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Microbial Ecology Of Wastewater Treatment Plants

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Microbial Ecology of Wastewater Treatment Plants

Microbial Ecology of Wastewater Treatment Plants Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-15
ISBN : 0128225041
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial Ecology of Wastewater Treatment Plants presents different methods and techniques used in microbial ecology to study the interactions and evolution of microbial populations in WWTPs, particularly the new molecular tools developed in the last decades. These molecular biology-based methods (e.g. studies of DNA, RNA and proteins) provide a high resolution of information compared to traditional ways of studying microbial wastewater populations, such as microscopic examination and culture-based methods. In addition, this book addresses the ability of microorganisms to degrade environmental pollutants. Describes application of different Omics tools in Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Demonstrates the role of microorganisms in WWTPs Includes discussions on the microbial ecology of WWTPs Covers the microbial diversity of activated sludge Emphasizes cutting-edge molecular tools

An Innovative Role of Biofiltration in Wastewater Treatment Plants WWTPs

An Innovative Role of Biofiltration in Wastewater Treatment Plants  WWTPs  Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Jayanta Kumar Biswas
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-12-15
ISBN : 0128239476
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many physico-chemical and operational factors influence the performance, treatment costs, and longterm stability of biofilters for the treatment of wastewater. An innovative role of biofiltration in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) focuses on identifying the factors that affect biofiltration, such as the hydraulic retention time of the biofiltration system, the type and characteristics of the filter, and the attached biomass, explains their influence and provides guidelines on how to control these factors to optimize better operation with respect to pollutant control present in (WWTPs). The fundamental basis of the treatment in biofilters is the action of pollutant-degrading microorganisms and consequently the book also discusses in depth about the microbial ecology of biofiltration. In addition, it explores the applications of biofiltration including the removal of emerging pollutants. Describes the microbial ecology of biofiltration Includes modeling of biofiltration Describes the designing of biofilters, start-up, and monitoring Discusses the mechanism of biofiltration Describes the controlling and operational factors of biofiltration

Microbial Ecology of Activated Sludge

Microbial Ecology of Activated Sludge Book
Author : R. J. Seviour,Per Halkjær Nielsen
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1843390329
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Microbial Ecology of Activated Sludge, written for both microbiologists and engineers, critically reviews our current understanding of the microbiology of activated sludge, the most commonly used process for treating both domestic and industrial wastes.The contributors are all internationally recognized as leading research workers in activated sludge microbiology, and all have made valuable contributions to our present understanding of the process. The book pays particular attention to how the application of molecular methods has changed our perceptions of the identity of the filamentous bacteria causing the operational disorders of bulking and foaming, and the bacteria responsible for nitrification and denitrification and phosphorus accumulation in nutrient removal processes. Special attention is given to how it is now becoming possible to relate the composition of the community of microbes present in activated sludge, and the in situ function of individual populations there, and how such information might be used to manage and control these systems better. Detailed descriptions of some of these molecular methods are provided to allow newcomers to this field of study an opportunity to apply them in their research. Comprehensive descriptions of organisms of interest and importance are also given, together with high quality photos of activated sludge microbes."--Publisher's description.

Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes

Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-05-12
ISBN : 032398505X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes: Microbial Ecology, Diversity and Functions of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria covers up-to-date research on ammonia oxidizing bacteria and their application for the removal of ammonia nitrogen from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), discussing remaining gaps in their biology and functions. In this sense, this book features the application of the newly developed omics tools in order to develop less energy intensive and cost-effective biological processes for nitrogen removal from WWTPs. This makes this book an essential and unique book for advanced students, research scientists, environmental agencies and industries involved in wastewater treatment. Covers the application of different omics tools for studying the microbial ecology, diversity and function of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Describes the role of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms in WWTPs Presents the microbial ecology of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in WWTPs Includes the microbial diversity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria Emphasizes important aspects of cutting-edge molecular tools in the study of metabolic pathways of ammonia oxidizing bacteria

Microbial Wastewater Treatment

Microbial Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-06-12
ISBN : 0128168102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial Wastewater Treatment focuses on the exploitation of microorganisms as decontaminating tools to treat polluted wastewater, a worldwide concern. Microorganism-based processes are seen as promising technologies to treat the ever-increasing problem of polluted wastewater. The book covers recently developed process technologies to solve five major trends in the field of wastewater treatment, including nutrient removal and recovery, trace organic compounds, energy saving and production, sustainability and community involvement. Illustrates the importance of microorganisms in wastewater treatment Points out the reuse of the treated wastewater Highlights the recovery of resources from wastewater Pays attention to the occurrence of novel micro-pollutants Introduces new trends in wastewater technology

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-02-16
ISBN : 100053202X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wastewater Treatment: Molecular Tools, Techniques, and Applications provides an insight about the application of different tools and technology for exploring microbial structure-function relationships that involved in WWTPs. From the present day consequence of alarming usable water crysis throughout the globe, an immediate action on water cycle is necessary. Along with other options the waste water recycling is one major opportunity to combat the future scarcity. The book aims to provide a comprehensive view of advanced emerging technologies for wastewater treatment, heavy metal removal, pesticide degradation, dye removal, waste management, microbial transformation of environmental contaminants, etc. It also describes different application of Omic tools in Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs),describes the role of microorganisms in WWTPs, points out the reuse of treated wastewater through emerging technologies, also includes the recovery of resources from wastewater and emphasizes on cutting edge molecular tools for WWTPs. We hope the content of the book will be very much usefull for the community who are directly associated in wastewater management research, people who are associated with environmental awarness programme and the students of UG and PG courses. Features: This book highlights the importance of molecular genomics, molecular biology techniques to sort out the problems faced by industrialist who operates wastewater treatment plant with the ever-increasing number of environmental pollutants. Describes application of different Omic tools in Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Describes the role of microorganisms in WWTPs Points out the reuse of treated wastewater through emerging technologies. Includes the recovery of resources from wastewater Emphasizes on cutting edge molecular tools This book targets engineers, scientists and managers who require an excellent introduction and basic knowledge to the principles of molecular biology or molecular genomics in the area of wastewater treatment. Different professionals working or interested in the Environmental Microbiology or Bioremediation or Environmental Genomics field. Students on Environmental Biotechnology/Microbiology.

Biofilms in Wastewater Treatment

Biofilms in Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Stefan Wuertz,Paul L. Bishop,P. A. Wilderer
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2003
ISBN : 1843390078
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms in Wastewater Treatment: An Interdiscipli

The Link Between Denitrifying Ecology Environmental Conditions and Nitrous Oxide Production in Wastewater Treatment

The Link Between Denitrifying Ecology  Environmental Conditions  and Nitrous Oxide Production in Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Cody Mankelow
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas and ozone-depleting compound known to be emitted from wastewater treatment. Emissions of N2O results from the activity of the microorganisms employed in the transformation of reactive nitrogen species (NOx). N2O emissions from wastewater treatment are currently underestimated by United Nations (UN) and the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines, and treatment plants show differing rates of N2O emissions. Improving our understanding of the mechanisms that drive N2O production and subsequent emissions are essential for its mitigation. N2O is produced by a variety of microbial metabolic pathways; this thesis primarily focuses on N2O production via the denitrification pathway. Denitrification, conducted by heterotrophic bacteria is the Dissimilatory reduction of nitrogen oxides such as nitrate (NO3-) or nitrite (NO2-) to di-nitrogen gas (N2), using carbon as electron donors. The process occurs in a cascade reducing NO3-, to NO2-, nitric oxide (NO), N2O and finally N2. This process is catalyzed by several enzymes including, nitrate reductase (Nar, and Nap), nitrite reductase (Nir) nitric oxide reductase (Nor) and nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ). Denitrification is a widespread trait, and the pathway is encoded by a variety of genes, which produce functionally equivalent enzymes but form differing denitrifying phylogenies. For example, nitrite reductase is encoded by nirS and nirK the genes for the cytochrome-cd1 and copper-based dissimilatory nitrite reductases, respectively, while nitrous oxide reductase is encoded by either the truncated or non-truncated gene nosZII or nosZI respectively. It has been proposed that differences in the microbial population may explain the difference in N2O emission observed between treatment plants. This hypothesis is supported by the recent discovery of non-denitrifying N2O reducing organisms encoded by the gene nosZII. These organisms lack the preceding enzymes of the denitrifying pathway but retain the ability to reduce N2O, they have a high abundance in soils, and nosZII abundance shows a strong correlation with reduced N2O emissions. The understanding of denitrifying microbial ecology and its role in the production of N2O from wastewater treatment is currently limited. The primary aim of this thesis is to address the hypothesis: Denitrifying ecology determines the magnitude and rate of N2O accumulation in Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sludge. To address this hypothesis, a stepwise approach has been taken. 1) A survey of the microbial ecology of three New Zealand (NZ) WWTPs was conducted to determine denitrifying ecology by the distribution of denitrifying functional markers (nirS, nirK, nosZI, and nosZII) within each population. The following hypotheses were tested, a) denitrifying populations will differ between WWTPs, and b) Wastewater is a disadvantageous environment for non-denitrifying organisms (nosZII), and they will be under-represented. 2) Using the sludges from the surveyed WWTPs, sludge metabolism was examined under ideal denitrifying conditions for differences in NOx profiles including N2O accumulation. Accumulation of NOx intermediaries was correlated with the relative abundance of denitrifying functional markers, testing the hypotheses c) differing denitrifying populations accumulate different amounts of N2O, and d) N2O accumulation will correlate with non-denitrifying organism abundance. 3) As wastewater treatment plants are not stable environments and can suffer from process perturbations, sludges with now known populations, and NOx profiles under control conditions, were exposed to environmental shocks (pH and nitrite (NO2-). Testing the hypothesis: e) Within a specific range of environmental shock, denitrifying population structure will determine N2O accumulation. Survey of NZ microbial populations supports the hypotheses, showing differing total microbial and denitrifying populations, with low abundance of non-denitrifying N2O reducing organisms(nosZII). Analysis of the relative abundance of denitrifying functional markers suggests NZ WWTPs have a genetic predisposition to N2O emissions. Additional findings include the identification of co-occurring nirK and nirS in the same organisms in each treatment plant and the observation that NZ treatment plants show the opposite trend to most of the literature reports with a markedly dominant nirK over nirS population. Examination of the NOx profiles of the three sludges under ideal denitrifying conditions supports the hypotheses showing differing N2O accumulation in each sludge and increasing abundance of nosZII correlating with a decrease in the maximum N2O concentration. All sludges acclimatized to laboratory conditions quickly accumulating minimal N2O after just four sequence batch cycles. Analysis of changes in the rate of NO3- reduction and the Max N2O accumulation suggests that under stable conditions N2O accumulation will be minimal. Examination of the population's response to environmental shock supports the hypothesis, with different populations accumulating N2O when exposed to different environmental shocks. No population was susceptible to N2O accumulation under all conditions. Populations that exhibited NO2- accumulation were resistant to NO2- shock but more susceptible to changes in pH, while populations exhibiting minimal NO2- accumulation were sensitive to NO2- shock but more resistant to changes in PH accumulation. This research concludes that denitrifying microbial populations determine the accumulation of N2O in response to changes in environmental conditions. Denitrifying populations differ between WWTPs. However, results suggest, irrespective of the denitrifying microbial population's structure, stable conditions will result in minimal N2O accumulation. When exposed to environmental shock differing populations showed susceptibility to accumulated N2O under differing environmental conditions. These results suggest that management of N2O accumulation and subsequent emissions will need to be on a case by case basis. Emissions may be addressed by the introduction of a microbial population less susceptible to the N2O accumulation under the environmental conditions of a given treatment plant. Further research is required to test the feasibility of this management strategy.

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Kavit Mehta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-24
ISBN : 0128231041
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Future of Effluent Treatment Plants: Biological Treatment Systems is an advanced and updated version of existing biological technologies that includes their limitations, challenges, and potential application to remove chemical oxygen demand (COD), refractory chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), color removal and environmental pollutants through advancements in microbial bioremediation. The book introduces new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation with thorough discussions of recent developments. In addition, it illustrates that the application of these new emerging innovative technologies can lead to energy savings and resource recovery. The importance of respiration, nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, denitrification and biological phosphorus removal processes in the development of a fruitful and applicable solution for the removal of toxic pollutants from wastewater treatment plants is highlighted. Equally important is the knowledge and theoretical modeling of water movement through wastewater ecosystems. Finally, emphasis is given to the function of constructed wetlands and activated sludge processes. Considers different types of industrial wastewater Focuses on biological wastewater treatments Introduces new trends in bioremediation Addresses the future of WWTPs

Wastewater Bacteria

Wastewater Bacteria Book
Author : Michael H. Gerardi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-04-20
ISBN : 0471979899
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A practical guide to wastewater bacteria and the roles they performin wastewater treatment Communicating material in a practical manner for operators andtechnicians who regulate and troubleshoot their wastewatertreatment processes, Wastewater Bacteria discusses the effectivecontrol and proper operation of aerobic (activated sludge) andanaerobic (anaerobic digesters) biological treatment units toensure that an adequate, active, and appropriate population ofbacteria is present in each treatment unit. It is a hands-on guideto understanding the biology and biological conditions that occurat each treatment unit. Avoiding unnecessary technical jargon and chemical equations,Wastewater Bacteria, the fifth book in the Wastewater MicrobiologySeries, explores and explains: * Bacteria and the wastewater environment * Enzymes and sludge production * Nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur bacteria * Floc formation and filamentous organisms * Nitrification and denitrification * Sulfate reduction, fermentation, and methane production * Toxicity * Foam and malodor production The goal of Wastewater Bacteria is to enable plant operators toachieve the twofold basic objectives of wastewater treatment-todegrade organic wastes to a level where a significant, dissolvedoxygen demand is not exerted upon receiving waters and to removenutrients to levels where photosynthetic organisms in receivingwaters are limited in their growth. This straightforward manualequips plant technicians to meet these objectives with essentialinformation to understand the biological processes and organismsinvolved in wastewater treatment.

Wastewater Microbiology

Wastewater Microbiology Book
Author : Gabriel Bitton
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-06-09
ISBN : 1118148150
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wastewater Microbiology focuses on microbial contaminants found in wastewater, methods of detection for these contaminants, and methods of cleansing water of microbial contamination. This classic reference has now been updated to focus more exclusively on issues particular to wastewater, with new information on fecal contamination and new molecular methods. The book features new methods to determine cell viability/activity in environmental samples; a new section on bacterial spores as indicators; new information covering disinfection byproducts, UV disinfection, and photoreactivation; and much more. A PowerPoint of figures from the book is available at ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/wastewater_microbiology.

Wastewater Treatment Reactors

Wastewater Treatment Reactors Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Susana Rodriguez-Couto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-12
ISBN : 0128242442
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wastewater Treatment Reactors: Microbial Community Structure analyzes microbial community structure in relation to changes in physico-chemical parameters, the gene content (metagenome) or gene expression (metatranscriptome) of microbial communities in relation to changes in physico-chemical parameters, physiological aspects of microbial communities, enrichment cultures or pure cultures of key species in relation to changes in physico-chemical parameters, and modeling of potential consequences of changes in microbial community structure or function for higher trophic levels in a given habitat. As several studies have been carried out to understand bulking phenomena and the importance of environmental factors on sludge settling characteristics, which are thought to be strongly influenced by flocculation, sludge bulking, foaming and rising, this book is an ideal resource on the topics covered. Presents the state-of-the-art techniques and applications of omics tools in wastewater treatment reactors (WWTRs) Describes both theoretical and practical knowledge surrounding the fundamental roles of microorganisms in WWTRs Points out the reuse of treated wastewater through emerging technologies Covers the economics of wastewater treatment and the development of suitable alternatives in terms of performance and cost effectiveness Discusses cutting-edge molecular biological tools Gives in-depth knowledge to study microbial community structure and function in wastewater treatment reactors

Wastewater Treatment

Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Maulin P. Shah,Angana Sarkar,Sukhendu Mandal
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-01-30
ISBN : 0128218959
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Wastewater Treatment: Cutting-Edge Molecular Tools, Techniques and Applied Aspects reports new findings in existing molecular biology strategies, including their limitations, challenges and potential application to remove environmental pollutants through advancements made in cutting edge tools. In addition, the book introduces new trends and advances in environmental bioremediation with thorough discussions on recent developments in this field. Describes the application of different omics tools in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) Describes the role of microorganisms in WWTPs Points out the reuse of treated wastewater through emerging technologies Includes the recovery of resources from wastewater Emphasizes the need for the use of cutting-edge molecular tools

Aerobic Granular Sludge

Aerobic Granular Sludge Book
Author : S. Bathe,M. K. de Kreuk,B. S. McSwain,N. Schwarzenbeck
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2005-03-31
ISBN : 9781843395096
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aerobic Granular Sludge has recently received growing attention by researchers and technology developers, worldwide. Laboratory studies and preliminary field tests led to the conclusion that granular activated sludge can be readily established and profitably used in activated sludge plants, provided 'correct' process conditions are chosen. But what makes process conditions 'correct'? And what makes granules different from activated sludge flocs? Answers to these question are offered in Aerobic Granular Sludge. Major topics covered in this book include: Reasons and mechanism of aerobic granule formation Structure of the microbial population of aerobic granules Role, composition and physical properties of EPS Diffuse limitation and microbial activity within granules Physio-chemical characteristics Operation and application of granule reactors Scale-up aspects of granular sludge reactors, and case studies Aerobic Granular Sludge provides up-to-date information about a rapidly emerging new technology of biological treatment.

The Ecology of Waste Water Treatment

The Ecology of Waste Water Treatment Book
Author : H. A. Hawkes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-09-11
ISBN : 1483226026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Ecology of Waste Water Treatment covers the principles of biology considered necessary for an understanding of some ecological aspects of wastewater treatment. This book is composed of seven chapters, and begins with an overview of the significant biological aspects related to wastewater treatment. The subsequent chapters examine the factors determining the dominant organisms in sludge and bacteria beds. Other chapters highlight the role of biological oxidation in wastewater treatment and the ecological parameters in the design and operation of activated sludge plants. A chapter provides practical methods of maintaining population balance at a low level of microorganisms. The final chapter considers the operational requirements necessary to ensure suitable ecological conditions for bacteria beds. This book is of value to microbiologists, ecologists, and environment-related fields.

Wastewater Microbiology

Wastewater Microbiology Book
Author : Gabriel Bitton
Publisher : Wiley-Liss
Release : 2005-01-27
ISBN : 9780471717966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The new edition of a classic reference incorporating the latest findings and discoveries The Third Edition of this classic reference provides readers with concise, up-to-the-moment coverage of the role of microorganisms in water and wastewater treatment. By providing a solid foundation in microbiology, microbial growth, metabolism, and nutrient cycling, the text gives readers the tools they need to make critical decisions that affect public health, as well as the practical aspects of treatment, disinfection, water distribution, bioremediation, and water and wastewater reuse. The publication begins a discussion of microbiology principles, followed by a discussion of public health issues and concerns. Next, the core of the text is dedicated to a thorough examination of wastewater and drinking water treatment, biosolids, pollution-control biotechnology, and drinking water distribution. The remainder of the text discusses toxicity testing in wastewater treatment plants, and the public health aspects of wastewater disposal and reuse. The many advances in wastewater and drinking water microbiology have all been thoroughly integrated into the publication, including: * A new chapter on bioterrorism and drinking water safety * The latest developments in biofilm microbial ecology and biofilm impact on drinking water quality * New, state-of-the-art detection techniques * Expanded and revised treatment of toxicity testing, including new testing methods and studies on endocrine disrupters in wastewater * Alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment New problem sets, which test readers' knowledge, as well as a list of Internet resources have been added to each chapter. In addition, the publication's extensive references have been thoroughly revised for readers who would like to learn more about the latest findings and discoveries on specialized topics. Finally, the color plate section has been expanded and contains many new illustrations and tables. An authoritative guide for all researchers, administrators, and engineers in the field of microbiology, Wastewater Microbiology, Third Edition is also a valuable reference for civil and environmental engineers, public health officials, and students involved in environmental engineering and science.

Microbial Biofilms

Microbial Biofilms Book
Author : Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran,Nooruddin Thajuddin
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2016-07-13
ISBN : 9535124358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the book Microbial Biofilms: Importance and applications, eminent scientists provide an up-to-date review of the present and future trends on biofilm-related research. This book is divided with four subdivisions as biofilm fundamentals, applications, health aspects, and their control. Moreover, this book also provides a comprehensive account on microbial interactions in biofilms, pyocyanin, and extracellular DNA in facilitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation, atomic force microscopic studies of biofilms, and biofilms in beverage industry. The book comprises a total of 21 chapters from valued contributions from world leading experts in Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Serbia, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Republic of Korea, Mexico, Poland, Portugal, and Turkey. This book may be used as a text or reference for everyone interested in biofilms and their applications. It is also highly recommended for environmental microbiologists, soil scientists, medical microbiologists, bioremediation experts, and microbiologists working in biocorrosion, biofouling, biodegradation, water microbiology, quorum sensing, and many other related areas. Scientists in academia, research laboratories, and industry will also find it of interest.

Disturbance performance diversity Relationships and Microbial Ecology in Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment

Disturbance performance diversity Relationships and Microbial Ecology in Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment Book
Author : Ezequiel Santillan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438034853
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological wastewater treatment plays a major role in the protection of water quality and public health. Wastewater also constitutes a renewable source of freshwater in urban centres with scarce water supplies. Improving the stability and performance of wastewater treatment processes is a main focus of environmental engineering and biotechnology, to help achieve the sustainable development goal of guaranteeing availability and perdurability of water and sanitation for everyone. Microbial communities in bioreactors are responsible for the removal of organic carbon and nutrients. Disturbance is deemed a main factor affecting the stability of microbial community assembly and function, but a predictive understanding of its outcomes remains unclear. Several relevant aspects are currently under debate including whether disturbance can lead to reproducible or variable states of function and microbial composition, whether a more diverse community implies a better ecosystem performance, what drives the balance between stochastic and deterministic mechanisms of community assembly, and how pulses versus sustained perturbations affect microbial community structure and performance. Additionally, trait-based approaches from community ecology offer a way to find general rules to understand the mechanisms driving changes in community assembly and function under perturbations, but their applicability to microbial ecology and environmental biotechnology has only been suggested so far. This dissertation aims to integrate the concepts of disturbance-diversity-performance in sludge bioreactors from an interdisciplinary perspective involving the fields of engineering, molecular biology, ecology and statistics. The goals of this research were to (1) study the effect of defined disturbance events on bioreactor community assembly; (2) investigate the effect of disturbances on key functions for process performance in bioreactors; (3) examine temporal dynamics of sludge bacterial communities under succession; and (4) incorporate frameworks from ecological theory to aid in the understanding of these three prior objectives, with the additional potential of making its findings useful for studies across other complex microbial communities. To address these goals, controlled experiments using activated sludge bioreactors (inoculated from a full-scale facility) and different disturbance agents were designed and performed at different scales of volume, time and replication. For all studies, variations in ecosystem function were tracked, while a combination of distance-based multivariate tests and ordination methods, alpha-diversity indices, general linear multivariate models, and null model analysis from ecology, was employed to evaluate changes in microbial community structure. The first study involved a 35-day microcosm experiment using 24 replicated wastewater bioreactors subjected to a range of different disturbance frequencies in the form of toxic 3-chloroaniline. A stronger temporal decrease in alpha-diversity at the extreme, undisturbed and press-disturbed, sides of the disturbance range led to an intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH) pattern, with the highest diversity found at intermediate levels of disturbance. Undisturbed and press-disturbed levels displayed the highest community and functional similarity across replicates, suggesting deterministic processes dominating. The opposite was observed amongst intermediately disturbed levels, implying stronger stochastic assembly mechanisms. Tradeoffs were observed in community function between organic carbon removal and both nitrification and biomass productivity, as well as between diversity and function, hence not every ecosystem function was favoured by higher community diversity. The second study employed trait-based frameworks from ecology to enhance the understanding of the response of this complex microbial system after 35 days of succession under a disturbance gradient. The concept of ‘community aggregated traits’ was incorporated to assess ecosystem function parameters and to identify ‘trait complexes’ from the genotypic information gathered from the metagenomics dataset. Different community-level life-history strategies were associated across the disturbance range, with competitors (C) at the undisturbed level and stress-tolerants (S) at the press-disturbed level, while intermediate levels of disturbance harboured ruderal (R) strategies. Such three-way CSR strategies were proposed in the lights of trade-offs in community function and genotypic potential, and changes in bacterial genera composition. The third study tested the effect of a non-toxic sustained variation in organic loading, involving two sets of four replicate mesocosm reactors that were operated at two different food to biomass (F:M) (0.19 and 0.36) and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) (3.5 and 6.3) ratios for a period of 127 days, including 53 days of sludge acclimation. The results showed that disturbed reactors with high F:M and C:N ratios exhibited different ecosystem function, community and genotypic assembly compared to the control reactors. Treatment reactors displayed quantifiable and initially variable functional resistance. Despite displaying higher taxonomic alpha-diversity, these reactors exhibited partial inhibition of nitrification, showing that higher diversity did not translate into better functionality. Deterministic assembly mechanisms for bacterial genera were stronger for disturbed reactors, while stochastic assembly was more important among rare (

Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes

Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes Book
Author : Susana Rodriguez-Couto,Maulin P. Shah,Jayanta Kumar Biswas
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-11
ISBN : 0323900119
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater through Bio-nanotechnology showcases profiles of the nonregulated contaminants termed as “emerging contaminants, which comprise industrial and household persistent toxic chemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), pesticides, surfactants and surfactant residues, plasticizers and industrial additives, manufactured nanomaterials and nanoparticles, microplastics, etc. that are used extensively in everyday life. The occurrence of “emerging contaminants in wastewater, and their behavior during wastewater treatment and production of drinking water are key issues in the reuse and recycling of water resources. This book focuses on the exploitation of Nano-biotechnology inclusive of the state-of-the-art remediate strategies to degrade/detoxify/stabilize toxic and hazardous contaminants and restore contaminated sites, which is not as comprehensively discussed in the existing titles on similar topics available in the global market. In addition, it discusses the potential environmental and health hazards and ecotoxicity associated with the widespread distribution of emerging contaminants in the water bodies. It also considers the life cycle assessment (LCA) of emerging (micro)-pollutants with suitable case studies from various industrial sources. Provides natural and ecofriendly solutions to deal with the problem of pollution Details underlying mechanisms of nanotechnology-associated microbes for the removal of emerging contaminants Describes numerous successful field studies on the application of bio-nanotechnology for eco-restoration of contaminated sites Presents recent advances and challenges in bio-nanotechnology research and applications for sustainable development Provides authoritative contributions on the diverse aspects of bio-nanotechnology by world’s leading experts