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Low Salinity And Engineered Water Injection For Sandstone And Carbonate Reservoirs

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Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstone and Carbonate Reservoirs Book
Author : Emad Walid Al Shalabi,Kamy Sepehrnoori
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2017-06-14
ISBN : 0128136057
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Low Salinity and Engineered Water Injection for Sandstones and Carbonate Reservoirs provides a first of its kind review of the low salinity and engineered water injection (LSWI/EWI) techniques for today’s more complex enhanced oil recovery methods. Reservoir engineers today are challenged in the design and physical mechanisms behind low salinity injection projects, and to date, the research is currently only located in numerous journal locations. This reference helps readers overcome these challenging issues with explanations on models, experiments, mechanism analysis, and field applications involved in low salinity and engineered water. Covering significant laboratory, numerical, and field studies, lessons learned are also highlighted along with key areas for future research in this fast-growing area of the oil and gas industry. After an introduction to its techniques, the initial chapters review the main experimental findings and explore the mechanisms behind the impact of LSWI/EWI on oil recovery. The book then moves on to the critical area of modeling and simulation, discusses the geochemistry of LSWI/EWI processes, and applications of LSWI/EWI techniques in the field, including the authors’ own recommendations based on their extensive experience. It is an essential reference for professional reservoir and field engineers, researchers and students working on LSWI/EWI and seeking to apply these methods for increased oil recovery. Teaches users how to understand the various mechanisms contributing to incremental oil recovery using low salinity and engineering water injection (LSWI/EWI) in sandstones and carbonates Balances guidance between designing laboratory experiments, to applying the LSWI/EWI techniques at both pilot-scale and full-field-scale for real-world operations Presents state-of-the-art approaches to simulation and modeling of LSWI/EWI

Mechanistic Modeling of Low Salinity Water Injection

Mechanistic Modeling of Low Salinity Water Injection Book
Author : Aboulghasem Kazemi Nia Korrani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Low salinity waterflooding is an emerging enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technique in which the salinity of the injected water is substantially reduced to improve oil recovery over conventional higher salinity waterflooding. Although there are many low salinity experimental results reported in the literature, publications on modeling this process are rare. While there remains some debate about the mechanisms of low salinity waterflooding, the geochemical reactions that control the wetting of crude oil on the rock are likely to be central to a detailed description of the process. Since no comprehensive geochemical-based modeling has been applied in this area, we decided to couple a state-of-the-art geochemical package, IPhreeqc, developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) with UTCOMP, the compositional reservoir simulator developed at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering in The University of Texas at Austin. A step-by-step algorithm is presented for integrating IPhreeqc with UTCOMP. Through this coupling, we are able to simulate homogeneous and heterogeneous (mineral dissolution/precipitation), irreversible, and ion-exchange reactions under non-isothermal, non-isobaric and both local-equilibrium and kinetic conditions. Consistent with the literature, there are significant effects of water-soluble hydrocarbon components (e.g., CO2, CH4, and acidic/basic components of the crude) on buffering the aqueous pH and more generally, on the crude oil, brine, and rock reactions. Thermodynamic constrains are used to explicitly include the effect of these water-soluble hydrocarbon components. Hence, this combines the geochemical power of IPhreeqc with the important aspects of hydrocarbon flow and compositional effects to produce a robust, flexible, and accurate integrated tool capable of including the reactions needed to mechanistically model low salinity waterflooding. The geochemical module of UTCOMP-IPhreeqc is further parallelized to enable large scale reservoir simulation applications. We hypothesize that the total ionic strength of the solution is the controlling factor of the wettability alteration due to low salinity waterflooding in sandstone reservoirs. Hence, a model based on the interpolating relative permeability and capillary pressure as a function of total ionic strength is implemented in the UTCOMP-IPhreeqc simulator. We then use our integrated simulator to match and interpret a low salinity experiment published by Kozaki (2012) (conducted on the Berea sandstone core) and the field trial done by BP at the Endicott field (sandstone reservoir). On the other hand, we believe that during the modified salinity waterflooding in carbonate reservoirs, calcite is dissolved and it liberates the adsorbed oil from the surface; hence, fresh surface with the wettability towards more water-wet is created. Therefore, we model wettability to be dynamically altered as a function of calcite dissolution in UTCOMP-IPhreeqc. We then apply our integrated simulator to model not only the oil recovery but also the entire produced ion histories of a recently published coreflood by Chandrasekhar and Mohanty (2013) on a carbonate core. We also couple IPhreeqc with UTCHEM, an in-house research chemical flooding reservoir simulator developed at The University of Texas at Austin, for a mechanistic integrated simulator to model alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) floods. UTCHEM has a comprehensive three phase (water, oil, microemulsion) flash calculation package for the mixture of surfactant and soap as a function of salinity, temperature, and co-solvent concentration. Similar to UTCOMP-IPhreeqc, we parallelize the geochemical module of UTCHEM-IPhreeqc. Finally, we show how apply the integrated tool, UTCHEM-IPhreeqc, to match three different reaction-related chemical flooding processes: ASP flooding in an acidic active crude oil, ASP flooding in a non-acidic crude oil, and alkaline/co-solvent/polymer (ACP) flooding.

Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery from Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs

Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery from Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs Book
Author : Alireza Bahadori
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2018-08-18
ISBN : 0128130288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery from Conventional and Unconventional Reservoirs delivers the proper foundation on all types of currently utilized and upcoming enhanced oil recovery, including methods used in emerging unconventional reservoirs. Going beyond traditional secondary methods, this reference includes advanced water-based EOR methods which are becoming more popular due to CO2 injection methods used in EOR and methods specific to target shale oil and gas activity. Rounding out with a chapter devoted to optimizing the application and economy of EOR methods, the book brings reservoir and petroleum engineers up-to-speed on the latest studies to apply. Enhanced oil recovery continues to grow in technology, and with ongoing unconventional reservoir activity underway, enhanced oil recovery methods of many kinds will continue to gain in studies and scientific advancements. Reservoir engineers currently have multiple outlets to gain knowledge and are in need of one product go-to reference. Explains enhanced oil recovery methods, focusing specifically on those used for unconventional reservoirs Includes real-world case studies and examples to further illustrate points Creates a practical and theoretical foundation with multiple contributors from various backgrounds Includes a full range of the latest and future methods for enhanced oil recovery, including chemical, waterflooding, CO2 injection and thermal

Hybrid Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Smart Waterflooding

Hybrid Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Smart Waterflooding Book
Author : Kun Sang Lee,Ji Ho Lee
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2019-04-03
ISBN : 0128172983
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hybrid Enhanced Oil Recovery Using Smart Waterflooding explains the latest technologies used in the integration of low-salinity and smart waterflooding in other EOR processes to reduce risks attributed to numerous difficulties in existing technologies, also introducing the synergetic effects. Covering both lab and field work and the challenges ahead, the book delivers a cutting-edge product for today’s reservoir engineers. Explains how smart waterflooding is beneficial to each EOR process, such as miscible, chemical and thermal technologies Discusses the mechanics and modeling involved using geochemistry Provides extensive tools, such as reservoir simulations through experiments and field tests, establishing a bridge between theory and practice

Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation Volume 6

Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation  Volume 6 Book
Author : Robert A. Meyers
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release : 1998-03-23
ISBN : 9780471166320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the growing concern over the environment, new industries and research areas have been developed to identify, monitor, regulate, and legislate environmental interactions as well as to determine and repair existing environmental damage. For both the expert and the newcomer, a quick, convenient, and comprehensive source is needed to answer questions on the rapidly increasing amount of environmental information. The Encyclopedia of Environmental Analysis and Remediation (EEAR) responds to this need by providing the reader with an in-depth examination of the environmental analysis and remediation fields in a single eight-volume reference source.

Compositional Reactive transport Modeling of Engineered Waterflooding

Compositional Reactive transport Modeling of Engineered Waterflooding Book
Author : Alireza Sanaei
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is widely accepted that oil recovery during waterflooding can be improved by modifying the composition of the injected brine in a process known as low salinity/ engineered waterflooding. In recent years, several studies, ranging from laboratory corefloods to field trials, have shown the positive effect of engineered waterflooding on oil recovery; however, a few studies have shown no benefit gain from this approach. The inconsistency in responses is because the main mechanism underpinning this recovery method is not fully understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed as the dominant mechanism of engineered waterflooding. Although wettability alteration is believed to be the principal mechanism of engineered waterflooding, the main mechanism leading to wettability alteration is not yet agreed upon. In this research, we follow a systematic approach to develop a model that can be used to evaluate the efficiency of the engineered waterflooding process at different length-scales. We hypothesize that wettability alteration, as a consequence of changes in surface charges at oil/brine and brine/rock interfaces, is the underlying mechanism of engineered waterflooding. We perform surface complexation modeling and contact angle calculation to explain the mechanism of the process at small length-scales. We then implement the developed model into UTCOMP-IPhreeqc, a compositional reactive-transport simulator, developed at The University of Texas at Austin. We conduct coreflood history-matching on carbonate and sandstone cores to validate the model and interpret the underlying mechanism of the process. Finally, we employ the model to assess the applicability and efficiency of engineered waterflooding in field-scale scenarios. Most of the experimental and modeling studies performed in the area of engineered waterflooding neglect the effect of CO2 dissolution in the aqueous phase. However, the presence of CO2 in the reservoir can alter the geochemical equilibrium state and the performance of engineered waterflooding. To address this problem, we implement four-phase flash equilibrium calculations into UTCOMP-IPhreeqc. We use the developed model to investigate the effect of CO2 dissolution in the aqueous phase on the performance of engineered waterflooding. To reduce the computational time of reactive-transport simulations, we implement the geochemical modules of UTCOMP-IPhreeqc into a parallel reservoir simulator framework. Moreover, we develop a new speedup scheme which can reduce the computational time of geochemical equilibrium calculations up to 80%. Carbonated Water Injection (CWI) is another promising enhanced oil recovery technique that takes advantage of both CO2 and water flooding processes. In this method, CO2 is added to the injected brine and transported in the reservoir by flood water. While there are several laboratory experiments reported on this process, simulation studies in this area are scarce. In this research, we use UTCOMP-IPhreeqc to understand the mechanisms of the CWI process and investigate the effect of carbonated brine injection on petrophysical properties of the reservoir. We verify the developed model against an analytical model and apply our simulation approach to match carbonate and sandstone corefloods. Finally, we design a synthetic field-scale case study and evaluate the efficiency of CWI on oil recovery. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) flooding is another EOR method that usually yields significant incremental oil recovery compared to waterflooding. One major concern for high pH ASP flooding is the possibility of inorganic scale formation near the wellbore and in the production facility. To address this problem, we perform batch and 1D single phase geochemical calculations to identify the possibility and extent of scale formation during ASP flooding. Moreover, we use UTCHEM-IPhreeqc, a coupled chemical flooding simulator and geochemical tool, and design a synthetic field-scale model to study scale formation due to ASP injection in a carbonate reservoir

SPE Reservoir Engineering

SPE Reservoir Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download SPE Reservoir Engineering book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies

Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies Book
Author : James Sheng
Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
Release : 2013-04-10
ISBN : 0123865468
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Enhanced Oil Recovery Field Case Studies bridges the gap between theory and practice in a range of real-world EOR settings. Areas covered include steam and polymer flooding, use of foam, in situ combustion, microorganisms, "smart water"-based EOR in carbonates and sandstones, and many more. Oil industry professionals know that the key to a successful enhanced oil recovery project lies in anticipating the differences between plans and the realities found in the field. This book aids that effort, providing valuable case studies from more than 250 EOR pilot and field applications in a variety of oil fields. The case studies cover practical problems, underlying theoretical and modeling methods, operational parameters, solutions and sensitivity studies, and performance optimization strategies, benefitting academicians and oil company practitioners alike. Strikes an ideal balance between theory and practice Focuses on practical problems, underlying theoretical and modeling methods, and operational parameters Designed for technical professionals, covering the fundamental as well as the advanced aspects of EOR

A Sensitivity Study on Modified Salinity Waterflooding and Its Hybrid Processes

A Sensitivity Study on Modified Salinity Waterflooding and Its Hybrid Processes Book
Author : Beibit Bissakayev
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Waterflood is one of the most widely used techniques in enhanced oil recovery. In 1990s researchers came to conclusion that the chemistry of the injected water can be important in improving oil recovery. The low salinity water injection (LoSal® ) has become one of the promising topics in the oil industry. It is believed that the main mechanism for incremental oil recovery in low salinity flooding is wettability alteration. Several papers discussed that the wettability alteration from oil-wet to mixed- or water-wet takes place due to clay swelling and expanding of double layer in sandstones and calcite dissolution along with rock surface reactions in carbonates. However, there is no consensus on a single main mechanism for the low salinity effect on oil recovery. The main objective of this research is to conduct sensitivity analysis on main parameters in low salinity waterflooding and its hybrid processes affecting oil recovery in carbonates. We compare results by using coupled reservoir simulator UTCOMP-IPhreeqc. UTCOMP is the compositional reservoir simulator developed at the Center for Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering in The University of Texas at Austin. IPhreeqc is the module-based version of the PHREEQC geochemical package, a state-of-the-art geochemical package developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). We investigate the effect of low salinity water and carbon dioxide on oil recovery from carbonates by modeling the processes through the UTCOMP-IPhreeqc simulator. We perform sensitivity analysis on continuous gas injection (CGI), water-alternating-gas (WAG) flooding, and polymer-water-alternate-water (PWAG) flooding. We study the significance of reservoir parameters, such as reservoir heterogeneity (Dykstra-Parsons coefficient, Vdp, and crossflow, kv/kh), the salinity of injected water, the composition of gas, and polymer concentration in polymer-water solution on cumulative oil recovery. Moreover, we study the importance of inclusion of the hydrocarbon CO2 impact on the aqueous-rock geochemistry by comparing two scenarios where in one scenario the hydrocarbon CO2 effect is included in UTCOMP-IPhreeqc whereas in the other one the effect is neglected. Finally, we perform sensitivity analysis on PWAG flooding for most influential design parameters using Design of Expert software. The reservoir parameters, such as average reservoir permeability, reservoir heterogeneity, and crossflow and injected polymer-water solution parameters, such as polymer concentration and salinity of injected water are optimization parameters in this study.

Reservoir Characterization

Reservoir Characterization Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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SPE Formation Evaluation

SPE Formation Evaluation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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SPE Reservoir Evaluation Engineering

SPE Reservoir Evaluation   Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Applied Mechanics And Mechanical Engineering

Applied Mechanics And Mechanical Engineering Book
Author : Hong Hua Tan
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2010-08-13
ISBN : 3038133884
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The 2010 International Conference on Applied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering (ICAMME 2010), was held in Changsha (China) on September 8th and 9th, 2010. The goal of these proceedings was to bring together researchers from academia and industry, as well as technologists, to share ideas, problems and solutions related to the multifaceted aspects of applied mechanics and mechanical engineering. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The 477 peer-reviewed papers are grouped into 12 chapters: Session One: Computational Mechanics and Applied Mechanics, Session Two: Mechanical Design, Session Three: Materials Science and Processing, Session Four: System Dynamics and Simulation, Session Five: PC Guided Design and Manufacture, Session Six: Other Related Topics, Session Seven: Computational Mechanics and Applied Mechanics, Session Eight: Mechanical Design, Session Nine: Materials Science and Processing, Session Ten: System Dynamics and Simulation, Session Eleven: PC-Guided Design and Manufacture, Session Twelve: Other Topics. This volume thus provides an invaluable insight into the current state-of-the-art of this field.

Transactions of the Society of Petroleum Engineers

Transactions of the Society of Petroleum Engineers Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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SPE Reprint Series

SPE Reprint Series Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Journal of Petroleum Technology

Journal of Petroleum Technology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Pacific Oil World

Pacific Oil World Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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JPT Journal of Petroleum Technology

JPT  Journal of Petroleum Technology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1968
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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The Interstate Oil Compact Commission Committee Bulletin

The Interstate Oil Compact Commission Committee Bulletin Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985-06
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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