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Magnetic Skyrmions And Their Applications

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Magnetic Skyrmions and Their Applications

Magnetic Skyrmions and Their Applications Book
Author : Giovanni Finocchio,Christos Panagopoulos
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-06-03
ISBN : 012820933X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like objects described by localized solutions of non-linear partial differential equations. Up until a few decades ago, it was believed that magnetic skyrmions only existed in condensed matter as short-term excitations that would quickly collapse into linear singularities. The contrary was proven theoretically in 1989 and evidentially in 2009. It is now known that skyrmions can exist as long-living metastable configurations in low-symmetry condensed matter systems with broken mirror symmetry, increasing the potential applications possible. Magnetic Skyrmions and their Applications delves into the fundamental principles and most recent research and developments surrounding these unique magnetic particles. Despite achievements in the synthesis of systems stabilizing chiral magnetic skyrmions and the variety of experimental investigations and numerical calculations, there have not been many summaries of the fundamental physical principles governing magnetic skyrmions or integrating those concepts with methods of detection, characterization and potential applications. Magnetic Skyrmions and their Applications delivers a coherent, state-of-the-art discussion on the current knowledge and potential applications of magnetic skyrmions in magnetic materials and device applications. First the book reviews key concepts such as topology, magnetism and materials for magnetic skyrmions. Then, charactization methods, physical mechanisms, and emerging applications are discussed. Covers background knowledge and details the basic principles of magnetic skyrmions, including materials, characterization, statics and dynamics Reviews materials for skyrmion stabilization including bulk materials and interface-dominated multilayer materials Describes both well-known and unconventional applications of magnetic skyrmions, such as memristors and reservoir computing

Magnetic Skyrmions

Magnetic Skyrmions Book
Author : Dipti Ranjan Sahu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2021-07-28
ISBN : 1839692529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Magnetic skyrmionics is an advanced and active research field, which involves fundamental physics, the creation of efficient next-generation high-density information devices, the formation and manipulation of nanometer-size skyrmions in devices, and the development of compatible materials at room temperature. The magnetic skyrmions found in magnetic materials exhibit spiral magnetism. This book presents a basic overview of magnetic skyrmions along with current research on magnetic skyrmions, emphasizing formation mechanisms and materials design strategies. This book is suitable for an interdisciplinary audience of undergraduates, graduates, engineers, scientists, and researchers in the development of the next generation of spintronic devices.

Thermal Stability of Metastable Magnetic Skyrmions

Thermal Stability of Metastable Magnetic Skyrmions Book
Author : Louise Desplat
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-02-04
ISBN : 3030660265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The energy cost associated with modern information technologies has been increasing exponentially over time, stimulating the search for alternative information storage and processing devices. Magnetic skyrmions are solitonic nanometer-scale quasiparticles whose unique topological properties can be thought of as that of a Mobius strip. Skyrmions are envisioned as information carriers in novel information processing and storage devices with low power consumption and high information density. As such, they could contribute to solving the energy challenge. In order to be used in applications, isolated skyrmions must be thermally stable at the scale of years. In this work, their stability is studied through two main approaches: the Kramers' method in the form of Langer's theory, and the forward flux sampling method. Good agreement is found between the two methods. We find that small skyrmions possess low internal energy barriers, but are stabilized by a large activation entropy. This is a direct consequence of the existence of stable modes of deformation of the skyrmion. Additionally, frustrated exchange that arises at some transition metal interfaces leads to new collapse paths in the form of the partial nucleation of the corresponding antiparticle, as merons and antimerons.

Skyrmions in Magnetic Materials

Skyrmions in Magnetic Materials Book
Author : Shinichiro Seki,Masahito Mochizuki
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-11-19
ISBN : 3319246518
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This brief reviews current research on magnetic skyrmions, with emphasis on formation mechanisms, observation techniques, and materials design strategies. The response of skyrmions, both static and dynamical, to various electromagnetic fields is also covered in detail. Recent progress in magnetic imaging techniques has enabled the observation of skyrmions in real space, as well as the analysis of their ordering manner and the details of their internal structure. In metallic systems, conduction electrons moving through the skyrmion spin texture gain a nontrivial quantum Berry phase, which provides topological force to the underlying spin texture and enables the current-induced manipulation of magnetic skyrmions. On the other hand, skyrmions in an insulator can induce electric polarization through relativistic spin-orbit interaction, paving the way for the control of skyrmions by an external electric field without loss of Joule heating. Because of its nanometric scale, particle nature, and electric controllability, skyrmions are considered as potential candidates for new information carriers in the next generation of spintronics devices.

Skyrmions

Skyrmions Book
Author : J. Ping Liu,Zhidong Zhang,Guoping Zhao
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-12-08
ISBN : 1315284162
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The book reviews all the aspects of recent developments in research on skyrmions, from the presentation of the observation and characterization techniques to the description of physical properties and expected applications. It will be of great use for all scientists working in this field." – Albert Fert, 2007 Nobel Laureate in Physics (from the Foreword) A skyrmion is a tiny region of reversed magnetization – quasiparticles since they are not present except in a magnetic state, and also give rise to physics that cannot be described by Maxwell’s equations. These particles are fascinating subjects for theoretical and experimental studies. Moreover, as a new type of magnetic domain structure with special topological structures, skyrmions feature outstanding magnetic and transport properties and may well have applications in data storage and other advanced spintronic devices, as readers will see in this book. Chapters address the relationships between physical properties of condensed matter, such as the AB effect, Berry phase effect, quantum Hall effect, and topological insulators. Overall, it provides a timely introduction to the fundamental aspects and possible applications of magnetic skyrmions to an interdisciplinary audience from condensed matter physics, chemistry, and materials science.

Springer Handbook of Microscopy

Springer Handbook of Microscopy Book
Author : Peter W. Hawkes,John C.H. Spence
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-02
ISBN : 3030000699
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book features reviews by leading experts on the methods and applications of modern forms of microscopy. The recent awards of Nobel Prizes awarded for super-resolution optical microscopy and cryo-electron microscopy have demonstrated the rich scientific opportunities for research in novel microscopies. Earlier Nobel Prizes for electron microscopy (the instrument itself and applications to biology), scanning probe microscopy and holography are a reminder of the central role of microscopy in modern science, from the study of nanostructures in materials science, physics and chemistry to structural biology. Separate chapters are devoted to confocal, fluorescent and related novel optical microscopies, coherent diffractive imaging, scanning probe microscopy, transmission electron microscopy in all its modes from aberration corrected and analytical to in-situ and time-resolved, low energy electron microscopy, photoelectron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy in biology, and also ion microscopy. In addition to serving as an essential reference for researchers and teachers in the fields such as materials science, condensed matter physics, solid-state chemistry, structural biology and the molecular sciences generally, the Springer Handbook of Microscopy is a unified, coherent and pedagogically attractive text for advanced students who need an authoritative yet accessible guide to the science and practice of microscopy.

Nanomagnetism

Nanomagnetism Book
Author : Claude Fermon,Marcel Van de Voorde
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-03-17
ISBN : 3527699066
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This first book to focus on the applications of nanomagnetism presents those already realized while also suggesting bold ideas for further breakthroughs. The first part is devoted to the concept of spin electronics and its use for data storage and magnetic sensing, while the second part concentrates on magnetic nanoparticles and their use in industrial environment, biological and medical applications. The third, more prospective part goes on to describe emerging applications related to spin current creation and manipulation, dynamics, spin waves and binary logic based on nano-scale magnetism. With its unique choice of topics and authors, this will appeal to academic as well as corporate researchers in a wide range of disciplines from physics via materials science to engineering, chemistry and life science.

Handbook of Magnetic Materials

Handbook of Magnetic Materials Book
Author : Ekkes Bruck
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-11-21
ISBN : 0444641629
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Magnetic Materials, Volume 27, covers the expansion of magnetism over the last few decades and its applications in research, notably the magnetism of several classes of novel materials that share the presence of magnetic moments with truly ferromagnetic materials. The book is an ideal reference for scientists active in magnetism research, providing readers with novel trends and achievements in magnetism. Each article contains an extensive description given in graphical, as well as, tabular form, with much emphasis placed on the discussion of the experimental material within the framework of physics, chemistry and materials science. Comprises topical review articles written by leading authorities Includes a variety of self-contained introductions to a given area in the field of magnetism without requiring recourse to the published literature Introduces given topics in the field of magnetism Describes novel trends and achievements in magnetism

Proceedings of 19th World Congress on Materials Science and Engineering 2018

Proceedings of 19th World Congress on Materials Science and Engineering 2018 Book
Author : ConferenceSeries
Publisher : ConferenceSeries
Release : 2021-12-09
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

June 11-13, 2018 Barcelona, Spain Key Topics : Materials Science and Engineering, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Biomaterials and Medical Devices, Polymer Science and Technology, Ceramics and Composite Materials, Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials, Emerging Smart Materials, Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Physics and Chemistry of Materials, Metals, Mining, Metallurgy and Materials, Mechanics, Characterization Techniques and Equipments, Graphene and 2D Materials,

Quantum Theory and Symmetries

Quantum Theory and Symmetries Book
Author : M. B. Paranjape,Richard MacKenzie,Zora Thomova,Pavel Winternitz,William Witczak-Krempa
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3030557774
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of the CRM Conference Series is based on a carefully refereed selection of contributions presented at the "11th International Symposium on Quantum Theory and Symmetries", held in Montreal, Canada from July 1-5, 2019. The main objective of the meeting was to share and make accessible new research and recent results in several branches of Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, including Algebraic Methods, Condensed Matter Physics, Cosmology and Gravitation, Integrability, Non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory, Particle Physics, Quantum Computing and Quantum Information Theory, and String/ADS-CFT. There was also a special session in honour of Decio Levi. The volume is divided into sections corresponding to the sessions held during the symposium, allowing the reader to appreciate both the homogeneity and the diversity of mathematical tools that have been applied in these subject areas. Several of the plenary speakers, who are internationally recognized experts in their fields, have contributed reviews of the main topics to complement the original contributions. .

Atomistic Spin Dynamics

Atomistic Spin Dynamics Book
Author : Olle Eriksson,Anders Bergman,Lars Bergqvist,Johan Hellsvik
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-02-10
ISBN : 0191092908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The purpose of this book is to provide a theoretical foundation and an understanding of atomistic spin-dynamics (ASD), and to give examples of where the atomistic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation can and should be used. As argued in the text, a description of magnetism in an atomistic way is very natural and allows for an interpretation of experimental results in a clear and deep way. This description also allows for calculations, from first principles, of all parameters needed to perform the spin-dynamics simulations, without using experimental results as input to the simulations. As shown in the book, we are now at a very exciting situation, where it is possible to perform accurate and efficient atomistic simulations on a length- and time-scale which is balancing on the edge of what is experimentally possible. In this way, ASD simulations can both validate and be validated by state-of-the art experiments, and ASD simulations also have the possibility to act as a predictive tool that is able to explain the magnetization dynamics in experimentally inaccessible situations. The purpose of this book has been to communicate technically relevant concepts. An even larger motivation is to communicate an inspiration to magnetism and magnetization dynamics, and the emerging technological fields that one may foresee, e.g. in magnonics, solitonics and skyrmionics.

21st Century Nanoscience A Handbook

21st Century Nanoscience     A Handbook Book
Author : Klaus D. Sattler
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-04-02
ISBN : 1000699390
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This 21st Century Nanoscience Handbook will be the most comprehensive, up-to-date large reference work for the field of nanoscience. Handbook of Nanophysics, by the same editor, published in the fall of 2010, embraced as the first comprehensive reference to consider both fundamental and applied aspects of nanophysics. This follow-up project has been conceived as a necessary expansion and full update that considers the significant advances made in the field since 2010. It goes well beyond the physics as warranted by recent developments in the field. The fifth volume in a ten-volume set covers exotic nanostructures and quantum systems. Key Features: Provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date large reference work for the field. Chapters written by international experts in the field. Emphasises presentation and real results and applications. This handbook distinguishes itself from other works by its breadth of coverage, readability and timely topics. The intended readership is very broad, from students and instructors to engineers, physicists, chemists, biologists, biomedical researchers, industry professionals, governmental scientists, and others whose work is impacted by nanotechnology. It will be an indispensable resource in academic, government, and industry libraries worldwide. The fields impacted by nanoscience extend from materials science and engineering to biotechnology, biomedical engineering, medicine, electrical engineering, pharmaceutical science, computer technology, aerospace engineering, mechanical engineering, food science, and beyond.

Nanomagnetic Materials

Nanomagnetic Materials Book
Author : Akinobu Yamaguchi,Atsufumi Hirohata,Bethanie Stadler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-07-13
ISBN : 0128223545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomagnetic Materials: Fabrication, Characterization and Application explores recent studies of conventional nanomagnetic materials in spintronics, data storage, magnetic sensors and biomedical applications. In addition, the book also reviews novel magnetic characteristics induced in two-dimensional materials, diamonds, and those induced by the artificial formation of lattice defect and heterojunction as novel nanomagnetic materials. Nanomagnetic materials are usually based on d- and f-electron systems. They are an important solution to the demand for higher density of information storage, arising from the emergence of novel technologies required for non-volatile memory systems. Advances in the understanding of magnetization dynamics and in the characteristics of nanoparticles or surface of nanomagnetic materials is resulting in greater expansion of applications of nanomagnetic materials, including in biotechnology, sensor devices, energy harvesting, and power generating systems. This book provides a cogent overview of the latest research on novel nanomagnetic materials, including spintronic nanomagnets, molecular nanomagnets, self-assembling magnetic nanomaterials, nanoparticles, multifunctional materials, and heterojunction-induced novel magnetism. Explains manufacturing principles and process for nanomagnetic materials Discusses physical and chemical properties and potential industrial applications, such as magnetic data storage, sensors, oscillator, permanent magnets, power generations, and biomedical applications Assesses the major challenges of using magnetic nanomaterials on a broad scale

Chiral and Topological Nature of Magnetic Skyrmions

Chiral and Topological Nature of Magnetic Skyrmions Book
Author : Shilei Zhang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-27
ISBN : 3319982524
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on the characterisation of the chiral and topological nature of magnetic skyrmions in noncentrosymmetric helimagnets. In these materials, the skyrmion lattice phase appears as a long-range-ordered, close-packed grid of nearly millimetre-level correlation length, while the size of a single skyrmion is 3–100 nm. This is a very challenging range of length scales (spanning 5 orders of magnitude from tens of nm to mm) for magnetic characterisation techniques, and, to date, extensive information on this fascinating, magnetically ordered state has remained elusive. In response, this work develops novel resonant elastic x-ray scattering (REXS) techniques, which allow the magnetic structure, including the long-range order and domain formation, as well as microscopic skyrmion parameters, to be measured across the full range of length scales. Most importantly, using circular dichroism in REXS, the internal structure of a given skyrmion, the topological winding number, and the skyrmion helicity angle can all be unambiguously determined. These new techniques are applicable to many materials systems, and allow us to retrieve information on modulated spin structures, multiferroic order, spin-density-waves, and other forms of topological magnetic order.

Semiconductor Nanowires

Semiconductor Nanowires Book
Author : Wei Lu,Jie Xiang
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2014-12-02
ISBN : 1782625208
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Semiconductor nanowires were initially discovered in late 90's and since then there has been an explosion in the research of their synthesis and understanding of their structures, growth mechanisms and properties. The realisation of their unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties has led to a great interest for their use in electronics, energy generation and storage. This book provides a timely reference on semiconductor nanowires including an introduction to their synthesis and properties and specific chapters focusing on the different applications including photovoltaics, nanogenerators, transistors, biosensors and photonics. This is the first book dedicated to Semiconductor Nanowires and provides an invaluable resource for researchers already working in the area as well as those new to the field. Edited by leading experts in the field and with contributions from well-known scientists, the book will appeal to both those working on fundamental nanomaterial research and those commercially interested in their applications.

The Role of Topology in Materials

The Role of Topology in Materials Book
Author : Sanju Gupta,Avadh Saxena
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-04-21
ISBN : 3319765965
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the most important advances in the class of topological materials and discusses the topological characterization, modeling and metrology of materials. Further, it addresses currently emerging characterization techniques such as optical and acoustic, vibrational spectroscopy (Brillouin, infrared, Raman), electronic, magnetic, fluorescence correlation imaging, laser lithography, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and other techniques, including site-selective nanoprobes. The book analyzes the topological aspects to identify and quantify these effects in terms of topology metrics. The topological materials are ubiquitous and range from (i) de novo nanoscale allotropes of carbons in various forms such as nanotubes, nanorings, nanohorns, nanowalls, peapods, graphene, etc. to (ii) metallo-organic frameworks, (iii) helical gold nanotubes, (iv) Möbius conjugated polymers, (v) block co-polymers, (vi) supramolecular assemblies, to (vii) a variety of biological and soft-matter systems, e.g. foams and cellular materials, vesicles of different shapes and genera, biomimetic membranes, and filaments, (viii) topological insulators and topological superconductors, (ix) a variety of Dirac materials including Dirac and Weyl semimetals, as well as (x) knots and network structures. Topological databases and algorithms to model such materials have been also established in this book. In order to understand and properly characterize these important emergent materials, it is necessary to go far beyond the traditional paradigm of microscopic structure–property–function relationships to a paradigm that explicitly incorporates topological aspects from the outset to characterize and/or predict the physical properties and currently untapped functionalities of these advanced materials. Simulation and modeling tools including quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, 3D visualization and tomography are also indispensable. These concepts have found applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and engineering, physical chemistry and biophysics, and the various topics covered in the book have potential applications in connection with novel synthesis techniques, sensing and catalysis. As such, the book offers a unique resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

Computational Vision and Bio Inspired Computing

Computational Vision and Bio Inspired Computing Book
Author : S. Smys,João Manuel R. S. Tavares,Valentina Emilia Balas,Abdullah M. Iliyasu
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-06
ISBN : 3030372189
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This proceedings book presents state-of-the-art research innovations in computational vision and bio-inspired techniques. Due to the rapid advances in the emerging information, communication and computing technologies, the Internet of Things, cloud and edge computing, and artificial intelligence play a significant role in the computational vision context. In recent years, computational vision has contributed to enhancing the methods of controlling the operations in biological systems, like ant colony optimization, neural networks, and immune systems. Moreover, the ability of computational vision to process a large number of data streams by implementing new computing paradigms has been demonstrated in numerous studies incorporating computational techniques in the emerging bio-inspired models. The book reveals the theoretical and practical aspects of bio-inspired computing techniques, like machine learning, sensor-based models, evolutionary optimization, and big data modeling and management, that make use of effectual computing processes in the bio-inspired systems. As such it contributes to the novel research that focuses on developing bio-inspired computing solutions for various domains, such as human–computer interaction, image processing, sensor-based single processing, recommender systems, and facial recognition, which play an indispensable part in smart agriculture, smart city, biomedical and business intelligence applications.

Topology in Magnetism

Topology in Magnetism Book
Author : Jiadong Zang,Vincent Cros,Axel Hoffmann
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-24
ISBN : 3319973347
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents both experimental and theoretical aspects of topology in magnetism. It first discusses how the topology in real space is relevant for a variety of magnetic spin structures, including domain walls, vortices, skyrmions, and dynamic excitations, and then focuses on the phenomena that are driven by distinct topology in reciprocal momentum space, such as anomalous and spin Hall effects, topological insulators, and Weyl semimetals. Lastly, it examines how topology influences dynamic phenomena and excitations (such as spin waves, magnons, localized dynamic solitons, and Majorana fermions). The book also shows how these developments promise to lead the transformative revolution of information technology.

Magnetic Measurement Techniques for Materials Characterization

Magnetic Measurement Techniques for Materials Characterization Book
Author : Victorino Franco,Brad Dodrill
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-10-30
ISBN : 3030704432
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the most commonly used techniques for characterizing magnetic material properties and their applications. It provides a comprehensive and easily digestible collection and review of magnetic measurement techniques. It also examines the underlying operating principles and techniques of magnetic measurements, and presents current examples where such measurements and properties are relevant. Given the pervasive nature of magnetic materials in everyday life, this book is a vital resource for both professionals and students wishing to deepen their understanding of the subject.

Multiferroic Materials

Multiferroic Materials Book
Author : Junling Wang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-10-14
ISBN : 1315355264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"a very detailed book on multiferroics that will be useful for PhD students and researchers interested in this emerging field of materials science" —Dr. Wilfrid Prellier, Research Director, CNRS, Caen, France Multiferroics has emerged as one of the hottest topics in solid state physics in this millennium. The coexistence of multiple ferroic/antiferroic properties makes them useful both for fundamental studies and practical applications such as revolutionary new memory technologies and next-generation spintronics devices. This book provides an historical introduction to the field, followed by a summary of recent progress in single-phase multiferroics (type-I and type-II), multiferroic composites (bulk and nano composites), and emerging areas such as domain walls and vortices. Each chapter addresses potential technological implications. There is also a section dedicated to theoretical approaches, both phenomenological and first-principles calculations.