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Microbial Forensics

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Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Bruce Budowle,Steven E. Schutzer,Stephen A. Morse
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-11-30
ISBN : 0128153806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial Forensics, Third Edition, serves as a complete reference on the discipline, describing the advances, challenges and opportunities that are integral in applying science to help solve future biocrimes. New chapters include: Microbial Source Tracking, Clinical Recognition, Bioinformatics, and Quality Assurance. This book is intended for a wide audience, but will be indispensable to forensic scientists and researchers interested in contributing to the growing field of microbial forensics. Biologists and microbiologists, the legal and judicial system, and the international community involved with Biological Weapons Treaties will also find this volume invaluable. Presents new and expanded content that includes a statistical analysis of forensic data, legal admissibility and standards of evidence Discusses actual cases of forensic bioterrorism Includes contributions from editors and authors who are leading experts in the field, with primary experience in the application of this fast-growing discipline

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics Book
Author : John B. Cliff,Helen W. Kreuzer,Christopher J. Ehrhardt,David S. Wunschel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-09
ISBN : 1603272178
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Combining the disciplines of biological, physical and chemical science, microbial forensics has a rapidly rising profile in a world increasingly troubled by the threat of ‘biocrime’ and ‘bioterrorism’. This valuable resource is a major addition to a body of literature reckoned to lack sufficient breadth. It presents a variety of phenotypic and trace signature methodologies associated with cultured microorganisms that, despite being genetically identical, may be characterized by differing cultural environments. One of the central challenges faced by those working in this field is the sheer diversity of potentially harmful agents, which in themselves total more than 1000 viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoan parasites. Their numerous additional variants render the process of ‘fingerprinting’ biological agents notoriously difficult, especially when the limitations of genetic analysis are factored in. Attribution of crime is relatively easy through human DNA, but lacking the genetic individuation of humans and animals, microbial forensics has to complement phylogenetic techniques with chemical and physical ones. In the best case, genetic analysis in the ‘biocrime’ sector can exclude sources, narrow the population of possible sources and support associations with potential sources. To complement these genetic techniques, chemical and physical methods can be used to compare ‘signatures’ imparted to microbial samples by environments in which they are grown and processed. Collating a range of microbiological fingerprinting techniques in one volume, and covering everything from statistical analysis to laboratory protocols, this publication furthers the aim of forensic investigators who need robust and legally admissible forensic evidence to present in a courtroom.

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microorganisms have been used as weapons in criminal acts, most recently highlighted by the terrorist attack using anthrax in the fall of 2001. Although such ''biocrimes'' are few compared with other crimes, these acts raise questions about the ability to provide forensic evidence for criminal prosecution that can be used to identify the source of the microorganisms used as a weapon and, more importantly, the perpetrator of the crime. Microbiologists traditionally investigate the sources of microorganisms in epidemiological investigations, but rarely have been asked to assist in criminal investigations. A colloquium was convened by the American Academy of Microbiology in Burlington, Vermont, on June 7-9, 2002, in which 25 interdisciplinary, expert scientists representing evolutionary microbiology, ecology, genomics, genetics, bioinformatics, forensics, chemistry, and clinical microbiology, deliberated on issues in microbial forensics. The colloquium's purpose was to consider issues relating to microbial forensics, which included a detailed identification of a microorganism used in a bioattack and analysis of such a microorganism and related materials to identify its forensically meaningful source--the perpetrators of the bioattack. The colloquium examined the application of microbial forensics to assist in resolving biocrimes with a focus on what research and education are needed to facilitate the use of microbial forensics in criminal investigations and the subsequent prosecution of biocrimes, including acts of bioterrorism. First responders must consider forensic issues, such as proper collection of samples to allow for optimal laboratory testing, along with maintaining a chain of custody that will support eventual prosecution. Because a biocrime may not be immediately apparent, a linkage must be made between routine diagnosis, epidemiological investigation, and criminal investigation. There is a need for establishing standard operating procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of these features can only be accomplished if we understand basic principles that control microbial physiology. Finally, the more precise and refined a microbial forensic system becomes, the more proper guidelines for handling and storage will be defined. Thus, improper dissemination or use of the pathogens will be reduced and inadvertent release will be minimized. An additional outcome of establishing these guidelines or rules is that the legitimate investigator will be protected to pursue research without unnecessary intrusion. Colloquium participants identified a variety of needs and directions in the following areas: sample handling and collection, detection, research direction, data access, QA/QC, and education. General recommendations are provided for direction or insight for the scientific community, law enforcement community, legal community, and the public.

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics

Chemical and Physical Signatures for Microbial Forensics Book
Author : John B. Cliff,Helen W. Kreuzer,Christopher J. Ehrhardt,David S. Wunschel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-10
ISBN : 1603272194
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Combining the disciplines of biological, physical and chemical science, microbial forensics has a rapidly rising profile in a world increasingly troubled by the threat of ‘biocrime’ and ‘bioterrorism’. This valuable resource is a major addition to a body of literature reckoned to lack sufficient breadth. It presents a variety of phenotypic and trace signature methodologies associated with cultured microorganisms that, despite being genetically identical, may be characterized by differing cultural environments. One of the central challenges faced by those working in this field is the sheer diversity of potentially harmful agents, which in themselves total more than 1000 viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoan parasites. Their numerous additional variants render the process of ‘fingerprinting’ biological agents notoriously difficult, especially when the limitations of genetic analysis are factored in. Attribution of crime is relatively easy through human DNA, but lacking the genetic individuation of humans and animals, microbial forensics has to complement phylogenetic techniques with chemical and physical ones. In the best case, genetic analysis in the ‘biocrime’ sector can exclude sources, narrow the population of possible sources and support associations with potential sources. To complement these genetic techniques, chemical and physical methods can be used to compare ‘signatures’ imparted to microbial samples by environments in which they are grown and processed. Collating a range of microbiological fingerprinting techniques in one volume, and covering everything from statistical analysis to laboratory protocols, this publication furthers the aim of forensic investigators who need robust and legally admissible forensic evidence to present in a courtroom.

Science Needs for Microbial Forensics

Science Needs for Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Committee on Science Needs for Microbial Forensics: Developing an Initial International Roadmap,Board on Life Sciences,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council
Publisher : National Academy Press
Release : 2014-07-25
ISBN : 9780309302456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial forensics is a scientific discipline dedicated to analyzing evidence from a bioterrorism act, biocrime, or inadvertent microorganism or toxin release for attribution purposes. This emerging discipline seeks to offer investigators the tools and techniques to support efforts to identify the source of a biological threat agent and attribute a biothreat act to a particular person or group. Microbial forensics is still in the early stages of development and faces substantial scientific challenges to continue to build capacity. The unlawful use of biological agents poses substantial dangers to individuals, public health, the environment, the economies of nations, and global peace. It also is likely that scientific, political, and media-based controversy will surround any investigation of the alleged use of a biological agent, and can be expected to affect significantly the role that scientific information or evidence can play. For these reasons, building awareness of and capacity in microbial forensics can assist in our understanding of what may have occurred during a biothreat event, and international collaborations that engage the broader scientific and policy-making communities are likely to strengthen our microbial forensics capabilities. One goal would be to create a shared technical understanding of the possibilities - and limitations - of the scientific bases for microbial forensics analysis. "Science Needs for Microbial Forensics: Developing Initial International Research Priorities," based partly on a workshop held in Zabgreb, Croatia in 2013, identifies scientific needs that must be addressed to improve the capabilities of microbial forensics to investigate infectious disease outbreaks and provide evidence of sufficient quality to support legal proceedings and the development of government policies. This report discusses issues of sampling, validation, data sharing, reference collection, research priorities, global disease monitoring, and training and education to promote international collaboration and further advance the field.

Environmental Microbial Forensics

Environmental Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017-09-15
ISBN : 9781555815042
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Microbial Forensics book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Paul Keim,American Academy of Microbiology
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Microbial Forensics book written by Paul Keim,American Academy of Microbiology, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Ioana G. Petrisor,James Malcolm Waters,Leigh Alexander Burgoyne,David Edward Arnold Catcheside
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Microbial Forensics book written by Ioana G. Petrisor,James Malcolm Waters,Leigh Alexander Burgoyne,David Edward Arnold Catcheside, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Science Needs for Microbial Forensics

Science Needs for Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 9780309302425
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Science Needs for Microbial Forensics book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

National Research and Development Strategy for Microbial Forensics

National Research and Development Strategy for Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009*
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial forensics is the emerging interdisciplinary field of microbiology devoted to the development, evaluation, validation, and application of methods to detect and fully characterize microbial samples containing a biological agent or its components for the purpose of statistically meaningful comparative analyses. These methods will provide data for attribution investigations involving pathogens, toxins or other biological materials that are collected as part of an investigation of a planned or actual biocrime or bioterrorism attack on people, animals or plants.

Use of Microbial Forensics in the Middle East North Africa Region

Use of Microbial Forensics in the Middle East North Africa Region Book
Author : Christopher A. Bidwell,Randall Murch
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this report, FAS will look at the potential use of microbial forensic science as a tool for cooperation and analysis of biological and threats in the Middle-East/North Africa (MENA) region. Focusing on the MENA region is prudent, as the region has been forced to deal with multiple instances of both naturally-occurring and man-made biological threats over the last 10 years, including H5N1 (Avian Bird Flu), MERS-Corona virus, and allegations of Ricin production and use. The naturally-occurring spread of disease has been a much more frequent and salient event. These biological incidents (and/or suspected events) have all caused significant social disruption and economic weakness. Understanding the source of a biological incident is significant because the key pre-condition that determines how a country will respond to a biological event, or take action in order to interrupt a potential emerging threat, ultimately centers around the ability to properly attribute the culpable sources (pathogens); in other words, governments need to determine the return address of the culpable microbe(s), be they from countries, individuals, or nature itself. Without such attribution, there would be no basis for marshaling a response. Unfortunately, microbial forensic evidence can be easily misinterpreted or put in an incorrect circumstantial framework, causing policy leaders to respond to threats that may not actually exist, or miss those that do – either condition leading to an increased likelihood of an undesirable policy outcome. Working through the decision process in this area is simultaneously a technical, as well as a political, challenge. This project has endeavored to address these challenges in the MENA region by drawing attention to them and making recommendations on how best to address them.

Toward a system of microbial forensics

Toward a system of microbial forensics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Toward a system of microbial forensics book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

DNA Fingerprinting Advancements and Future Endeavors

DNA Fingerprinting  Advancements and Future Endeavors Book
Author : Hirak Ranjan Dash,Pankaj Shrivastava,Braja Kishore Mohapatra,Surajit Das
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-11-01
ISBN : 9811315833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the basics and various applications of DNA fingerprinting, including in actual case studies. The book is divided in four modules; Module 1: Basics of DNA Fingerprinting, Module 2: Applications of DNA Fingerprinting, Module 3: DNA Fingerprinting: Case Studies, and Module 4: Future of DNA Fingerprinting. Each module consists of 4 to 5 chapters, written by reputed researchers, academics and forensic scientists from around the globe. The respective chapters cover e.g. related fields, the tools and techniques used, various genotyping kits, real-world case studies, ancient DNA and wild life forensics, molecular diagnosis of human diseases, legal aspects, microbial forensics and the economics of the DNA fingerprinting technique. The book offers a practical guide for professionals, graduate and post-graduate students in the fields of Forensic Science, Medicine, Genetics, Anthropology, Microbiology, and Zoology. It also serves as a useful reference resource, summarizing major technological advances in the field of DNA fingerprinting, the problems faced in this field of science and possible new solutions to these problems. Presently, DNA fingerprinting is utilized in solving the majority of criminal cases; as such, the book is also helpful for investigating agencies, as it includes representative case studies.

Preventing the Sixth Plague Microbial Forensics in the War Against Terrorism

Preventing the Sixth Plague  Microbial Forensics in the War Against Terrorism Book
Author : Amanda Mickley
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Preventing the Sixth Plague Microbial Forensics in the War Against Terrorism book written by Amanda Mickley, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING IN MICROBIAL FORENSICS

APPLICATIONS OF MACHINE LEARNING IN MICROBIAL FORENSICS Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract : Microbial ecosystems are complex, with hundreds of members interacting with each other and the environment. The intricate and hidden behaviors underlying these interactions make research questions challenging - but can be better understood through machine learning. However, most machine learning that is used in microbiome work is a black box form of investigation, where accurate predictions can be made, but the inner logic behind what is driving prediction is hidden behind nontransparent layers of complexity. Accordingly, the goal of this dissertation is to provide an interpretable and in-depth machine learning approach to investigate microbial biogeography and to use micro-organisms as novel tools to detect geospatial location and object provenance (previous known origin). These contributions follow with a framework that allows extraction of interpretable metrics and actionable insights from microbiome-based machine learning models. The first part of this work provides an overview of machine learning in the context of microbial ecology, human microbiome studies and environmental monitoring - outlining common practice and shortcomings. The second part of this work demonstrates a field study to demonstrate how machine learning can be used to characterize patterns in microbial biogeography globally - using microbes from ports located around the world. The third part of this work studies the persistence and stability of natural microbial communities from the environment that have colonized objects (vessels) and stay attached as they travel through the water. Finally, the last part of this dissertation provides a robust framework for investigating the microbiome. This framework provides a reasonable understanding of the data being used in microbiome-based machine learning and allows researchers to better apprehend and interpret results. Together, these extensive experiments assist an understanding of how to carry an in-silico design that characterizes candidate microbial biomarkers from real world settings to a rapid, field deployable diagnostic assay. The work presented here provides evidence for the use of microbial forensics as a toolkit to expand our basic understanding of microbial biogeography, microbial community stability and persistence in complex systems, and the ability of machine learning to be applied to downstream molecular detection platforms for rapid and accurate detection.

Microbial Forensics

Microbial Forensics Book
Author : Kyle S. Reilly
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Microbial Forensics book written by Kyle S. Reilly, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Microbiome Yarns

Microbiome Yarns Book
Author : Kenneth N Timmis,Franziska Jebok,Romilio T Espejo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract

Advances in microbial food safety

Advances in microbial food safety Book
Author : G.C. Barker
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-07-31
ISBN : 0128089806
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biotracing is a method for investigating food chain contamination events that concentrates on identification of probable sources. Biotracing is complementary to existing food safety assessments and is related to similar investigation processes in molecular epidemiology and forensic science. This chapter describes the background to biotracing, identifies important elements and describes an emerging methodology. In addition the chapter includes a review of a detailed biotracing model for Staphylococcus aureus in processed milk. The chapter concludes by highlighting options for food chain integration and includes some possibilities for future developments.

Stable Isotope Ratios as a Tool in Microbial Forensics Part 2 Isotopic Variation Among Different Growth Media as a Tool for Sourcing Origins of Bacterial Cells Or Spores

Stable Isotope Ratios as a Tool in Microbial Forensics  Part 2  Isotopic Variation Among Different Growth Media as a Tool for Sourcing Origins of Bacterial Cells Or Spores Book
Author : HW. Kreuzer-Martin,LA. Chesson,MJ. Lott,JV. Dorigan,Ehleringer, JR.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the anthrax attacks of 2001 the need for methods to trace the origins of microbial agents has become urgent. The stable isotope ratios of bacteria record information from both the nutrients and the water used to make their culture media (1) and could potentially be used to provide information about their growth environment. We present a survey of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and hydrogen (H) stable isotope ratios in 516 samples of bacteriological culture media. The observed variation was consistent with expected isotopic variation in the plant and animal products upon which the media are based. The variation is sufficient to translate into substantial isotope variation in cultures grown on different batches of media, and thus to allow investigators to determine whether seized media could have been used to produce seized bioweapons agents.

Forensic DNA Typing Principles Applications and Advancements

Forensic DNA Typing  Principles  Applications and Advancements Book
Author : Pankaj Shrivastava,Hirak Ranjan Dash,Jose A. Lorente,Jahangir Imam
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-12-11
ISBN : 9811566550
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book explores the fundamental principles, advances in forensic techniques, and its application on forensic DNA analysis. The book is divided into three modules; the first module provides the historical prospect of forensic DNA typing and introduces fundamentals of forensic DNA typing, methodology, and technical advancements, application of STRs, and DNA databases for forensic DNA profile analysis. Module 2 examines the problems and challenges encountered in extracting DNA and generating DNA profiles. It provides information on the methods and the best practices for DNA isolation from forensic biological samples and human remains like ancient DNA, DNA typing of skeletal remains and disaster victim identification, the importance of DNA typing in human trafficking, and various problems associated with capillary electrophoresis. Module 3 emphasizes various technologies that are based on SNPs, STRs namely Y-STR, X-STR, mitochondrial DNA profiling in forensic science. Module 4 explores the application of non-human forensic DNA typing of domestic animals, wildlife forensics, plant DNA fingerprinting, and microbial forensics. The last module discusses new areas and alternative methods in forensic DNA typing, including Next-Generation Sequencing, and its utility in forensic science, oral microbes, and forensic DNA phenotyping. Given its scope, the book is a useful resource in the field of DNA fingerprinting for scientists, forensic experts, and students at the postgraduate level.