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Microbial Glycobiology

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Microbial Glycobiology

Microbial Glycobiology Book
Author : Anthony P Moran
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-10-01
ISBN : 9780080923246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents in an easy-to-read format a summary of the important central aspects of microbial glycobiology, i.e. the study of carbohydrates as related to the biology of microorganisms. Microbial glycobiology represents a multidisciplinary and emerging area with implications for a range of basic and applied research fields, as well as having industrial, medical and biotechnological implications. Individual chapters provided by leading international scientists in the field yield insightful, concise and stimulating reviews Provides researchers with an overview and synthesis of the latest research Each chapter begins with a brief 200 word Summary/Abstract detailing the topic and focus of the chapter, as well as the concepts to be addressed Allows researchers to see at a glance what each chapter will cover Each chapter includes a Research Focus Box Identifies important problems that still need to be solved and areas that require further investigation

Marine Glycobiology

Marine Glycobiology Book
Author : Se-Kwon Kim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-10-14
ISBN : 1498709621
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Marine glycobiology is an emerging and exciting area in the field of science and medicine. Glycobiology, the study of the structure and function of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing molecules, is fundamental to all biological systems and represents a developing field of science that has made huge advances in the last half-century. This book revolutionizes the concept of marine glycobiology, focusing on the latest principles and applications of marine glycobiology and their relationships.

Engineering Bacterial Glycobiology for the Creation of Glycoconjugate Vaccines

Engineering Bacterial Glycobiology for the Creation of Glycoconjugate Vaccines Book
Author : Taylor Currie Stevenson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of vaccines has led to the effective eradication of several human diseases which were once epidemic such as smallpox and polio. Vaccines have also dramatically decreased the incidence of other diseases including rabies, mumps, and measles. A common theme to these diseases is that their etiological pathogens are viruses. In general, it has proven to be a much more challenging task to develop effective vaccines against bacterial pathogens. The field of bacterial vaccinology has seen success in recent decades with the development of glycoconjugate vaccines. A canonical glycoconjugate vaccine uses polysaccharides isolated from bacterial pathogens and chemically conjugates them to strong protein antigens, thus allowing the immune system to generate a robust and long lasting immune response against a component of the pathogen that is an ideal target for immune system. This approach has been very successful against some bacterial pathogens including Heamophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Salmonella enterica. However, the semi-synthetic process for making these glycoconjugates is lengthy, requiring several rounds of purification before and after conjugation chemistry links protein to polysaccharide. This work will discuss alternative wholly biosynthetic processes for the creation of glycoconjugate vaccines. I have done preliminary work engineering the glycobiology of Escherichia coli to display azide-linked sugars on lipid-linked oligosaccharides with the overall goal of performing in vivo N-linked protein glycosylation to create glycoprotein vaccines that can be functionalized through well-characterized bioorthogonal chemistry. I was able to observe the presence of these azide-linked sugars on the outer membrane of E. coli by fluorescence based screening in a flow cytometer. Additionally, I have leveraged the use of recombinant outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) combined with in vivo and in vitro bacterial N-linked glycosylation to formulate new glycoconjugate vaccines against the bacterial pathogen Francisella tularensis. The presence of these glycoproteins in and on the OMVs was verified through Western blotting, proteinase protection assays, and density gradient ultracentrifugation. I have also formulated a non-canonical glycoconjugate vaccine by producing OMVs coated in the common bacterial extra-cellular polysaccharide poly-N-acetylglucosamine (PNAG). I have shown that these PNAG OMVs are able to elicit a strong, class-switched glycan-specific antibody response against PNAG in mice. Mice vaccinated with these PNAG OMVs are partially protected against lethal challenge with Staphylococcus aureus (8/16 survivors in PNAG OMV immunized mice as compared to 3/16 survivors in PBS control mice). I have also shown that sera from mice immunized with PNAG OMVs has bactericidal activity against the attenuated strain F. tularensis LVS, suggesting mice immunized with PNAG OMVs may be protected from a wide range of pathogens. These studies provide several routes for novel formulation of glycoconjugate vaccines against bacterial pathogens.

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides

Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides Book
Author : Yuriy A. Knirel,Miguel A. Valvano
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-07-13
ISBN : 3709107334
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The bacterial lipopolysaccharide also known as endotoxin is exhaustively covered in the present work. Central emphasis is placed upon the fine chemical structure of the lipopolysaccharide and its significance for understanding their activity and function. In particular, the role it plays in the interaction of bacteria with other biological systems is examined. New aspects of their physicochemical biology are introduced and updates to the current knowledge concerning the lipopolysaccharide are provided. This important class of biomolecules has recently attracted the attention of many investigators, in particular for understanding its involvement in innate immunity, toll-like receptor recognition and intracellular signaling.

Microbial Biofilms in Bioremediation and Wastewater Treatment

Microbial Biofilms in Bioremediation and Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Y.V. Nancharaiah,Vayalam P. Venugopalan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-10-18
ISBN : 1351857320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms represent the natural living style of microbial communities and play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles and natural attenuation. Biofilms can be engineered for biodegradation and biotransformation of organic and inorganic contaminants, for both in situ bioremediation and ex situ treatment in bioreactors. This book focuses on microbial biofilms and their potential technological applications for sustainable development. It covers recent advances in biofilm technologies for contaminant remediation coupled to recovery of resources and serves as a complete reference on the science and technology behind biofilm mediated bioremediation and wastewater treatment.

Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management

Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management Book
Author : Pathak, Vinay Mohan,Navneet,
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2018-04-27
ISBN : 1522535411
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The remediation of environmental pollutants has become a relevant topic within the field of waste management. Advances in biological approaches are a potential tool for contamination and pollution control. The Handbook of Research on Microbial Tools for Environmental Waste Management is a critical scholarly resource that explores the advanced biological approaches that are used as remediation for pollution cleanup processes. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as biodegradation, microbial dehalogenation, and pollution controlling treatments, this book is geared towards environmental scientists, biologists, policy makers, graduate students, and scholars seeking current research on environmental engineering and green technologies.

Microbial Cyclic Di Nucleotide Signaling

Microbial Cyclic Di Nucleotide Signaling Book
Author : Shan-Ho Chou,Nicolas Guiliani,Vincent T. Lee,Ute Römling
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-03-05
ISBN : 3030333086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book explores the broad and diverse biological and physiological impacts of established and newly discovered cyclic di-nucleotide second messenger signaling systems, while also providing descriptions of the intriguing biochemical characteristics of multiple turnover enzymes and receptors. The respective chapters discuss the commonalities and diversity of cyclic di-GMP, cyclic di-AMP and recently discovered cyclic GMP-AMP signaling systems in manifold Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The global human pathogens Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumoniae, the facultative human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, global plant pathogens as exemplified by Xanthomonas campestris and Burkholderia spp., and the omnipresent probiotic Lactobacilli, as well as environmentally important photoautotrophic cyanobacteria, the multicellular Myxococcus xanthus, and chemolithotrophic Acidithiobacillus are among the representatives of the microbial kingdom that are described. In turn, the various aspects of bacterial physiology affected by these signaling systems– e.g. biofilm formation and dispersal, the cell cycle, motility, virulence, production of antimicrobials, fundamental metabolism and osmohomeostasis – are discussed in detail in the context of different microorganisms. Dedicated chapters focus on the population diversity of cyclic dinucleotide signaling systems, their tendency to be horizontally transferred, the cyclic di-GMP signaling system in the social amoeba Dictyostelium, honorary cyclic (di)nucleotides, and the development of strategies for interfering with cyclic dinucleotide signaling in order to manipulate microbial behavior. Taken together, the chapters provide an authoritative source of information for a broad readership: beginners and advanced researchers from various disciplines; individuals seeking a broad overview of cyclic di-nucleotide signaling; and those who want to learn more about specific aspects. Also featuring reviews with a forward-looking perspective, the book offers a valuable source of inspiration for future research directions.

Microbial Exopolysaccharides From Genes to Applications

Microbial Exopolysaccharides  From Genes to Applications Book
Author : Jochen Schmid,Julia Fariña,Bernd Rehm,Volker Sieber
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-06-24
ISBN : 288919843X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial polysaccharides represent an attractive alternative to those from plants or macro algae. They can be produced from renewable sources including lignocellulosic waste streams. Their production does not depend on geographical constraints and/or seasonal limitations. Additionally the manipulation of biosynthetic pathways to enhance productivity or to influence the chemical polysaccharide composition is comparatively easy in bacteria. Microbial exopolysaccharides represents a valuable resource of biogenic and biodegradable polymers, suitable to replace petro based polymers in various technical applications. Furthermore, biocompatible exopolysaccharides are very attractive in medical applications, such as drug delivery systems, use as vaccines or nanoparticles. This research topic will depict the status quo, as well as the future needs in the field of EPS and biofilm research. Starting from the unexplored diversity of microbial polysaccharide producers to production processes and possibilities for modifications, to enhance the already high number of functionalities based on the chemical structures. An overview of the recent and future applications will be given, and the necessity in unravelling the biosynthesis of microbial exopolysaccharide producers is depicted, highlighting the future trend of tailor made polymers. Constraints in structure analysis of these highly complex biogenic polymers are described and different approaches to solve the restrictions in imaging and NMR analysis will be given. Therefore; this research topic comprises the whole process from genes to applications.

Marine Glycobiology

Marine Glycobiology Book
Author : Se-Kwon Kim
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-10-14
ISBN : 1315354217
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Marine glycobiology is an emerging and exciting area in the field of science and medicine. Glycobiology, the study of the structure and function of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-containing molecules, is fundamental to all biological systems and represents a developing field of science that has made huge advances in the last half-century. This book revolutionizes the concept of marine glycobiology, focusing on the latest principles and applications of marine glycobiology and their relationships.

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics

Bacterial Cell Wall Structure and Dynamics Book
Author : Tobias Dörr,Partick J. Moynihan,Christoph Mayer
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-12-27
ISBN : 2889631524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Bacterial cells are encased in a cell wall, which is required to maintain cell shape and to confer physical strength to the cell. The cell wall allows bacteria to cope with osmotic and environmental challenges and to secure cell integrity during all stages of bacterial growth and propagation, and thus has to be sufficiently rigid. Moreover, to accommodate growth processes, the cell wall at the same time has to be a highly dynamic structure: During cell enlargement, division, and differentiation, bacteria continuously remodel, degrade, and resynthesize their cell wall, but pivotally need to assure cell integrity during these processes. Finally, the cell wall is also adjusted according to both environmental constraints and metabolic requirements. However, how exactly this is achieved is not fully understood. The major structural component of the bacterial cell wall is peptidoglycan (PG), a mesh-like polymer of glycan chains interlinked by short-chain peptides, constituting a net-like macromolecular structure that has historically also termed murein or murein sacculus. Although the basic structure of PG is conserved among bacteria, considerable variations occur regarding cross-bridging, modifications, and attachments. Moreover, different structural arrangements of the cell envelope exist within bacteria: a thin PG layer sandwiched between an inner and outer membrane is present in Gram-negative bacteria, and a thick PG layer decorated with secondary glycopolymers including teichoic acids, is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, even more complex envelope structures exist, such as those found in mycobacteria. Crucially, all bacteria possess a multitude of often redundant lytic enzymes, termed “autolysins”, and other cell wall modifying and synthesizing enzymes, allowing to degrade and rebuild the various structures covering the cells. However, how cell wall turnover and cell wall biosynthesis are coordinated during different stages of bacterial growth is currently unclear. The mechanisms that prevent cell lysis during these processes are also unclear. This Research Topic focuses on the dynamics of the bacterial cell wall, its modifications, and structural rearrangements during cell growth and differentiation. It pays particular attention to the turnover of PG, its breakdown and recycling, as well as the regulation of these processes. Other structures, for example, secondary polymers such as teichoic acids, which are dynamically changed during bacterial growth and differentiation, are also covered. In recent years, our view on the bacterial cell envelope has undergone a dramatic change that challenged old models of cell wall structure, biosynthesis, and turnover. This collection of articles aims to contribute to new understandings of bacterial cell wall structure and dynamics.

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides Book
Author : Inamuddin,Mohd Imran Ahamed,Rajender Boddula,Tariq A. Altalhi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-06-29
ISBN : 111971138X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides the whole spectrum of polysaccharides from basic concepts to commercial market applications. Chapters cover various types of sources, classification, properties, characterization, processing, rheology and fabrication of polysaccharide-based materials and their composites and gels. The applications of polysaccharides include in cosmetics, food science, drug delivery, biomedicine, biofuel production, marine, packaging, chromatography and environmental remediation. It also reviews the fabrication of inorganic and carbon nanomaterials from polysaccharides. The book incorporates industrial applications and will fill the gap between the exploration works in the laboratory and viable applications in related ventures.

The Perfect Slime

The Perfect Slime Book
Author : Hans-Curt Flemming,Dr Thomas R. Neu,Dr Jost Wingender
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2016-09-15
ISBN : 1780407416
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Perfect Slime presents the latest state of knowledge and all aspects of the Extracellular Polymeric Substances, (EPS) matrix – from the ecological and health to the antifouling perspectives. The book brings together all the current material in order to expand our understanding of the functions, properties and characteristics of the matrix as well as the possibilities to strengthen or weaken it. The EPS matrix represents the immediate environment in which biofilm organisms live. From their point of view, this matrix has paramount advantages. It allows them to stay together for extended periods and form synergistic microconsortia, it retains extracellular enzymes and turns the matrix into an external digestion system and it is a universal recycling yard, it protects them against desiccation, it allows for intense communication and represents a huge genetic archive. They can remodel their matrix, break free and eventually, they can use it as a nutrient source. The EPS matrix can be considered as one of the emergent properties of biofilms and are a major reason for the success of this form of life. Nevertheless, they have been termed the “black matter of biofilms” for good reasons. First of all: the isolation methods define the results. In most cases, only water soluble EPS components are investigated; insoluble ones such as cellulose or amyloids are much less included. In particular in environmental biofilms with many species, it is difficult to impossible isolate, separate the various EPS molecules they are encased in and to define which species produced which EPS. The regulation and the factors which trigger or inhibit EPS production are still very poorly understood. Furthermore: bacteria are not the only microorganisms to produce EPS. Archaea, Fungi and algae can also form EPS. This book investigates the questions, What is their composition, function, dynamics and regulation? What do they all have in common?

I

I Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-09-18
ISBN : 0128114703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chemical Glycobiology, Volume 597, the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series, continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume, the first on chemical glycobiology, contains comprehensive chapters on the Discovery of New Glycosidases from Metagenomic Libraries, Structure-guided directed evolution of glycosidases: A case study in engineering a blood group antigen-cleaving enzyme, A Pipeline for Studying and Engineering Single-Subunit Oligosaccharyltransferases, Directed evolution of glycopeptides using mRNA display, Chemoenzymatic Synthesis and Applications of Prokaryote-Specific UDP-Sugars, and Biosynthesis of Legionaminic Acid and its Incorporation into Glycoconjugates. Readers will find the latest information on this developing area of research, as reported by leaders in the field. Presents an updated volume in this regular series Covers research on chemical glycobiology

Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds

Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds Book
Author : Helmut König,Harald Claus,Ajit Varma
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-03-18
ISBN : 364205062X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial cell wall structures play a significant role in maintaining cells’ shape, as protecting layers against harmful agents, in cell adhesion and in positive and negative biological activities with host cells. All prokaryotes, whether they are bacteria or archaea, rely on their surface polymers for these multiple functions. Their surfaces serve as the indispensable primary interfaces between the cell and its surroundings, often mediating or catalyzing important interactions. Prokaryotic Cell Wall Compounds summarizes the current state of knowledge on the prokaryotic cell wall. Topics concerning bacterial and archaeal polymeric cell wall structures, biological activities, growth and inhibition, cell wall interactions and the applications of cell wall components, especially in the field of nanobiotechnology, are presented.

Mucoadhesive Materials and Drug Delivery Systems

Mucoadhesive Materials and Drug Delivery Systems Book
Author : Vitaliy V. Khutoryanskiy
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-06-12
ISBN : 1118794397
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mucoadhesion defined as attachment of synthetic or natural materials to mucosal tissues has been widely exploited in pharmaceutical forms. This multi-author book provides an up-to-date account of current research on mucoadhesive materials and drug delivery systems. The introductory section describes the structure and physiology of various mucosal surfaces (oral, nasal, ocular, gastrointestinal and vaginal mucosa). This is followed by chapters on the various methods used to study mucoadhesion and to characterise mucoadhesive properties of various dosage forms. The final section will summarise information on traditional and novel types of mucoadhesive materials, such as chitosan, thiomers, and liposome-based formulations. This book is unique as there is currently no modern book considering mucoadhesion - all other existing books on the topic are either narrowly focused or more than 10 years old. Furthermore, each contributor offers specialist perspectives from a variety of global locations in both industrial and academic research centres.

Carbohydrates from Biomass Sources and Transformation by Microbial Enzymes

Carbohydrates from Biomass  Sources and Transformation by Microbial Enzymes Book
Author : Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9789535108641
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Carbohydrates from Biomass Sources and Transformation by Microbial Enzymes book written by Luis Henrique Souza Guimarães, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Glycobiology and Human Diseases

Glycobiology and Human Diseases Book
Author : Gherman Wiederschain
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-02-22
ISBN : 1498709192
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses glycobiology and various forms of human diseases. Topics covered include immunoglobulins, inflammation and glycosylation, the role and therapeutic significance of natural anti-glycan antibodies in malignancies and in normal and aberrant pregnancy, identifying urinary glycans as a possible method for the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases, glycobiology of human milk (biological roles and diseases) and pectins as biological modulators of human physiological reactions. The book includes analysis of comprehensive data and some productive conclusions and perspectives.

Advances in Chitin Chitosan Characterization and Applications

Advances in Chitin Chitosan Characterization and Applications Book
Author : Marguerite Rinaudo,Francisco M. Goycoolea
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-04-23
ISBN : 3038978027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Functional advanced biopolymers have received far less attention than renewable biomass (cellulose, rubber, etc.) used for energy production. Among the most advanced biopolymers known is chitosan. The term chitosan refers to a family of polysaccharides obtained by partial de-N-acetylation from chitin, one of the most abundant renewable resources in the biosphere. Chitosan has been firmly established as having unique material properties as well as biological activities. Either in its native form or as a chemical derivative, chitosan is amenable to being processed—typically under mild conditions—into soft materials such as hydrogels, colloidal nanoparticles, or nanofibers. Given its multiple biological properties, including biodegradability, antimicrobial effects, gene transfectability, and metal adsorption—to name but a few—chitosan is regarded as a widely versatile building block in various sectors (e.g., agriculture, food, cosmetics, pharmacy) and for various applications (medical devices, metal adsorption, catalysis, etc.). This Special Issue presents an updated account addressing some of the major applications, including also chemical and enzymatic modifications of oligos and polymers. A better understanding of the properties that underpin the use of chitin and chitosan in different fields is key for boosting their more extensive industrial utilization, as well as to aid regulatory agencies in establishing specifications, guidelines, and standards for the different types of products and applications.

Bacterial Adhesion

Bacterial Adhesion Book
Author : Dirk Linke,Adrian Goldman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-05-10
ISBN : 9400709404
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last few years, bacterial adhesion has become a more and more important and active scientific area, but the field lacks communication and scientific exchange between medical and microbiology researchers who work with the relevant biological systems, and biochemists, structural biologists and physicists, who know and understand the physical methods best suited to investigate the phenomenon at the molecular level. The field consequently would benefit from a cross-disciplinary conference enabling such communication. This book tries to bridge the gap between the disciplines.