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Macrophages In The Human Body

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Macrophages in the Human Body

Macrophages in the Human Body Book
Author : Niels Olson Saraiva Camara,Tarcio Teodoro Braga
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-09-15
ISBN : 9780128213858
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Through recent researches, there has been a significant number of findings involving the biology of macrophages. Beyond the 1st line of defense, macrophages have several specific characteristics across different tissues, organs, and systems. Macrophages comprehend a heterogeneous phagocytic population with wide range phenotypes, and tissue-specific functions, such as bone resorption, extracellular matrix production, red blood cells and bacteria removal, among others. Through innate immune receptors macrophages can modulate several pathways that culminate in the production of various types of inflammatory mediators such as chemokines, cytokines, oxygen reactive species, and lipid mediators which ultimately altered the behavior of other cells. Moreover, environment signals modify and induce metabolic reprograming that it alters phenotype and functions Macrophages in the Human Body: A Tissue Level Approach presents a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics. It covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate the therapeutic potential. Covers translational aspects where there is research support to indicate potential therapeutic potential Aims at presenting a current overview of the diversity of macrophages across multiple human body systems, their phenotype, function and metabolic characteristics Introduces Macrophages generally and dive into the organ/tissue/specific representations covering their phenotype, function, and metabolic characteristics Brings updated aspects of macrophages biology

The Human Body

The Human Body Book
Author : Bruce M. Carlson
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-19
ISBN : 0128043326
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Human Body: Linking Structure and Function provides knowledge on the human body's unique structure and how it works. Each chapter is designed to be easily understood, making the reading interesting and approachable. Organized by organ system, this succinct publication presents the functional relevance of developmental studies and integrates anatomical function with structure. Focuses on bodily functions and the human body's unique structure Offers insights into disease and disorders and their likely anatomical origin Explains how developmental lineage influences the integration of organ systems

Characteristics of Extracts from Prunella Vulgaris on the Immune Response of Monocytes Macrophages

Characteristics of Extracts from Prunella Vulgaris on the Immune Response of Monocytes Macrophages Book
Author : Xuya Fang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361204221
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Characteristics of extracts from Prunella vulgaris on the immune response of monocytes/macrophages" by Xuya, Fang, 方旭亞, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Abstract of thesis entitled CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRACTS FROM PRUNELLA VULGARIS ON THE IMMUNE RESPONSE OF MONOCYTES/MACROPHAGES Submitted by Fang Xuya for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in August 2004 Prunella vulgaris L. (夏枯草) has earned its name as anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-tumoral, and some anti-viral mechanisms of this herb have been reported. However, there is little information available on the anti-bacterial and anti-tumoral mechanisms of this herb. It is well known that innate immunity is the first line of host defense against various infectious diseases and tumors. Hence, we hypothesized that certain immune stimulatory factor(s) may be present in Prunella vulgaris which could enhance immune responses in human body, thereby contributing to the therapeutic effects. As anti-microbial and anti-tumoral functions of the immune system of the human body are largely related to monocyte/macrophage activities, the aim of this study is to examine how extracts isolated from Prunella vulgaris can modulate directly or indirectly the immune responses of monocytes/macrophages. We employed two cell lines, namely murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and brain macrophage BV2 cells to investigate the immune modulatory effects of Prunella vulgaris. Four fractions, referred to as PV1, PV2, PV3 and PV4, were first isolated from the herb. Then PV2 was further fractionated to yield four additional fractions: PV21, PV22, PV23 and PV24. All these fractions were evaluated for their modulatory effects on the activities of monocytes/macrophages. PV24 markedly stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO), superoxide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) & TNF-α gene in the macrophage cell lines. PV24 can at the same time effectively regulate the immune stimulatory effect by decreasing the number of viable macrophages, which can be regarded as a type of activation induced cell death (AICD), to prevent the harmful overloading of cytotoxic factors. The results clearly indicated that PV24 could exert a more potent immune stimulatory effect than the other fractions. The evidence provided in this study showed for the first time that the extracts from Prunella vulgaris, especially fraction PV24, not only could effectively stimulate immune responses but also prevent monocytes/macrophages from harmful over-activation. We believe that this is also one of the important effects of Prunella vulgaris responsible for the anti-microbial and anti-tumoral activities. DOI: 10.5353/th_b3132510 Subjects: Prunella vulgaris Monocytes Macrophages

Impact of Pulmonary Surfactant on Human Macrophage Suspectibility to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

Impact of Pulmonary Surfactant on Human Macrophage Suspectibility to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Book
Author : Claire Elizabeth Dodd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is an extremely salient pathogen and causes a human death every twenty seconds. M.tb is also capable of enduring for decades inside of the human body and therefore a substantial reservoir of latently infected individuals exists as a lurking threat to global health. A historical scourge of the human species, M.tb is now highly adapted to the lung environment and is capable of intracellular survival within alveolar macrophages (AMs). As the immunological guardians of the alveolar airspace, AMs not only phagocytose inhaled microbes and particulate matter but are also crucial in the catabolism of lung surfactant, a lipid-protein complex which lines the tissue. Macrophage phenotype and behavior is regulated by surfactant and M.tb can utilize host lipids as a carbon source during infection. We therefore investigated which receptor(s) contribute to surfactant uptake and whether the presence of those surfactant lipids within human macrophages prior to infection with M.tb enhances bacterial survival. We show that preformed scavenger receptor CD36 is redistributed from an intracellular pool to the cell membrane following exposure to lipids and proteins found in lung surfactant. Over days in culture with surfactant components, CD36 transcript and protein levels are increased relative to resting macrophages. siRNA knockdown of CD36 inhibits the ability of human macrophages to acquire the most abundant lipid species in surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). DPPC uptake is specifically mediated by CD36, as acquisition of another surfactant lipid, phophatidylglycerol, is unaffected by CD36 knockdown. Furthermore, Scavenger Receptor-A knockdown macrophages retain the ability to acquire DPPC. When human macrophages are cultured in surfactant lipids prior to infection with M.tb, bacterial growth is increased significantly. This surfactant-mediated growth advantage does not occur if CD36 is knocked down prior to culturing macrophages in surfactant. Finally, pre-exposure of macrophages to surfactant lipids results in decreased production of TNFa and a delay in the switching time to a host-protective macrophage metabolic program. We conclude that CD36 contributes to surfactant lipid uptake by human macrophages and that M.tb is able to exploit this function, resulting in enhanced M.tb growth in the first few days of infection.

The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Body Pathologies

The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase in Human Body Pathologies Book
Author : Francesco Travascio
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-12-20
ISBN : 9535137174
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic zinc-containing enzymes involved in physiological as well as in pathological processes in the human organism. MMPs play a key role in the remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Such a process may occur because of tissue homeostasis, morphogenesis, and tissue repair. However, remodeling could also be a part of many pathological states such as arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, or impaired development in congenital anomalies. This book overviews the role of MMPs in different pathologies affecting the human body.

Macrophages in Liver Disease

Macrophages in Liver Disease Book
Author : Ruchi Bansal,Pranoti Mandrekar,Sujit K. Mohanty,Ralf Weiskirchen
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-10-08
ISBN : 2889660389
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Macrophages in Liver Disease book written by Ruchi Bansal,Pranoti Mandrekar,Sujit K. Mohanty,Ralf Weiskirchen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Encyclopedia of Human Body Systems

Encyclopedia of Human Body Systems Book
Author : Julie McDowell
Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0313391750
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduces each of the eleven organ systems of the human body, noting the physiological processes, cell and tissue types, and the role each organ plays within the larger system.

The Role of Nitrogen Monoxide in Macrophage and Reticulocyte Iron Metabolism

The Role of Nitrogen Monoxide in Macrophage and Reticulocyte Iron Metabolism Book
Author : Marc Raymond Mikhael
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Role of Nitrogen Monoxide in Macrophage and Reticulocyte Iron Metabolism book written by Marc Raymond Mikhael, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Vitamins

Vitamins Book
Author : George F. M. Ball
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
ISBN : 1405148101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This single-source reference draws together the current knowledgeof the vitamins' biological properties in the context of humannutrition. Vitamins are co-enzymes, antioxidants or precursors ofhormones and are therefore involved in a great many biochemical andphysiological processes. They play a vital role in the maintenanceof health, and there is evidence that dietary sources of vitaminshave beneficial effects in the prevention of heart-relateddiseases, bone diseases and possibly cancer. Following introductory chapters on historical and nutritionalaspects of vitamins, the next four chapters cover relevant anddetailed aspects of physiology and functional anatomy,biochemistry, immunology and the regulation of protein synthesis bynuclear hormone receptors. These background chapters, supported bya glossary of terms, provide the scientific principles upon whichvitamin functions are based. The following thirteen chapters dealwith each vitamin in turn. Subject areas include chemicalstructure, intestinal absorption, transport, metabolism,biochemical and physiological actions, immunoregulatory properties,deficiency-related diseases and potential toxicity. An extensivebibliography refers the reader to the original researchliterature. Vitamins is aimed at nutritionists, biochemists, physiologists andphysicians whether they be researchers, teachers or students. Foodscientists, food technologists and many others working in thehealth professions will also find much of use and interest in thebook. The inclusion of the theoretical principles in the backgroundchapters makes the book an ideal starting point for those workingoutside the area who need a solid overview of the subject.

Human Body

Human Body Book
Author : Linda Calabresi
Publisher : Simon and Schuster
Release : 2008-03-04
ISBN : 1416938613
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An overview of the human body discusses how the systems and organs work and includes detailed three-dimensional illustrations.

The Concise Human Body Book

The Concise Human Body Book Book
Author : DK
Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
Release : 2019-06-06
ISBN : 0241445612
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discover all there is to know about human anatomy in DK's latest concise visual guide to the human body. Fully updated to reflect the latest medical information, The Concise Human Body Book is illustrated throughout with colourful and comprehensive diagrams, photographs, scans, and 3D artworks, which take you right into the cells and fibres that are responsible for keeping your body ticking. The Concise Human Body Book provides full coverage of the body, function by function, system by system. In the opening chapter, colourful medical scans, illustrations, and easy-to-understand diagrams show you how the different parts of the body work together to produce a living whole. Eleven main body systems - including the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, and respiratory system - are then covered in intricate detail in the following chapters, with each section ending on common diseases and disorders that can affect that system. From bones and muscles to systems and processes, this in-depth, pocket-sized guide to the body's physical structure, chemical workings, and potential problems is the must-have reference manual for trainee medical professionals, students, or anyone interested in finding out more about how the human body works.

Dr Frankenstein s Human Body Book

Dr Frankenstein s Human Body Book Book
Author : Richard Walker
Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
Release : 2008-09-01
ISBN : 1405347872
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Join Dr Frankenstein in his laboratory and see how the human body works! Take your child on an incredible journey into Dr Frankenstein’s laboratory as he binds bones, organizes organs, sets up systems and creates a living, breathing human body. Watch as they open the holographic cover and join him as his trusty assistant to learn all about how our bodies work. From skeleton to skin they’ll be with him every step of the way, helping to assemble the body and learning all about the parts and processes involved. It's an eye-popping around the body experience!

Macrophages Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases

Macrophages  Biology and Role in the Pathology of Diseases Book
Author : Subhra K. Biswas,Alberto Mantovani
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-12
ISBN : 1493913115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Macrophages are a key component of the innate immune system and play an integral role in host defense and homeostasis. On one hand, these cells contribute to host defence by triggering inflammation, displaying microbicidal/tumoricidal properties, regulating the activation of adaptive immunity and promoting resolution of inflammation. On the other hand, they contribute to essential trophic functions such as neural patterning, bone morphogenesis and ductal branching in mammary glands. Thus, macrophages are extremely versatile cells that can respond efficiently to tissue micro environmental cues by polarizing to distinct phenotypes, depending on the functions they need to perform. Indeed, functional diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of these cells. Macrophages may also play a detrimental role. An overwhelming body of literature has indicated their crucial role in pathogenesis. The list includes sepsis, cancer, metabolic syndrome, immunodeficiency, auto-immune disease-virtually impacting every major pathology that we know. These observations have suggested macrophages and their related molecules as potential targets in therapeutic applications. Available evidence proclaims macrophages as a key player in homeostasis, host defense and disease. Crucial developments in the past few years call for a re-evaluation and update of our understanding of macrophages. The present book is an endeavour that attempts provide state-of-the art knowledge of these cells in health and disease.

The Dynamic Behavior of Macrophages in Wound Healing

The Dynamic Behavior of Macrophages in Wound Healing Book
Author : Michael Kwaku Boateng,Youngstown State University. Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first line of protection against infection for the human body is the skin. A break in this line of defense is called a wound. After the protective barrier is broken, the process of wound healing starts without delay. Wound healing is complex and dynamic. Most of the time wounds progress through phases depending upon the internal and external forces at work within the patient. Wound healing progresses through four phases. They are hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and remodeling. This study describes a mathematical model which gives a possible explanation to the role and importance of macrophage phenotypes M1: inflammatory macrophages, M2: repair macrophages and MR: regulatory macrophages during the inflammatory phase of wound healing. Six differential equations were formulated and solved numerically. The model results suggest that M1 macrophages are the first macrophage phenotype to enter into the wound and the decrease in the amount of these macrophages after inflammatory phase is a good sign that the wound is healing normally. Also, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory macrophages and repair macrophages is not damaging to the wound provided there is sufficient interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the wound. The model result also indicates that MR macrophage phenotype is very important during the inflammatory phase of wound repair since they secrete IL-10 which inhibits pro-inflammatory macrophages. As a result, a possible explanation is offered as to how wounds can be stalled at the inflammatory phase of wound healing.

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens

Amoebae as Host Models to Study the Interaction with Pathogens Book
Author : Sascha Thewes,Thierry Soldati,Ludwig Eichinger
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-08-27
ISBN : 2889459357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human body is constantly faced with microorganisms. Most of these bacteria, fungi, and viruses are harmless, many of them are beneficial, and a small fraction is pathogenic. For humans, infection with pathogenic microorganisms can be very serious or even fatal, ranging from mild transient or chronic infections to death. The first line of defence against pathogens is our innate immune system. Beside chemical and physical defence mechanisms of the innate immune system, phagocytic cells such as macrophages play a crucial role in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms. However, phagocytic cells and pathogens are in a constant evolutionary arms race, inventing new strategies to successfully kill pathogens and learning how to resist phagocytosis and intracellular killing, respectively. If pathogens are not obligatory adapted to the human body or other animals, they also have to face environmental phagocytes in the form of amoebae. Many aspects of phagocytosis and intracellular killing are surprisingly well conserved between amoebae and macrophages. Therefore, pathogens that have evolved with environmental amoebae as their “training grounds” can also be successful during infection of macrophages and other animal phagocytic cells. In this Research Topic, we provide the latest knowledge about the potential of using amoebae as host models to study the interaction with pathogens. The Research Topic covers the interaction of amoebae with bacteria, fungi, and viruses and also illustrates the similarities and differences between amoebae and macrophages. Investigation of evolutionary conserved pathways of amoebae and macrophages furthers our understanding of the biology of host-pathogen interactions and helps to develop new anti-infection therapies.

Me and My Body

Me and My Body Book
Author : DK
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2018-02-20
ISBN : 146547630X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Amazing facts come together with fun, easy-to-do crafts in this STEAM-centric celebration of the human body. Learn amazing facts like how germs can make you sick, why you have a belly button, and how your senses work. Then create wonderful crafts, like a beautiful family tree, a homemade stethoscope, and gingerbread skeletons, combining reading skills, STEAM concepts, and hands-on family fun. Discover what a family tree is, then create one yourself. Explore your amazing fingerprints, then decorate a beautiful picture frame with them. Make a paper skeleton or play a game about digestion. This is a perfect package for a little learner who wants to know all about what's going on inside their body!

Amazing Human Body

Amazing Human Body Book
Author : DK
Publisher : Dorling Kindersley Ltd
Release : 2010-02-01
ISBN : 1405360062
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Everything you never knew about the human body, in ebook format From what makes blood red to why a haircut is painless, help your child discover all about the human body. Fantastic facts and far-out photos answer a multitude of quirky questions and tell the head-to-toe story of what makes our bodies tick. They'll take a look at our circulation system and discover how blood travels around the body and why our heart beats faster when we run. Find out where thoughts come from and how we can see, smell, touch, taste and follow what happens to food as it travels through the digestive system. From eyes that can see a million different colours to a liver that performs more than 500 functions, help your child discover why their body is such an amazing machine.

Between Pathogenicity and Commensalism

Between Pathogenicity and Commensalism Book
Author : Ulrich Dobrindt,Jörg H. Hacker,Catharina Svanborg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-07-08
ISBN : 3642365604
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive, interdisciplinary book covers different aspects of relevant human pathogens and commensals. The ongoing development of (meta-)genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and their host interaction provides a comprehensive introduction to the microbiological analysis of host-microbe interplay and its consequences for infection or commensalism.

The Macrophage

The Macrophage Book
Author : Nancy N. Pearsall,Russell S. Weiser
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1970
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ubiquitous phagocytic cells that we know as macrophages vary in many of their characteristics, depending on their location, physiological state, and function. Although Metchnikoff appreciated many of their potentialities nearly a century ago, most early investigators regarded macrophages primarily as scavenger cells. Research in many fields has made it increasingly obvious that macrophages do, in fact, have a multitude of important functions above and beyond their ability to scavenge and dispose of effete cells and extraneous matter. Several decades ago it was realized that macrophages are the chief agents of antimicrobial cellular immunity. Only during the past few years has the importance of the macrophage-cytophilic antibody system in cellular immunity been appreciated. The maturation of monocytes to macrophages, then to epithelioid cells, and finally to giant cells, has been described both in vivo and in vitro. The contribution of this sequence of events to cellular immunity is not fully apparent but is of great interest. Recent research has led to an awareness of the extensive synthetic capabilities of macrophages. It has been shown that these cells can synthesize interferon, components of complement, and numerous other biologically active substances, including a wide array of enzymes. Macrophages are important in allograft rejection. They function in delayed sensitivity reactions and in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. They are probably often essential to antibody formation by their activities of trapping and processing antigen, and perhaps by virtue of the activity of their ribonucleic acid. In addition, macrophages are able to detoxify both exotoxins and endotoxins, as well as other injurious compounds. Thus, macrophages have emerged from their historical role as simple scavenger cells to take their place, with lymphocytes, as mobile cells with a wide spectrum of functions of primary importance to body economy. The possible relationships between macrophages and lymphocytes, and between macrophages and other cell types, remain controversial. However, it is probable that one vital function of macrophages is to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of other cell types, and, conversely, that other cells contribute to macrophage homeostasis. Recent rapid advances in research concerning macrophages have resulted in a tremendous increase in the literature, scattered throughout a wide variety of publications. The object of preparing this monograph is twofold: first, to consolidate available information in order to provide a comprehensive characterization of the macrophage for those unfamiliar with it; and, second, to review some of the most recent work in this area for the benefit of those who are already familiar with the field. Wherever possible, reviews are quoted. Many recent findings, not summarized elsewhere, are reviewed in detail. It is hoped that the references cited will provide a point of departure for gaining further information on subjects of special interest to the reader. Even though much is known about the macrophage and its functions, many problems of great interest remain unsolved. For example, consideration of the control mechanisms which operate in the proliferation and differentiation of macrophages offers a challenge for future research. In addition, the molecular events concerned in macrophage-cytophilic antibody activity are of the utmost importance and are incompletely understood. These and similar problems provide promising areas for further investigation.