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Memory Reconsolidation

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Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Cristina M. Alberini
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0123868939
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As little as 10 years ago, it was believed that memory went from short to long term via one consolidation practice that made that memory intractable. Since then, research has shown that long-term memories can be activated, modified, and reconsolidated in their new form. This research indicates that memories are more dynamic than once believed. And understanding how this process works and helping people to redefine established memories can be clinically useful if those memories lead to problems, as is the case in post-traumatic stress disorder. This book provides a comprehensive overview of research on memory reconsolidation; what this has to say about the formation, storage, and changeability of memory; and the potential applications of this research to treating clinical disorders. Presents both neuroscience and psychological research on memory reconsolidation Discusses what findings mean for understanding memory formation, storage, and retrieval Includes treatment applications of these findings

Unlocking the Emotional Brain

Unlocking the Emotional Brain Book
Author : Bruce Ecker,Robin Ticic,Laurel Hulley
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0415897165
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Psychotherapy that regularly yields liberating, lasting change was, in the last century, a futuristic vision, but it has now become reality, thanks to a convergence of remarkable advances in clinical knowledge and brain science. In Unlocking the Emotional Brain, authors Ecker, Ticic and Hulley equip readers to carry out focused, empathic therapy using the process found by researchers to induce memory reconsolidation, the recently discovered and only known process for actually unlocking emotional memory at the synaptic level. Emotional memory's tenacity is the familiar bane of therapists, and researchers have long believed that emotional memory forms indelible learning. Reconsolidation has overturned these views. It allows new learning to erase, not just suppress, the deep, unconscious, intensely problematic emotional learnings that form during childhood or in later tribulations and generate most of the symptoms that bring people to therapy. Readers will learn methods that precisely eliminate unwanted, ingrained emotional responses—whether moods, behaviors or thought patterns—causing no loss of ordinary narrative memory, while restoring clients' well-being. Numerous case examples show the versatile use of this process in AEDP, Coherence Therapy, EFT, EMDR and IPNB.

Memory Reconsolidation in Psychotherapy

Memory Reconsolidation in Psychotherapy Book
Author : Bruce Ecker,Robin Ticic,Elise Kushner,Kymberly Lasser,Ricky Greenwald
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2015-01-21
ISBN : 9781506004341
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memory reconsolidation (MR)—a foundational process with the potential, if properly understood, to consistently bring about the kind of transformational change that we look for in the lives of clients—is the subject of this book. Featured in this issue is Bruce Ecker, one of the foremost experts in applying techniques that fulfil the neurobiological requirements to achieve MR in clinical practice. In fact all of the authors in this issue are experts in their respective fields, demonstrating the unifying nature of MR in such diverse therapies as the Alexander technique, energy psychology, neuro-linguistic programming, and progressive counting. Understanding the biological basis of our memory and how it can be modified is the key to effective therapeutic change, especially when emotional memories are driving unwanted symptoms.The content of this special issue has been previously published in The Neuropsychotherapist or the International Journal of Neuropsychotherapy.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Jonathan L.C. Lee
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memory reconsolidation is the process that serves to restabilize a memory that has been destabilized through memory retrieval. This retrieval-induced plasticity has been extensively studied in the hippocampus, among other neural loci. A focus on hippocampal memory reconsolidation, for contextual fear, pure contextual, and spatial memories, reveals interesting constraints on when a retrieved memory undergoes reconsolidation. Moreover, the emergence of dissociable mechanisms of hippocampal contextual fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation has allowed the demonstration that reconsolidation serves to update both the strength and the content of hippocampal memories. This provides compelling evidence that, at least in the hippocampus, reconsolidation exists in order to modify memories. However, whether or not these hippocampal findings can be generalized to nonhippocampal memories remains to be determined.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Almut Hupbach,Rebecca Gomez,Lynn Nadel
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In contrast to the study of memory reconsolidation in animals, research in humans is still in the early stages. This reflects the challenge to directly target memory reconsolidation without the use of pharmacological interventions that are often not safe for humans. Most studies therefore use paradigms in which new material is presented soon after memory reactivation. These studies show that human memories can be modified contingent upon their reactivation. Specifically, the novel material leads to interference in the original memories. This chapter reviews research on episodic memory reconsolidation that uses this approach in an object-learning paradigm. Learning a new set of objects after reactivation of a previous object-set memory causes the new objects to become integrated into the reactivated memory. We present studies that assess different types of reminders and the effects of memory strength and time delays, and we evaluate different theoretical accounts of our findings.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Cristina M. Alberini,Francois Ansermet,Pierre Magistretti
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memory traces can become labile when retrieved. This has intrigued not only neuroscientists, psychologists, and cognitive scientists but also clinicians who work with memories to treat psychopathologies, such as psychotherapists and psychoanalysts. Psychotherapists and psychoanalysts question whether the treatments based on re-evoking memories engage reconsolidation and how treatments may work and be effective with reconsolidation processes. However, reconsolidation may not easily occur in older or very strong, consolidated memories, which are, in fact, those deeply rooted in most maladaptive behaviors, and most animal reconsolidation studies have been done on memories that are only days old. Hence, the questions deepen into many more complex layers, asking the following: How are memories formed and retrieved and in part become unconscious? How does retrieval in a therapeutic setting change those traces? Here, we propose some hypotheses based on neuroscientific knowledge to begin explaining the bases of Freudian unconscious and speculate on how memory traces and Freudian unconscious intersect.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Karim Nader,Oliver Hardt,Einar Örn Einarsson,Peter S.B. Finnie
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057874
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter highlights the connections between research on memory reconsolidation and central ideas in memory research, considering the substantial body of work produced within the neurosciences as well as cognitive psychology–two fields that, at the beginning of our science in the past century, were not as separated as they are now. We advance the basic idea that the reconsolidation phenomenon indicates that memory systems are inherently flexible, based on processes that constantly adapt existing memory representations to improve behavioral performance. These mechanisms are likely of meta-plastic nature, and they will play out on the levels of cognition and behavior. We discuss possible meta-plastic mechanisms that mediate reconsolidation. We then briefly discuss how reconsolidation might explain certain cognitive memory malleability phenomena, such as the misinformation effect and memory interference.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Satoshi Kida
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057912
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memory retrieval is not a passive phenomenon. Recent studies have shown that memory retrieval initiates two opposite and dissociable processes: memory reconsolidation and extinction. Reconsolidation acts to stabilize, whereas extinction tends to weaken, the expression of the original memory. This chapter reviews the regulation and mechanisms of reconsolidation and extinction and the current understanding of the relationship between the two.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : María Eugenia Pedreira
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057955
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The idea that memories are immutable after consolidation has been challenged. The reconsolidation process offers the possibility of modifying previously stored information. This process has been described in different animal models and in human memory paradigms. This chapter revisits findings obtained with a declarative memory paradigm developed in our laboratory. Our research demonstrates the existence of the reconsolidation process for declarative memory, characterizes its boundary conditions, and studies its functions. The study of this process in a memory type that is a hallmark of humans supports the idea that some mechanisms are conserved across evolution. Moreover, this profound description of the features of reconsolidation affords the opportunity to apply our current knowledge to the development of new therapies for traumatic memories, with the goal of modifying undesirable memories.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Philip R. Corlett,Jane R. Taylor
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 012805798X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Memories represent a means through which we bring to bear past experience on current processing in order to respond adaptively and predict the future. One process that reflects this utility is reconsolidation. When memories are retrieved, they sometimes return into a labile state so that they can be updated and consolidated anew. This represents a potential therapeutic window for illnesses in which memory processing has gone awry; that is, it might be possible to render memories labile and excise the aberrant and maladaptive. In this chapter, we discuss this opportunity with regard to serious mental illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder, psychosis, and drug addiction. Although the preclinical data are promising, that preclinical potential has yet to be realized. We discuss some of the ethical implications of memory erasure as well as some of the practical impediments to this approach.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Elizabeth A. Phelps,Daniela Schiller
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057947
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research on reconsolidation in humans to date. It examines the different techniques that have been used to explore memory reconsolidation in humans and highlights some of the unique challenges that arise when investigating reconsolidation in human participants. Through this survey of existing studies, we explore some of the reasons why this science has been slow to emerge, and we suggest some potential avenues for future research.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Jacek Dębiec,Joseph E. LeDoux
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ability to learn about adverse events has a special significance for survival. A body of work established the key role of the amygdala in acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of defense (fear) responses that protect the organism in the presence of learned threats. More than a decade ago, our lab showed that exposure to a learned threat, leading to the retrieval or reactivation of the memory, leads to a reconsolidation (re-storage) of the memory in the amygdala. This finding reinvigorated interest in the role of memory retrieval in memory stability and change. In this chapter, we summarize research on the role of the amygdala in defense learning and memory and then discuss memory reconsolidation in the amygdala and its theoretical and clinical implications.

Memory Reconsolidation

Memory Reconsolidation Book
Author : Michelle H. Lonergan,Alain Brunet,Lening A. Olivera-Figueroa,Roger K. Pitman
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-03-18
ISBN : 0128057971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Considering the pivotal role of negative emotional experiences in the development and persistence of mental disorders, effectively interfering with the consolidation/reconsolidation of such experiences would open the door to a novel treatment approach in psychiatry. Objective: We assessed the current evidence regarding the capacity of the β-blocker propranolol to block the consolidation/reconsolidation of emotional memories by means of a meta-analytic review. Data sources: An extensive multilingual literature search from 1994 to 2011 yielded 189 potential articles. Study selection: Selected studies consisted of randomized, double-blind experiments assessing long-term memory for emotional material in adults and involving at least one propranolol and one placebo condition. Of 189 potential studies, 13 consolidation ( n = 310) and 9 reconsolidation ( n = 327) experiments with adults met inclusion criteria for statistical analysis. Data extraction: Two independent reviewers extracted outcome and descriptive data from each study. Effect sizes were calculated using a random effects model. Data synthesis: Compared to placebo, propranolol given before memory consolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced stories, pictures, word lists, and the expression of cue-elicited fear responses: Hedge’s g = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.22–0.72. Moreover, compared to placebo, propranolol before memory reconsolidation reduced subsequent recall for negatively valenced emotional words, as well as the expression of cue-elicited fear responses, g = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.16–1.01. Splitting the results according to episodic retention and physiological responding did not yield a significant difference in effect size for consolidation or reconsolidation blockade. Removing the clinical studies from the larger group of nonclinical studies did not impact the statistical significance of the results either. Conclusions: Propranolol shows promise in reducing subsequent memory for new or recalled emotional material in healthy subjects. Studies of clinical populations, however, have yet to independently demonstrate that such findings can translate into powerful clinical effects.

Rethinking Trauma Treatment Attachment Memory Reconsolidation and Resilience

Rethinking Trauma Treatment  Attachment  Memory Reconsolidation  and Resilience Book
Author : Courtney Armstrong
Publisher : W. W. Norton & Company
Release : 2019-06-25
ISBN : 0393712567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Creating safety, hope, and secure attachment to transform traumatic memories. What makes trauma therapy effective? The answers might surprise you. While therapists have been bombarded with brain science, hundreds of new models, and pressure to use evidence-based techniques, research has demonstrated that the therapeutic relationship ultimately predicts therapy outcomes. This is especially true for traumatized clients. But, what kind of therapeutic relationship? Forming a secure therapeutic alliance with traumatized clients is tricky. How do you help clients trust you after they’ve been abused, betrayed, or exploited? How do you instill hope and convince clients who’ve been devastated by loss to believe that a better life is possible? In this accessible guide, Courtney Armstrong distills discoveries from attachment theory, brain science, and post-traumatic growth into practical strategies you can use to: 1) build trust and a secure therapeutic relationship; 2) transform traumatic memories into stories of triumph and courage; and 3) help clients cultivate resilience and a positive post-trauma identity. Packed with dozens of scripts, step-by-step worksheets, and inspiring client stories, this book gives you tools for each phase of the trauma therapy process and shows you how to: Engage and motivate clients based on their attachment style Manage trauma-related dissociation, anxiety, and anger Transform traumatic memories so they no longer haunt your client Work with different types of trauma, from sexual abuse to traumatic grief Evoke inner resources for healing and positive emotional states Counter compassion fatigue and burnout so youcan thrive as a therapist Merely talking about a traumatic event is not enough because the parts of the brain where traumatic, implicit memories are stored don’t understand words. Heartfelt, relational experiences catalyze brain change and buffer the impact of trauma. In this book, Armstrong demonstrates that neuroscience is validating what therapists have suspected all along: the brain changes through the heart.

Neural Plasticity and Memory

Neural Plasticity and Memory Book
Author : Federico Bermudez-Rattoni
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-04-17
ISBN : 9781420008418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory. Leading specialists share their scientific experience in the field, covering a wide range of topics where molecular, genetic, behavioral, and brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate how cellular and brain circuits may be modified by experience. In each chapter, researchers present findings and explain their innovative methodologies. The book begins by introducing key issues and providing a historical overview of the field of memory consolidation. The following chapters review the putative genetic and molecular mechanisms of cell plasticity, elaborating on how experience could induce gene and protein expression and describing their role in synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. They explore how putative modifications of brain circuits and synaptic elements through experience can become relatively permanent and hence improve brain function. Interdisciplinary reviews focus on how nerve cell circuitry, molecular expression, neurotransmitter release, and electrical activity are modified during the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory. The book also covers receptor activation/deactivation by different neurotransmitters that enable the intracellular activation of second messengers during memory formation. It concludes with a summary of current research on the modulation and regulation that different neurotransmitters and stress hormones have on formation and consolidation of memory.

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation

Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Consolidation Book
Author : Nikolai Axmacher,Björn Rasch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-09
ISBN : 3319450662
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This edited volume provides an overview the state-of-the-art in the field of cognitive neuroscience of memory consolidation. In a number of sections, the editors collect contributions of leading researchers . The topical focus lies on current issues of interest such as memory consolidation including working and long-term memory. In particular, the role of sleep in relation to memory consolidation will be addressed. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of cognitive neuroscience but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

Cognitive Sciences at the Leading Edge

Cognitive Sciences at the Leading Edge Book
Author : Miao-Kun Sun
Publisher : Nova Publishers
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9781604560510
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This new book focuses on new research on cognitive science which is most simply defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence. It is an interdisciplinary study drawing from relevant fields including psychology, philosophy, neuroscience, linguistics, anthropology, computer science, biology, and physics. There are several approaches to the study of cognitive science. These approaches may be classified broadly as symbolic, connectionist, and dynamic systems. Symbolic -- holds that cognition can be explained using operations on symbols, by means of explicit computational theories and models of mental (but not brain) processes analogous to the workings of a digital computer. Connectionist (subsymbolic) -- holds that cognition can only be modelled and explained by using artificial neural networks on the level of physical brain properties. Hybrid systems -- holds that cognition is best modelled using both connectionist and symbolic models, and possibly other computational techniques.

Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory

Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory Book
Author : Robert E. Clark,Stephen Martin
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-03-27
ISBN : 3319787578
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

‘Behavioral Neuroscience of Learning and Memory’ brings together the opinions and expertise of some of the world’s foremost neuroscientists in the field of learning and memory research. The volume provides a broad coverage of contemporary research and thinking in this field, focusing both on well established topics such as the medial temporal lobe memory system, as well as emerging areas of research such as the role of memory in decision making and the mechanisms of perceptual learning. Key intersecting themes include the molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory formation, the multiplicity of memory systems in the brain, and the way in which technological innovation is driving discovery. Unusually for a volume of this kind, this volume brings together research from both humans and animals—often relatively separate areas of discourse—to give a more comprehensive and integrated view of the field. The book will be of interest to both established researchers who wish to broaden their knowledge of topics outside of their specific areas of expertise, and for students who need a resource to help them make sense of the vast scientific literature on this subject.

Depth Oriented Brief Therapy

Depth Oriented Brief Therapy Book
Author : Bruce Ecker,Laurel Hulley
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 1995-10-20
ISBN : 0787901520
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reach a new stage in brief therapy Is it possible for clinicians to provide in-depth therapy in the cost-conscious, time-limited world of managed care? This groundbreaking book offers clinicians new hope of maintaining professional satisfaction in time-effective practice. Authors Bruce Ecker and Laurel Hulley provide a practical guide for clinicians on how to work deeply and briefly with individuals, couples, and families, and shows how to meet the challenge of managed care without losing the deeper levels of change traditionally associated with long-term or existential work. By using Depth-Oriented Brief Therapy, you'll work directly and immediately with the emotional and unconscious meanings that structure the very existence of the presenting problem.

Neuroscience of Enduring Change

Neuroscience of Enduring Change Book
Author : Richard D. Lane,Lynn Nadel
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2020-03-03
ISBN : 0190881534
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroscience of Enduring Change is founded on the premise that all major psychotherapy modalities producing enduring change do so by virtue of corrective emotional experiences that alter problematic memories through the process of reconsolidation. This book is unique in linking basic science concepts to clinical research and clinical application. Experts in each area address each of the basic science and clinical topics. No other book addresses a general mechanism of change in psychotherapy in combination with the basic science underpinning it. This book is also unique in bringing the latest neuroimaging evidence and cutting-edge conceptual approaches to bear in understanding how psychological and behavioral treatment approaches bring about lasting change in the brain. Clinicians will benefit from the detailed discussion of basic mechanisms that underpin their clinical interventions and will be challenged to consider how their approach to therapy might be adjusted to optimize the opportunities for enduring change. Researchers will benefit from authoritative reviews of extant knowledge and a clear description of the research agenda going forward. The cross-fertilization between the research and clinical domains is evident throughout.