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Gut Microbiota

Gut Microbiota Book
Author : Alper Evrensel,Barış Önen Ünsalver
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-12-12
ISBN : 1789848148
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The gut-brain axis has gained considerable attention from different branches of the scientific community in recent years. In this book, scientists from different disciplines present current scientific knowledge on the topic. The interaction between the prokaryote and eukaryote cells stimulates the evolutionary processes, and results in various systemic illnesses such as neuropsychiatric disorders and may help the continuity of health. Nature has provided us with healthy food that builds our pharmacy. This natural pharmacy store may help the body's healing processes through its effects on gut microbiota and the immune system. This book aims to provide the reader with detailed analyses of the current scientific knowledge on the gut-brain axis and its relation with health and disease. We hope that the reader benefits from the presented material.

Microbiota Brain Axis

Microbiota Brain Axis Book
Author : Jane A. Foster,Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-01
ISBN : 0128148012
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbiota-Brain Axis: A Neuroscience Primer provides neuroscience researchers with a comprehensive guide on how to conduct effective microbiota-brain research, understand the appropriate methodologies, and collect and analyze microbiota data. The book begins with an introduction to the importance of the microbiota-brain communication in development and how microbiota impact neurodevelopmental disorders, mental health and neurodegeneration. In addition, the book discusses advances in microbiota analysis tools and techniques for neuroscience related research. Reviews the many approaches to manipulating the microbiota in animal studies - including the use of germ-free animals, antibiotics and diet - and covers the strengths and limitations of each Outlines available microbiota research tools, such as 16S sequencing and shot-gun metagenomics Provides a comprehensive guide to analyzing microbiota-related data and the many choices for bioinformatics

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease

Microbial Endocrinology  The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis in Health and Disease Book
Author : Mark Lyte,John F. Cryan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-07-05
ISBN : 1493908979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

The Gut Brain Axis

The Gut Brain Axis Book
Author : Niall Hyland,Catherine Stanton
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-05-13
ISBN : 0128025441
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Gut-Brain Axis: Dietary, Probiotic, and Prebiotic Interventions on the Microbiota examines the potential for microbial manipulation as a therapeutic avenue in central nervous system disorders in which an altered microbiota has been implicated, and explores the mechanisms, sometimes common, by which the microbiota may contribute to such disorders. Focuses on specific areas in which the microbiota has been implicated in gut-brain communication Examines common mechanisms and pathways by which the microbiota may influence brain and behavior Identifies novel therapeutic strategies targeted toward the microbiota in the management of brain activity and behavior

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases

The Interplay of Microbiome and Immune Response in Health and Diseases Book
Author : Gwendolyn Barcel´o-Coblijn,Amedeo Amedei
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-11-06
ISBN : 3039216465
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

[Increasing evidence suggests that microbiota and especially the gut microbiota (the microbes inhabiting the gut including bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi) plays a key role in human physiology and pathology. Recent findings indicate how dysbiosis—an imbalance in the composition and organization of microbial populations—could severely impact the development of different medical conditions (from metabolic to mood disorders), providing new insights into the comprehension of diverse diseases, such as IBD, obesity, asthma, autism, stroke, diabetes, and cancer. Given that microbial cells in the gut outnumber host cells, microbiota influences human physiology both functionally and structurally. Microbial metabolites bridge various—even distant—areas of the organism by way of the immune and hormone system. For instance, it is now clear that the mutual interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain (gut–brain axis), often involves gut microbiota, indicating that the crosstalk between the organism and its microbial residents represents a fundamental aspect of both the establishment and maintenance of healthy conditions. Moreover, it is crucial to recognize that beyond the intestinal tract, microbiota populates other host organs and tissues (e.g., skin and oral mucosa). We have edited this eBook with the aim of publishing manuscripts focusing on the impact of microbiota in the development of different diseases and their associated treatments.]

Nod1 Nod2 Receptors Modulate the Microbiota Gut Brain Axis

Nod1 Nod2 Receptors Modulate the Microbiota Gut Brain Axis Book
Author : Melinda A. Schneider
Publisher :
Release : 2015
ISBN : 9781321910902
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The association between intestinal diseases, mood disorders and cognitive deficits is increasingly recognized. Previous studies from our lab suggest that chronic intestinal diseases, such as infection with an enteric pathogen, in combination with an acute psychological stressor (water avoidance stress [WAS]), can induce anxiety-like behavior and memory defects in mice. In our current study, we hypothesized that nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (Nod) receptors, as important modulators of homeostasis between the host immune system and the gut microbiota, are integral regulators of the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. Using Nod1/Nod2 double knockout (NodDKO) mice, we performed behavioral testing, qPCR analysis of stool bacterial DNA, and serum corticosterone analysis. Compared to wild type (WT) controls (C57BL/6), NodDKO mice displayed anxiety-like behaviors (light/dark box test, p

Role of Nutraceuticals in Modulation of Gut Brain Axis in Elderly Persons

Role of Nutraceuticals in Modulation of Gut Brain Axis in Elderly Persons Book
Author : Ana-Maria Enciu
Publisher :
Release : 2018
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A rather new and somewhat unusual concept connects brain functions to gut microbiota. It is called "gut-brain axis" (or "microbiota-gut-brain axis") and states that probiotics consumption and a healthy gut microbiota positively influence brain functions related to behavior and cognition. Synergistic with a low chronic grade peripheral inflammation, this faulty barrier exposes the aged brain to negative extra-cerebral signals. Given the quasi-constant failure of pharmacological treatments in neurodegenerative diseases, increased interest is directed toward allopathic medicine, including dietary supplements. Interplay between gut microbiota and central nervous system by immune, neural and metabolic pathways is being explored as a possible modulator of cognitive impairment and behavior disorders. In elderly persons, this axis has been reported to be altered, contributing to systemic inflammation and was also indicated as a possible marker for early frailty in younger population. Currently, there are several clinical trials addressing the relationship between gut microbiota and central nervous system psychiatric disorders and at least one directly investigating whether there is a correlation between composition of gut microbiome, permeability of intestinal barrier and systemic inflammation in patients with dementia. This chapter discusses evidence-based data on positive modulation of gut-brain axis to alleviate behavior and cognition alterations in the elderly.

The Microbiome

The Microbiome Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-01
ISBN : 0128207981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Microbiome, Volume 176, assembles known facts and provides guidance for their implementation on topics relating to associations between the gut microbiome and personality traits, depression, anxiety, autism, schizophrenia, cognition, dementia and neurodegeneration. Additionally, this volume considers the influence of the maternal microbiome on brain development, with chapters covering Intervention, prevention, and the brain: prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal transplants, The microbiota-gut-brain axis: focus on the fundamental communication pathways, and Microbiome composition and locations. Provides a comprehensive review of the bidirectional interactions between gut microbes and the brain Includes data across the lifespan Focuses on microbiome related therapies with broad appeal within, and beyond, the medical and scientific community

A Psychology of the Human Brain gut microbiome Axis

A Psychology of the Human Brain   gut   microbiome Axis Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: In recent years, we have seen increasing research within neuroscience and biopsychology on the interactions between the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria within the gastrointestinal tract, and the bidirectional relationship between these systems: the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Although research has demonstrated that the gut microbiota can impact upon cognition and a variety of stress‐related behaviours, including those relevant to anxiety and depression, we still do not know how this occurs. A deeper understanding of how psychological development as well as social and cultural factors impact upon the brain–gut–microbiome axis will contextualise the role of the axis in humans and inform psychological interventions that improve health within the brain–gut–microbiome axis. Interventions ostensibly aimed at ameliorating disorders in one part of the brain–gut–microbiome axis (e.g., psychotherapy for depression) may nonetheless impact upon other parts of the axis (e.g., microbiome composition and function), and functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome represent a disorder of the axis, rather than an isolated problem either of psychology or of gastrointestinal function. The discipline of psychology needs to be cognisant of these interactions and can help to inform the future research agenda in this emerging field of research. In this review, we outline the role psychology has to play in understanding the brain–gut–microbiome axis, with a focus on human psychology and the use of research in laboratory animals to model human psychology.

The microbiome Interactions with organ systems diet and genetics An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America Ebook

The microbiome  Interactions with organ systems  diet  and genetics  An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America  Ebook Book
Author : Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-08-09
ISBN : 0323679013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In consultation with Consulting Editor, Dr. Alan Buchman, Dr. Rocheyllys Diaz Heijtz has put together a state-of the-art issue of the Gastroenterology Clinics of North America devoted to The Microbiome: Interactions with Organ Systems, Diet, and Genetics. Clinical review articles from expert authors are specifically devoted to the following: The Role of the Microbiome of o the Female Reproductive Tract on Health and Pregnancy; Eating Disorders and the Gut Microbiota; Maturation of the Infant Microbiome Community Structure and Function; Microbe-Host Interactions in Allergic Diseases; Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiota in Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mood Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota and ADHD; The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Postpartum Depression; and The Microbiota and Pancreatic Cancer. Readers will come away with the latest information on the microbiome and how to incorporate the information into gut health for patients.

Targeting the Ecology Within The Role of the Gut brain Axis and Human Microbiota in Drug Addiction

Targeting the Ecology Within  The Role of the Gut   brain Axis and Human Microbiota in Drug Addiction Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2016
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience. It has become increasingly clear that the human microbiota (the vast ecology of bacteria residing within the human organism), plays an important role in health and disease. This is not surprising, as it has been estimated that bacteria living in the human body (approximately 1 kg of mass, roughly equivalent to that of the human brain) outnumber human cells 10 to 1. While advances in the understanding of the role of microbiota in other areas of human health have yielded intriguing results (e.g., Clostridium difficile, irritable bowel syndrome, autism, etc.), to date, no systematic programs of research have examined the role of microbiota in drug addiction. The current hypothesis, therefore, is that gut dysbiosis plays a key role in addictive disorders. In the context of this hypothesis, this paper provides a rationale for future research to target the "gut–brain axis" in addiction. A brief background of the gut–brain axis is provided, along with a series of hypothesis-driven ideas outlining potential treatments for addiction via manipulations of the "ecology within."

15 FOOD CREATES MOOD THE GUT BRAIN MICROBIOTA AXIS AND DEPRESSION

15   FOOD CREATES MOOD  THE GUT BRAIN MICROBIOTA AXIS AND DEPRESSION Book
Author : Sara Rodrigues
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

OBJECTIVESThis review aims to shed light on the impact of gut microbiome on mood disorders, particularly depression, as well as to precise which factors influencing gut-brain signaling could be manipulated for better mental health management.BACKGROUND AND AIMSA constant bi-directional communication is known to take place between the gut and the brain. This interaction is referred to in the literature as the gut-brain-microbiota axis and may be key in triggering mood disorders. It is our aim to understand how microbiome respond to external factors and how managing gut bacteria might be useful as a potential therapeutic approach, as evidence on this matter remains limited.MATERIALS AND METHODSWe conducted a review on all articles concerning gut-brain-microbiome axis published in the last 5 years on PubMed database. A query comprising u201cpsychobiotics OR ((microbiome OR microbiota) AND depression)u201d was used, with full-text available articles being selected.RESULTSAn increasing number of studies suggest that gut microbiome exerts direct influence on mental health. As digestion of food by commensal bacteria living in the gut leads to neurotransmitters regulation and creation, gut bacteria affect brain function and human behavior. Recent studies show growing interest in the concept of psychobiotics - bacteria which when ingested may be beneficial to mental health. Its effects via enteric nervous system on emotional and cognitive functions seem to be prominent, with evidence suggesting potential antidepressant effects. CONCLUSIONSGut-brain-microbiome axis management and psychobiotics stand as promising therapeutic alternatives to treat mood disorders such as depression.

The Gut Microbiome An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America E Book

The Gut Microbiome  An Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America  E Book Book
Author : Eamonn M.M. Quigley
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2017-02-09
ISBN : 0323509975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Dr. Quigley has created a must-have reference on the gut microbiome for the practicing gastroenterologist. A leader in the field of human physiology and digestive disorders, he has laid out the basics on this increasingly important topic, devoting articles to the organization and biology of the human gut microbiome as well as its diagnostic potential. Top international authors have presented articles that discuss the intersection of the gut microbiome and diet and the gut-brain axis. Clinical implications of the gut microbiome are discussed with disease states like IBD, GI cancer, and liver diseases. Finally, the issue ends with the cutting-edge clinical innovation of fecal microbial transplantation. This issue bridges the gap between science and clinical practice and should be an important reference to practicing gastroenterologists.

The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease

The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease Book
Author : Mike Wilson
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1351068350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A human being consists of a mammalian component and a multiplicity of microbes, collectively referred to as the "microbiota" or "microbiome," with which it has a symbiotic relationship. The microbiota is comprised of a variety of communities, the composition of each being dependent on the body site it inhabits. This community variation arises because the numerous locations on a human being provide very different environments, each of which favors the establishment of a distinct microbial community. Each community consists of bacteria, fungi and viruses with, in some cases, archaea and/or protozoa. It is increasingly being recognized that the indigenous microbiota plays an important role in maintaining the health of its human host. However, changes in the overall composition of a microbial community at a body site, or an increase in the proportion of a particular species in that community, can result in disease or other adverse consequences for the host. The Human Microbiota in Health and Disease: An Ecological and Community-Based Approach describes the nature of the various communities inhabiting humans as well as the important roles they play in human health and disease. It discusses techniques used to determine microbial community composition and features a chapter devoted to the many factors that underlie this mammalian–microbe symbiosis. Uniquely, the book adopts an ecological approach to examining the microbial community’s composition at a particular body site and why certain factors can shift a community from a eubiotic to a dysbiotic state. The book is for undergraduates and postgraduates on courses with a module on the indigenous microbiota of humans. It will also be useful to scientists, clinicians, and others seeking information on the human microbiota and its role in health and disease.

Role and Impact of the Gut Microbiota in a Drosophila Model for Parkinsonism

Role and Impact of the Gut Microbiota in a Drosophila Model for Parkinsonism Book
Author : Virzhiniya Lekova
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current studies suggest a relationship between microbes in the gut and the brain, including an impact on brain disease development, severity, and progression. However, exploring this relationship is hindered by the intricacies of mammalian models. Drosophila has the potential to be an excellent model organism for studies of the gut-brain axis due to the relative simplicity of its microbiome, similarity to mammals, and efficient methods to rear germ-free flies. To take advantage of this potential, I examined the gut-brain axis in Drosophila models of autosomal recessive parkinsonism and observed a five-fold increase in the gut microbial load of aged parkin animals. The microbial load of pink1 animals was unchanged, suggesting a Pink1-independent role for parkin in maintaining microbial load numbers within normal range. Conditional RNAi showed that parkin is required in gut enterocytes and not in neurons or muscle to maintain microbial load homeostasis. Germ-free parkin flies exhibited improved resistance to paraquat, suggesting an impact of the gut microbiome on toxin sensitivity in parkin flies. Sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed microbial species with altered relative abundance in parkin null flies compared to controls. These data reveal a role for parkin activity in maintaining microbial composition and abundance in the gut, suggesting a relationship between parkin function and the gut microbiome, and deepening our understanding of parkin and its mutant effects.

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology Book
Author : William Slikker, Jr.,Merle G. Paule,Cheng Wang
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-04
ISBN : 0128093943
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Developmental Neurotoxicology, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive view of the fundamental aspects of neurodevelopment, the pathways and agents that affect them, relevant clinical syndromes, and risk assessment procedures for developmental neurotoxicants. The editors and chapter authors are internationally recognized experts whose collaboration heralds a remarkable advance in the field, bridging developmental neuroscience with the principles of neurotoxicology. The book features eight new chapters with newly recruited authors, making it an essential text for students and professionals in toxicology, neurotoxicology, developmental biology, pharmacology, and neuroscience. Presents a comprehensive, up-to-date resource on developmental neurotoxicology with updated chapters from the first edition Contains new chapters that focus on subjects recent to the field Includes well-illustrated material, with diagrams, charts, and tables Contains compelling case studies and chapters written by world experts

Emotional Gut the Relation Between Gut Microbiome and Mental Health

Emotional Gut  the Relation Between Gut Microbiome and Mental Health Book
Author : Inu00eas Figueiredo
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The central nervous system and the human gastrointestinal tract are connected via the brain-gut axis, which involves bidirectional communication via neural, endocrine and immune pathways. It has recently been discovered that this communication also involves interactions with the intestinal microbiota, which release immune activating and other signaling molecules that may play an important role in regulating the brain and subsequent behaviour. Since then, it has been found that alterations in the gut microbiota-brain-axis may be implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression and anxiety, neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, and in cognitive functioning. This discoveries have provided the basis for development of new therapeutic approaches, through the modulation of the microbiota- gut-brain axis by means of prebiotic and probiotic administration. Psychobiotics are a new class of probiotics which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with the microbiota-gut-brain axis.MATERIALS AND METHODSNon-systematic review of the literature published in Pubmed/Medline database, using the following keywords:

The Microbiome Interactions with Organ Systems Diet and Genetics an Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America

The Microbiome  Interactions with Organ Systems  Diet  and Genetics  an Issue of Gastroenterology Clinics of North America Book
Author : Rochellys Diaz Heijtz
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-09-28
ISBN : 9780323679008
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In consultation with Consulting Editor, Dr. Alan Buchman, Dr. Rocheyllys Diaz Heijtz has put together a state-of the-art issue of the Gastroenterology Clinics of North America devoted to The Microbiome: Interactions with Organ Systems, Diet, and Genetics. Clinical review articles from expert authors are specifically devoted to the following: The Role of the Microbiome of o the Female Reproductive Tract on Health and Pregnancy; Eating Disorders and the Gut Microbiota; Maturation of the Infant Microbiome Community Structure and Function; Microbe-Host Interactions in Allergic Diseases; Emerging Role of the Gut Microbiota in Neurodevelopmental Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mood Disorders; Brain-Gut-Microbiota and ADHD; The Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Postpartum Depression; and The Microbiota and Pancreatic Cancer. Readers will come away with the latest information on the microbiome and how to incorporate the information into gut health for patients.

Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond

Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond Book
Author : Dr. Dilip Ghosh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-12
ISBN : 0128206101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond focuses on a variety of health disorders where intervention with nutritional supplements prove valuable, such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, autism, and attention-deficit disorder in children. In addition, Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond addresses "herb-nutra psychiatry" which is a field of research focused on developing a comprehensive, cohesive, and scientifically rigorous evidence base to shift conceptual thinking around the role of diet and nutrition in mental health. Intended for nutrition researchers, nutritionists, dieticians, regulatory bodies, health professionals, and students studying related fields, Nutraceuticals in Brain Health and Beyond will be a useful reference in understanding the links between nutrition and brain health. • Addresses nutritional psychiatry and cognitive health at all stages of the lifespan • Contains extensive coverage of vitamins, minerals, botanicals, and other nutrients • Offers novel insight into cognitive dysfunctions including depression and other neurodegenerative disorders • Explores the role of genomics and epigenetics, including discussion of the gut–brain axis