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Mechanisms Of Sensory Working Memory

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Mechanisms of Sensory Working Memory

Mechanisms of Sensory Working Memory Book
Author : Pierre Jolicoeur,Christine Lefebvre,Julio Martinez-Trujillo
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-06-17
ISBN : 0128110430
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mechanisms of Sensory Working Memory: Attention and Performance XXV provides an update on research surrounding the memory processes that are crucial for many facets of cognitive processing and experience, with new coverage of emerging areas of study, including a new understanding of working memory for features of stimuli devoid of verbal, phonological, or long-term memory content, such as memory for simple visual features (e.g., texture or color), simple auditory features (e.g., pitch), or simple tactile features (e.g., vibration frequency), now called sensory memory to distinguish from verbal memory. This contemporary focus on sensory memory is just beginning, and this collection of original contributions provides a foundational reference for the study mechanisms of sensory memory. Students, scholars, and researchers studying memory mechanisms and processes in cognitive neuroscience, cognitive science, neuroscience, and psychology will find this book of great value to their work. Introduces the study of sensory mechanisms of working memory as distinct from verbal memory Covers visual memory, auditory memory, and tactile memory Includes translational content as the breakdown of working memory is often associated with a disease, disorder, or trauma to the brain

The Effects of Attention on Neural Representations in Working Memory

The Effects of Attention on Neural Representations in Working Memory Book
Author : Andrew Douglas Sheldon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What mechanisms underlie the prioritization of neural representations of the surrounding environment in order to effectively guide behavior? Selective attention is the ability to preferentially process incoming sensory information that is relevant for the task at hand, maximizing the deployment of finite cognitive resources. In situations where the relevant information is non-temporally coincident, the suite of cognitive functions collectively referred to as Working Memory enable the temporary maintenance of relevant sensory representations in the absence of sustained input. For primarily historical reasons, these two cognitive phenomena have been treated separately by the field, though recent theoretical formulations of working memory have recognized the parsimonious appeal of a common mechanism underlying both the prioritization of sensory representations of information still present in the environment and from the recent past. Here, the results of three studies addressing the commonality of mechanism between tasks of visual selective attention and working memory are reported, with a specific focus on the effects of task-dependent prioritization on neural population-level representations.

Competition and Control during Working Memory

Competition and Control during Working Memory Book
Author : Anastasia Kiyonaga,Mark D'Esposito
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2020-11-12
ISBN : 1108586600
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Working memory and perceptual attention are related functions, engaging many similar mechanisms and brain regions. As a consequence, behavioral and neural measures often reveal competition between working memory and attention demands. Yet there remains widespread debate about how working memory operates, and whether it truly shares processes and representations with attention. This Element will examine local-level representational properties to illuminate the storage format of working memory content, as well as systems-level and brain network communication properties to illuminate the attentional processes that control working memory. The Element will integrate both cognitive and neuroscientific accounts, describing shared substrates for working memory and perceptual attention, in a multi-level network architecture that provides robustness to disruptions and allows flexible attentional control in line with goals.

Understanding the Operation of Visual Working Memory in Rich Complex Visual Context

Understanding the Operation of Visual Working Memory in Rich Complex Visual Context Book
Author : Hagit Magen,Marius Peelen,Tatiana Aloi Emmanouil,Zaifeng Gao
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-10-27
ISBN : 2889661040
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Understanding the Operation of Visual Working Memory in Rich Complex Visual Context book written by Hagit Magen,Marius Peelen,Tatiana Aloi Emmanouil,Zaifeng Gao, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stevens Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience Learning and Memory

Stevens  Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience  Learning and Memory Book
Author : John T. Wixted,Lila Davachi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2018-03-13
ISBN : 111917001X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

I. Learning & Memory: Elizabeth Phelps & Lila Davachi (Volume Editors) Topics covered include working memory; fear learning; education and memory; memory and future imagining; sleep and memory; emotion and memory; motivation and memory; inhibition in memory; attention and memory; aging and memory; autobiographical memory; eyewitness memory; and category learning.

Working Memory in Development

Working Memory in Development Book
Author : Valérie Camos,Pierre Barrouillet
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-03-05
ISBN : 1317338359
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Working memory is the system responsible for the temporary maintenance and processing of information involved in most cognitive activities, and its study is essential to the understanding of cognitive development. Working Memory in Development provides an integrative and thorough account of how working memory develops and how this development underpins childhood cognitive development. Tracing back theories of cognitive development from Piaget's most influential theory to neo-Piagetian approaches and theories pertaining to the information-processing tradition, Camos and Barrouillet show in Part I how the conception of a working memory became critical to understanding cognitive development. Part II provides an overview of the main approaches to working memory and reviews how working memory itself develops across infancy and childhood. In the final Part III, the authors explain their own theory, the Time-Based Resource-Sharing (TBRS) model, and discuss how this accounts for the development of working memory as well providing an adequate frame to understanding the role of working memory in cognitive development. Working Memory in Development effectively addresses central and debated questions related to working memory and is essential reading for students and researchers in developmental, cognitive, and educational psychology.

The Cognitive Neurosciences

The Cognitive Neurosciences Book
Author : David Poeppel,George R. Mangun,Michael S. Gazzaniga
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2020-05-12
ISBN : 0262043254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The sixth edition of the foundational reference on cognitive neuroscience, with entirely new material that covers the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. Each edition of this classic reference has proved to be a benchmark in the developing field of cognitive neuroscience. The sixth edition of The Cognitive Neurosciences continues to chart new directions in the study of the biological underpinnings of complex cognition—the relationship between the structural and physiological mechanisms of the nervous system and the psychological reality of the mind. It offers entirely new material, reflecting recent advances in the field, covering the latest research, experimental approaches, and measurement methodologies. This sixth edition treats such foundational topics as memory, attention, and language, as well as other areas, including computational models of cognition, reward and decision making, social neuroscience, scientific ethics, and methods advances. Over the last twenty-five years, the cognitive neurosciences have seen the development of sophisticated tools and methods, including computational approaches that generate enormous data sets. This volume deploys these exciting new instruments but also emphasizes the value of theory, behavior, observation, and other time-tested scientific habits. Section editors Sarah-Jayne Blakemore and Ulman Lindenberger, Kalanit Grill-Spector and Maria Chait, Tomás Ryan and Charan Ranganath, Sabine Kastner and Steven Luck, Stanislas Dehaene and Josh McDermott, Rich Ivry and John Krakauer, Daphna Shohamy and Wolfram Schultz, Danielle Bassett and Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Marina Bedny and Alfonso Caramazza, Liina Pylkkänen and Karen Emmorey, Mauricio Delgado and Elizabeth Phelps, Anjan Chatterjee and Adina Roskies

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Working Memory

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Working Memory Book
Author : Natasha Sigala,Zsuzsa Kaldy
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2017-06-02
ISBN : 2889451682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Visual working memory allows us to temporarily maintain and manipulate visual information in order to solve a task. The study of the brain mechanisms underlying this function began more than a half century ago, with Scoville and Milner’s (1957) seminal discoveries with amnesic patients. This timely collection of papers brings together diverse perspectives on the cognitive neuroscience of visual working memory from multiple fields that have traditionally been fairly disjointed: human neuroimaging, electrophysiological, behavioural and animal lesion studies, investigating both the developing and the adult brain.

Performing Early Christian Literature

Performing Early Christian Literature Book
Author : Kelly Iverson
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2021-09-30
ISBN : 1316516229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Performance creates a unique space for audience experience and influences how traditions, like the Gospels, are received and interpreted.

Behavioral and neuroscientific analysis of economic decision making in animals

Behavioral and neuroscientific analysis of economic decision making in animals Book
Author : Tobias Kalenscher,Marijn Van Wingerden
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2021-10-26
ISBN : 9782889190966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The experimental analysis of animal behavior has a rich tradition in psychology, behavioral ecology and many other scientific branches dedicated to the study of decision making. However, it has never enjoyed a similar popularity in economics. This has recently changed with the dawn of neuroeconomics – a discipline combining the analytic and experimental tools of psychology and economics with the technologies available in neuroscience to unravel the neurobiological mechanisms underlying economic behavior. Since many of the sophisticated neuroscientific techniques can only be used on animals, neuroeconomists have come up with a large and ever-growing repertoire of animal models to probe economic decision making. Besides the value of using animals as model systems to emulate human economic behavior, the discipline of animal economic decision making exists in its very own right: an abundance of animal species at various evolutionary stages show behavior that complies with many of the predictions of economic theory, whilst, at the same time demonstrating violations of optimal choice models that are reminiscent of similar anomalies found in human behavior. Hence, the analysis of animal choice does not only offer insights into the evolutionary origins of economic decision making, it also testifies that the analysis of animal behavior is a convenient, economical and sound way to test competing economic decision models in optimally controlled experimental environments, to probe their neural implementation and to yield common denominators in choice behavior. In short, economic theory provides more than just an alternative language to describe animal psychology: its combination with biology, psychology and neuroscience gives way to synergy effects that open up new venues for studying economic choice. In this special issue, we would like to gather the latest results from this cross-disciplinary topic, address the overlap and discrepancies in (the neurobiology of) economic decision making found between species and identify the challenges that lie ahead in translating results from species to species, and ultimately to humans. The exclusive focus on non-human animals makes this Research Topic unique and distinct from previous special issues which covered a broader range of matters and subjects in the neurobiological analysis of decision making.

Processes of Visuospatial Attention and Working Memory

Processes of Visuospatial Attention and Working Memory Book
Author : Timothy Hodgson
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-19
ISBN : 3030310264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume covers a broad range of current research topics addressing the function of visuospatial attention and working memory. It discusses a variety of perspectives ranging from evolutionary and genetic underpinnings to neural substrates/computational processes and the connection between attention and working memory. Contributions address the topic at the molecular, system and evolutionary scales and will be of interest to a range of audiences from animal behaviour specialists, experimental psychologists to clinicians in the field of psychiatry and neurology.

The Prefrontal Cortex as an Executive Emotional and Social Brain

The Prefrontal Cortex as an Executive  Emotional  and Social Brain Book
Author : Masataka Watanabe
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-22
ISBN : 4431565086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is devoted to the executive, emotional, social, and integrative functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The PFC has usually been studied only with its executive function or with its emotional function, but recent studies indicate that the PFC plays important roles in integrating executive and emotional functions as well as in social behavior. The first part of the book reviews the functional organization of the PFC in human and nonhuman primates. The subsequent part focuses on the integrator of executive and emotional functions. The third part presents the integrator of executive and social functions, and the final part discusses the default mode of brain activities. There are chapters on animal studies, because functional significance of the PFC cannot be described without referring to those studies. Thus many methodologies are presented such as human neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and stimulation studies, and animal neuropsychological, neurophysiological, neurochemical, neuroanatomical, and neuroimaging studies. Bringing those together, this volume provides a timely and concise picture of the function of the PFC. The result is a valuable resource for students and scientists, providing up-to-date information on this emerging research topic.

Physics of the Human Temporality

Physics of the Human Temporality Book
Author : Ihor Lubashevsky,Natalie Plavinska
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-11-22
ISBN : 3030826120
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a novel account of the human temporal dimension called the “human temporality” and develops a special mathematical formalism for describing such an object as the human mind. One of the characteristic features of the human mind is its temporal extent. For objects of physical reality, only the present exists, which may be conceived as a point-like moment in time. In the human temporality, the past retained in the memory, the imaginary future, and the present coexist and are closely intertwined and impact one another. This book focuses on one of the fragments of the human temporality called the complex present. A detailed analysis of the classical and modern concepts has enabled the authors to put forward the idea of the multi-component structure of the present. For the concept of the complex present, the authors proposed a novel account that involves a qualitative description and a special mathematical formalism. This formalism takes into account human goal-oriented behavior and uncertainty in human perception. The present book can be interesting for theoreticians, physicists dealing with modeling systems where the human factor plays a crucial role, philosophers who are interested in applying philosophical concepts to constructing mathematical models, and psychologists whose research is related to modeling mental processes.

Music Wellness and Aging

Music  Wellness  and Aging Book
Author : Scott F. Madey,Dean D. VonDras
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2021-10-31
ISBN : 1108844693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This definitive account of the intersection between music, wellness, and aging explores deeper aspects of human nature and later life.

Neural Mechanisms of Working Memory Cortical Networks

Neural Mechanisms of Working Memory Cortical Networks Book
Author : Charalampos Papadimitriou
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation is aimed at understanding the cortical networks that maintain working memory information. By leveraging patterns of information degradation in spatial working memory encoding we reveal new neural mechanisms that support working memory function and challenge existing models of working memory circuits. First we examine how interference from previous memoranda influences memory of a currently remembered location. We find that memory for a currently remembered location is biased toward the previously memorized location. This interference is graded, not all-or-none. Interference is strongest when the previous and current targets are close and activate overlapping populations of neurons. Contrary to the attractive behavioral bias, the neural representation of a currently remembered location in the frontal eye fields appears to be biased away from the previous target location, not toward it. We reconcile this discrepancy by proposing a model in which receptive fields of memory cells converge toward memorized locations. This reallocation of neural resources at task-relevant parts of space reduces overall error in the memory network but introduces systematic behavioral biases toward prior memoranda. We also find that attractive behavioral bias asymptotically increases as a function of the memory period length. Critically, the increase in bias depends only on the current trial's memory period. That is, the effect of the previous target progressively increases in the current trial after that target's memory has become irrelevant. We modeled this finding using a two-store model with a transient but unbiased visual sensory store and a sustained store with constant bias. Initially behavior is driven by the veridical visual sensory store and is therefore unbiased. As the visual sensory store decays in the current trial, behavioral responses are increasingly driven by the sustained but biased store, leading to an asymptotic increase of behavioral bias with increasing memory period length. Finally, we look at how memory activity is encoded over long (15 second) memory periods. Memory cells tend to turn on early in the memory period and stay active for a fixed amount of time. Most memory cells shut off prior to the end of the memory period. Within each cell, offset times are repeatable from one trial to the next. Across cells, offset times are broadly distributed throughout the entire memory period. Once a cell shuts off, it remains off for the rest of the memory period. On the one hand, these findings challenge the leading model for working memory, the attractor network framework, which predicts a single homogenous time course from all cells. On the other hand, the findings also show that the patterns of activity seen in memory circuits are much more structured than the heterogeneous patterns suggested by the leading competitors to the attractor models. Our findings are not predicted by current models of working memory circuits and indicate that new network models need to be developed.

Timbre Acoustics Perception and Cognition

Timbre  Acoustics  Perception  and Cognition Book
Author : Kai Siedenburg,Charalampos Saitis,Stephen McAdams,Arthur N. Popper,Richard R. Fay
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-05-07
ISBN : 3030148327
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Roughly defined as any property other than pitch, duration, and loudness that allows two sounds to be distinguished, timbre is a foundational aspect of hearing. The remarkable ability of humans to recognize sound sources and events (e.g., glass breaking, a friend’s voice, a tone from a piano) stems primarily from a capacity to perceive and process differences in the timbre of sounds. Timbre raises many important issues in psychology and the cognitive sciences, musical acoustics, speech processing, medical engineering, and artificial intelligence. Current research on timbre perception unfolds along three main fronts: On the one hand, researchers explore the principal perceptual processes that orchestrate timbre processing, such as the structure of its perceptual representation, sound categorization and recognition, memory for timbre, and its ability to elicit rich semantic associations, as well as the underlying neural mechanisms. On the other hand, timbre is studied as part of specific scenarios, including the perception of the human voice, as a structuring force in music, as perceived with cochlear implants, and through its role in affecting sound quality and sound design. Finally, computational acoustic models are sought through prediction of psychophysical data, physiologically inspired representations, and audio analysis-synthesis techniques. Along these three scientific fronts, significant breakthroughs have been achieved during the last decade. This volume will be the first book dedicated to a comprehensive and authoritative presentation of timbre perception and cognition research and the acoustic modeling of timbre. The volume will serve as a natural complement to the SHAR volumes on the basic auditory parameters of Pitch edited by Plack, Oxenham, Popper, and Fay, and Loudness by Florentine, Popper, and Fay. Moreover, through the integration of complementary scientific methods ranging from signal processing to brain imaging, the book has the potential to leverage new interdisciplinary synergies in hearing science. For these reasons, the volume will be exceptionally valuable to various subfields of hearing science, including cognitive auditory neuroscience, psychoacoustics, music perception and cognition, but may even exert significant influence on fields such as musical acoustics, music information retrieval, and acoustic signal processing. It is expected that the volume will have broad appeal to psychologists, neuroscientists, and acousticians involved in research on auditory perception and cognition. Specifically, this book will have a strong impact on hearing researchers with interest in timbre and will serve as the key publication and up-to-date reference on timbre for graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, as well as established scholars.

Learning and Memory A Comprehensive Reference

Learning and Memory  A Comprehensive Reference Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-07-07
ISBN : 0128052910
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Learning and Memory: A Comprehensive Reference, Second Edition is the authoritative resource for scientists and students interested in all facets of learning and memory. This updated edition includes chapters that reflect the state-of-the-art of research in this area. Coverage of sleep and memory has been significantly expanded, while neuromodulators in memory processing, neurogenesis and epigenetics are also covered in greater detail. New chapters have been included to reflect the massive increase in research into working memory and the educational relevance of memory research. No other reference work covers so wide a territory and in so much depth. Provides the most comprehensive and authoritative resource available on the study of learning and memory and its mechanisms Incorporates the expertise of over 150 outstanding investigators in the field, providing a ‘one-stop’ resource of reputable information from world-leading scholars with easy cross-referencing of related articles to promote understanding and further research Includes further reading for each chapter that helps readers continue their research Includes a glossary of key terms that is helpful for users who are unfamiliar with neuroscience terminology

Turning the Mind s Eye Inward The Interplay between Selective Attention and Working Memory

Turning the Mind   s Eye Inward  The Interplay between Selective Attention and Working Memory Book
Author : Elger Abrahamse,Steve Majerus,Wim Fias,Jean-Philippe van Dijck
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-21
ISBN : 2889197212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Historically, cognitive sciences have considered selective attention and working memory as largely separated cognitive functions. That is, selective attention as a concept is typically reserved for the processes that allow for the prioritization of specific sensory input, while working memory entails more central structures for maintaining (and operating on) temporary mental representations. However, over the last decades various observations have been reported that question such sharp distinction. Most importantly, information stored in working memory has been shown to modulate selective attention processing – and vice versa. At the theoretical level, these observations are paralleled by an increasingly dominant focus on working memory as (involving) the attended part of long-term memory, with some positions considering that working memory is equivalent to selective attention turned to long-term memory representations – or internal selective attention. This questions the existence of working memory as a dedicated cognitive function and raises the need for integrative accounts of working memory and attention. The next step will be to explore the precise implications of attentional accounts of WM for the understanding of specific aspects and characteristics of WM, such as serial order processing, its modality-specificity, its capacity limitations, its relation with executive functions, as well as the nature of attentional mechanisms involved. This research topic in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience aims at bringing together the latest insights and findings about the interplay between working memory and selective attention.

Working Memory Capacity

Working Memory Capacity Book
Author : Nelson Cowan
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2016-04-14
ISBN : 1317232372
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The idea of one's memory "filling up" is a humorous misconception of how memory in general is thought to work; it actually has no capacity limit. However, the idea of a "full brain" makes more sense with reference to working memory, which is the limited amount of information a person can hold temporarily in an especially accessible form for use in the completion of almost any challenging cognitive task. This groundbreaking book explains the evidence supporting Cowan's theoretical proposal about working memory capacity, and compares it to competing perspectives. Cognitive psychologists profoundly disagree on how working memory is limited: whether by the number of units that can be retained (and, if so, what kind of units and how many), the types of interfering material, the time that has elapsed, some combination of these mechanisms, or none of them. The book assesses these hypotheses and examines explanations of why capacity limits occur, including vivid biological, cognitive, and evolutionary accounts. The book concludes with a discussion of the practical importance of capacity limits in daily life. This 10th anniversary Classic Edition will continue to be accessible to a wide range of readers and serve as an invaluable reference for all memory researchers.

Mechanisms of Memory

Mechanisms of Memory Book
Author : J. David Sweatt
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-09-28
ISBN : 9780080959191
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This fully revised second edition provides the only unified synthesis of available information concerning the mechanisms of higher-order memory formation. It spans the range from learning theory, to human and animal behavioral learning models, to cellular physiology and biochemistry. It is unique in its incorporation of chapters on memory disorders, tying in these clinically important syndromes with the basic science of synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. It also covers cutting-edge approaches such as the use of genetically engineered animals in studies of memory and memory diseases. Written in an engaging and easily readable style and extensively illustrated with many new, full-color figures to help explain key concepts, this book demystifies the complexities of memory and deepens the reader’s understanding. More than 25% new content, particularly expanding the scope to include new findings in translational research. Unique in its depth of coverage of molecular and cellular mechanisms Extensive cross-referencing to Comprehensive Learning and Memory Discusses clinically relevant memory disorders in the context of modern molecular research and includes numerous practical examples