation (DG) systems, including 1) Detection and estimation of power quality; 2) Modeling; 3) Harmonic control for DG systems and microgrids; 4) Stability improvements for microgrids. Different power quality phenomena and solution were studied in the included papers, such as harmonics, resonance, frequency deviation, voltage sag, and fluctuation. From a network point of view, some papers studied the harmonic and stability issues in standalone microgrids which are more likely to cause power quality problems. Other papers discussed the power quality problems in microgrids which are weakly interconnected with the main distribution grid. In view of the published papers, there is a trend that increasingly advanced modeling, analysis, and control schemes were applied in the studies. Moreover, the latest works focus not only on single-unit problems but also multiple units or network issues. Although some of the hot topics are not included, this book covers multiple aspects of the current power quality research frontier, and represents a particularly useful reference book for frontier researchers in this field.

Modeling Control and Stability Analysis of an Islanded Microgrid

Modeling  Control  and Stability Analysis of an Islanded Microgrid Book
Author : Aboutaleb Haddadi
Publisher :
Release : 2015
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Economic, technical, and environmental incentives are deriving the energy sector towards a new era of smart distribution networks where coordinated clusters of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and local loads form a microgrid, which has a significant potential to serve as the building block of the next generation power distribution networks. This thesis focuses on modeling, control, and stability analysis of a microgrid which consists of multiple electronically interfaced DER units. An important feature of a microgrid is its capability to disconnect from the host power grid and operate in the islanded mode. In the islanded mode of operation, undesirable dynamic interactions could occur between loads and electronically interfaced DER units due to lack of rotational inertia; in the absence of appropriate controls, these dynamic interactions may result in poor transient performance or even instability of an islanded microgrid. To address these challenges, this thesis proposes a control strategy to enhance transient performance and stability of a droop-controlled microgrid and to enable it to ride through transients caused by such system disturbances as load change, DER unit switching, and change of network topology. The dependency of dynamics on the droop gains, steady-state power flow, and network/load is studied in a droop-controlled DER unit. These dependencies result in poor transient performance or even instability of the network in the event of a disturbance in the system. To eliminate these dependencies, a gain-scheduled decoupling control strategy is proposed which alters the dynamic coupling between the DER unit and the rest of microgrid for better stability and transient performance. The impact of the proposed control on the DER and network dynamics is studied by calculating the eigenvalues of a test microgrid assuming the proposed control. The proposed control is shown to stabilize the microgrid for a range of operating condition. Further, this thesis develops a stability analysis method to study dynamic interaction of loads with a DER units and its impact on small-signal stability of an islanded microgrid. The purpose of this study is to design controls that are insensitive to load dynamics. The proposed stability analysis method: i) is a frequency-domain approach which models the source-load dynamic interaction via a closed-loop system of impedances and admittances; ii) provides a less conservative stability condition compared to existing methods, in the sense of having less restriction on the control system; and iii) establishes a robust stability margin in terms of perturbations in load parameters. The proposed method is used to examine small-signal stability of a test islanded microgrid. The findings of the frequency domain analysis are illustrated through time-domain simulations around the operating point on the system under study. Next, based on the proposed stability analysis method, a controller design methodology has been proposed for a DER unit to design a controller which enhances robust stability against load dynamics.Extensive case studies, based on time-domain simulations in the PSCAD/EMTDC software environment, are conducted to evaluate performance of the proposed controllers when the microgrid is subject to various disturbances such as load change, change in network topology, and DER unit outage. Real-time case studies, using OPAL-RT, are also conducted to demonstrate feasibility of hardware implementation and validate controller performance against real-world implementation issues." --

Control and Optimization of Distributed Generation Systems

Control and Optimization of Distributed Generation Systems Book
Author : Magdi S. Mahmoud,Fouad M. AL-Sunni
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-05-14
ISBN : 3319169106
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text is an introduction to the use of control in distributed power generation. It shows the reader how reliable control can be achieved so as to realize the potential of small networks of diverse energy sources, either singly or in coordination, for meeting concerns of energy cost, energy security and environmental protection. The book demonstrates how such microgrids, interconnecting groups of generating units and loads within a local area, can be an effective means of balancing electrical supply and demand. It takes advantage of the ability to connect and disconnect microgrids from the main body of the power grid to give flexibility in response to special events, planned or unplanned. In order to capture the main opportunities for expanding the power grid and to present the plethora of associated open problems in control theory Control and Optimization of Distributed Generation Systems is organized to treat three key themes, namely: system architecture and integration; modelling and analysis; and communications and control. Each chapter makes use of examples and simulations and appropriate problems to help the reader study. Tools helpful to the reader in accessing the mathematical analysis presented within the main body of the book are given in an appendix. Control and Optimization of Distributed Generation Systems will enable readers new to the field of distributed power generation and networked control, whether experienced academic migrating from another field or graduate student beginning a research career, to familiarize themselves with the important points of the control and regulation of microgrids. It will also be useful for practising power engineers wishing to keep abreast of changes in power grids necessitated by the diversification of generating methods.