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Lithium Process Chemistry

Lithium Process Chemistry Book
Author : Alexandre Chagnes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-09-01
ISBN : 9780128014172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

" Lithium Process Chemistry: Resources, Extraction, Batteries and Recycling" presents, for the first time, the most recent developments and state-of-the-art of lithium production, lithium-ion batteries, and their recycling. The book provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries, including terminology related to these two fields. It is of particular interest to electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries. It is also useful for both teachers and students, presenting an overview on Li production, Li-ion battery technologies, and lithium battery recycling processes that is accompanied by numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances. The book represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. Provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteriesRepresents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source.Ideal for both electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries Presents recent developments, as well as challenges in lithium production and lithium-ion battery technologies and their recyclingCovers examples of Li processes production with schematics, also including numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances

WEEE Recycling

WEEE Recycling Book
Author : Alexandre Chagnes,Gérard Cote,Christian Ekberg,Mikael Nilsson,Teodora Retegan
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-07-26
ISBN : 0128033649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

WEEE Recycling: Research, Development, and Policies covers policies, research, development, and challenges in recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The book introduces WEEE management and then covers the environmental, economic, and societal applications of e-waste recycling, focusing on the technical challenges to designing efficient and sustainable recycling processes—including physical separation, pyrometallurgical, and hydrometallurgical processes. The development of processes for recovering strategic and critical metals from urban mining is a priority for many countries, especially those having few available ores mining. Describes the two metallurgical processes—hydro- and pyro-metallurgy—and their application in recycling of metals Provides a life cycle analysis in the WEEE recycling of metals Outlines how to determine economic parameters in the recycling of waste metals Discusses the socio economic and environmental implication of metal recycling

Lithium Process Chemistry

Lithium Process Chemistry Book
Author : Alexandre Chagnes,Jolanta Swiatowska
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-06-14
ISBN : 0128016868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lithium Process Chemistry: Resources, Extraction, Batteries and Recycling presents, for the first time, the most recent developments and state-of-the-art of lithium production, lithium-ion batteries, and their recycling. The book provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries, including terminology related to these two fields. It is of particular interest to electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries. It is also useful for both teachers and students, presenting an overview on Li production, Li-ion battery technologies, and lithium battery recycling processes that is accompanied by numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances. The book represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. Provides fundamental and theoretical knowledge on hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry in lithium-ion batteries Represents the first time that hydrometallurgy and electrochemistry on lithium-ion batteries are assembled in one unique source. Ideal for both electrochemists who usually have no knowledge in hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgists not familiar with electrochemistry applied to Li-ion batteries Presents recent developments, as well as challenges in lithium production and lithium-ion battery technologies and their recycling Covers examples of Li processes production with schematics, also including numerous graphical presentations of different battery systems and their electrochemical performances

Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry Volume 2

Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry  Volume 2 Book
Author : Kumar Gadamasetti,Tamim Braish
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-12-10
ISBN : 9781420008357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As pharmaceutical companies strive to develop safer medicines at a lower cost, they must keep pace with the rapid growth of technology and research methodologies. Defying the misconception of process chemistry as mere scale-up work, Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Vol. 2: Challenges in an Ever Changing Climate explores novel applications of synthetic, physical, and analytical chemistry in drug discovery and development. It offers an accurate depiction of the most up-to-date process research and development methods applied to synthesis, clinical trials, and commercializing drug candidates. The second installment in this progressive series, this volumereviews the latest breakthroughs to advance process chemistry, including asymmetric synthesis, crystallization, morphology, enzymatic intervention, green chemistry, macromolecules (monoclonal antibodies, biological molecules, polymers), enantioselectivity, organometallic chemistry, process analytical tools, chemical engineering controls, regulatory compliance, and outsourcing/globalization. It explores new approaches to synthetic processes, examines the latest safety methods and experiment design, and suggests realistic solutions to problems encountered in manufacturing and process development. Significant topics include atom economy, ease of synthesis, instrumentation, automization, quality control, cost considerations, green practices, and future trends. Jointly edited by the founder/president of Delphian Pharmaceuticals and the director of Chemical R&D at Pfizer, this book brings together contributions byreputed scientists, technologists, engineers, and professors from leading academic institutions, such as the Imperial College, UK, the University of Tokyo, ETH, Switzerland, the International University at Bermen, Germany, and the University of Connecticut, USA, and from principal pharmaceutical companies that include Merck, Bristol Myers Squibb, Pfizer, Novartis, Eli Lilly, Astrazeneca and DSM.

Weee Recycling

Weee Recycling Book
Author : Alexandre Chagnes
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2016-07-26
ISBN : 9780128033630
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"WEEE Recycling: Research, Development, and Policies "covers policies, research, development, and challenges in recycling of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The book introduces WEEE management and then covers the environmental, economic, and societal applications of e-waste recycling, focusing on the technical challenges to designing efficient and sustainable recycling processes including physical separation, pyrometallurgical, and hydrometallurgical processes. The development of processes for recovering strategic and critical metals from urban mining is a priority for many countries, especially those having few available ores mining. Describes the two metallurgical processes hydro- and pyro-metallurgy and their application in recycling of metalsProvides a life cycle analysis in the WEEE recycling of metalsOutlines how to determine economic parameters in the recycling of waste metalsDiscusses the socio economic and environmental implication of metal recycling"

Organometallics in Process Chemistry

Organometallics in Process Chemistry Book
Author : Rob Larsen,Ahmed F. Abdel-Magid
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-06-15
ISBN : 9783540016038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The design of efficient syntheses of medicinal agents is one of the prime goals of the process chemist in the pharmaceutical industry. The expanding list of metal-mediated reactions has had a major impact on this endeavor over the last two decades. This volume will highlight some of the areas of organometallic chemistry that have played a particularly important role in development. The chapters are written by chemists who work in the process groups of major pharmaceutical companies and fine chemical manufacturers. Having demonstrated the power of organometallics in their processes the authors herein expand upon their experiences with examples from the literature as reported by process groups within the industry. The chapters are organized either by the application of a particular metal or reaction class. Removal of the residual metal(s) from the isolated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is key to the release of the material for human consumption, and hence, is reviewed here as well. This volume of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry is presented to offer a representative cross section of organometallic applications in the pharmaceutical industry as well as to give an appreciation for the creativity possible in process chemistry.

Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium Ion Batteries Book
Author : Yuping Wu
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-04-24
ISBN : 1466557346
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications offers a comprehensive treatment of the principles, background, design, production, and use of lithium-ion batteries. Based on a solid foundation of long-term research work, this authoritative monograph: Introduces the underlying theory and history of lithium-ion batteries Describes the key components of lithium-ion batteries, including negative and positive electrode materials, electrolytes, and separators Discusses electronic conductive agents, binders, solvents for slurry preparation, positive thermal coefficient (PTC) materials, current collectors, and cases Examines the assembly processes and electrochemical performance of lithium-ion batteries Explores applications in power tools, electric vehicles, aerospace, and more Lithium-Ion Batteries: Fundamentals and Applications delivers a systematic overview of lithium-ion batteries, from physical properties to manufacturing technologies. The book also supplies valuable insight into potential growth opportunities in this exciting market.

Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride

Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride Book
Author : Donald E. Garrett
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2004-04-05
ISBN : 9780080472904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Lithium and Natural Calcium Chloride is concerned with two major industrial minerals: Lithium and Calcium Chloride. The geology of their deposits is first reviewed, along with discussions of most of the major deposits and theories of their origin. The commercial mining and processing plants are next described, followed by a review of the rather extensive literature on other proposed processing methods. The more important uses for lithium and calcium chloride are next covered, along with their environmental considerations. This is followed by a brief review of the production statistics for each industry, and some of their compounds' phase data and physical properties. Describes the chemistry, chemical engineering, geology and mineral processing aspects of lithium and calcium chloride Collects in one source the most important information concerning these two industrial minerals Presents new concepts and more comprehensive theories on their origin

The Art of Process Chemistry

The Art of Process Chemistry Book
Author : Nobuyoshi Yasuda
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-12-01
ISBN : 3527633588
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing must-have knowledge for the pharmaceutical industry and process chemists in industry, this ready reference offers solutions for saving time and money and supplying -- in a sustainable way -- valuable products. Application-oriented and well structured, each chapter presents successful strategies for the latest modern drugs, showing how to provide very fast bulk quantities of drug candidates. Throughout, the text illustrates how all the key factors are interwoven and dependent on one another in creating optimized methods for optimal products.

Managing End of life Lithium ion Batteries

Managing End of life Lithium ion Batteries Book
Author : Xue Wang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The growing market for lithium-ion batteries raises concerns about sustainable management of those batteries at end of life. Launching relevant policies requires a comprehensive understanding of potential economic values as well as environmental performance of end-of-life lithium-ion batteries. However, both recyclers and policymakers are facing a number of unanswered questions, including 1) how battery technology trajectory would affect the incentives for recycling? 2) what strategies are available to improve material recovery efficiency? and 3) what is the potential for nanoparticle release during end-of-life processing, particularly for next-generation lithium-ion batteries who contain nano-scale cathode materials? This dissertation aims to fill these research gaps. Multi-criteria optimization modeling and fundamental material characterization methods were used to quantify environmental and economic trade-offs for end-of-life lithium-ion batteries. Results show that potential material recovery values decrease as battery cathode chemistry transitions to low-cost cathode materials, as a majority of potentially recoverable value resides in the base metals contained in the cathode. Cathode changes over time will result in a heavily co-mingled waste stream, further complicating waste management and recycling processes. An optimization model was developed to analyze the economic feasibility of recycling facilities under possible scenarios of waste stream volume and composition. Sensitivity analysis shows that the profitability is highly dependent on the expected mix of cathode chemistries in the waste stream and resultant variability in material mass and value. Estimated current collection rate of end-of-life lithium-ion batteries turned out to be extremely low, indicating more opportunities and higher profitability for local recycling facilities if this rate can be improved. Aiming to achieve segregation of high value metallic materials in lithium-ion batteries, a pre-recycling process, including mechanical shredding and size-based sorting steps, which can be easily scaled up to the industrial level, has been proposed. Sorting results show that contained metallic materials can be effectively segregated into size fractions at different levels. In addition, using this pre-recycling process as a case study, the nanoparticle exposure potential during mechanical processing has been proactively investigated by using both traditional and nano-enabled lithium-ion batteries. Results show that a substantial amount of nanoparticles released during the mechanical shredding but not the size-based sorting process. Additionally, shredding nano-scale LiFePO4 cathode batteries may have a higher potential for nanoparticle exposure. Facing the rapidly growing volume of spent lithium-ion batteries, the results suggest policy or other incentives may be necessary to promote a robust collection and recycling infrastructure as the economic incentives will likely decrease as the chemistry transitions away from cobalt-based cathodes. This dissertation also demonstrates the importance of implementing a battery labeling system as recyclers will likely face a co-mingled waste stream. Specifying recycling-relevant information would increase the effectiveness of the pre-recycling system."--Abstract.

Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry

Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry Book
Author : Kumar Gadamasetti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1999-05-06
ISBN : 9780824719814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Providing guidance for chemists and other scientists entering pharmaceutical discovery and development, this up-to-the-minute reference presents contributions from an international group of nearly 50 renowned researchers—offering a solid grounding in synthetic and physical organic chemistry, and clarifying the roles of various specialties in the development of new drugs. Featuring over 1000 references, tables, and illustrations, Process Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical Industry is sure to find its way to the bookshelves of organic, physical, analytical, process, and medicinal chemists and biochemists; pharmacists; and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in these disciplines.

Thermodynamics and Energy Engineering

Thermodynamics and Energy Engineering Book
Author : Petrică Vizureanu
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-07-29
ISBN : 1838805680
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a primary survey of basic thermodynamic concepts that will allow one to predict states of a fuel cell system, including potential, temperature, pressure, volume and moles. The specific topics explored include enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, Gibbs free energy, net output voltage irreversible losses in fuel cells and fuel cell efficiency. It contains twelve chapters organized into two sections on “Theoretical Models” and “Applications.” The specific topics explored include enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, Gibbs free energy, net output voltage irreversible losses in fuel cells and fuel cell efficiency.

Lithium Ion Batteries and Solar Cells

Lithium Ion Batteries and Solar Cells Book
Author : Ming-Fa Lin,Taylor & Francis Group,Wen-Dung Hsu,Jow-Lay Huang
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-01-21
ISBN : 9780367686239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lithium-Ion Batteries and Solar Cells: Physical, Chemical, and Materials Properties presents a thorough investigation of diverse physical, chemical, and material properties and special functionalities of lithium-ion batteries and solar cells. It covers theoretical simulations and high-resolution experimental measurements that promote a full understanding of the basic science to develop excellent device performance. Employs first-principles and the machine learning method to fully explore the rich and unique phenomena of cathode, anode, and electrolyte (solid and liquid states) in lithium-ion batteries Develops distinct experimental methods and techniques to enhance the performance of lithium-ion batteries and solar cells Treats syntheses, fabrication, and measurements Discusses open issues, challenges, and potential commercial applications This book is aimed at materials scientists, chemical engineers, and electrical engineers developing enhanced batteries and solar cells for peak performance.

Li S and Li O2 Batteries with High Specific Energy

Li S and Li O2 Batteries with High Specific Energy Book
Author : Huamin Zhang,Xianfeng Li,Hongzhang Zhang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-07
ISBN : 9811007462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This brief reviews the fundamentals, recent developments, challenges and prospects of Li-S and Li-O2 batteries, including fundamental research and potential applications. It starts with a brief overview encompassing the current state of Li-S and Li-O2 battery technology. It then provides general information on Li-S and Li-O2 batteries, including the electrochemical processes and battery components. The following sections focus on the historical and recent development of Li-S and Li-O2 batteries respectively, offering detailed insights into the key material development, cell assembly, diagnostic test and mechanism of electrolyte decomposition. Lastly, it focuses on the main promising applications of Li-S and Li-O2 batteries together with their challenges and potential

The Chemistry of Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Cesium and Francium

The Chemistry of Lithium  Sodium  Potassium  Rubidium  Cesium and Francium Book
Author : William A. Hart,O. F. Beumel,Thomas P. Whaley
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483187578
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Chemistry of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, and Francium studies the physical and chemical properties of the elements listed in the title, including their chemical compounds and reactions. This book first features lithium, including its characterization, metals, and compounds. This topic is followed by discussions on the remaining featured elements in this text, encompassing their discovery and history, occurrence and distribution, and production. Then, this text presents the chemistry and chemical properties of the elements, specifically discussing topics such as the reactions of the metals, intermetallic compounds, hydrides, halides, cyanides and cyanates, and oxides and peroxides. The last two chapters examine biological activity and analytical chemistry of the elements. This book will be valuable to students and experts in the field of chemistry, as well as those in related fields.

Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry

Pharmaceutical Process Chemistry Book
Author : Takayuki Shioiri,Kunisuke Izawa,Toshiro Konoike
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-12-09
ISBN : 3527633693
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering the whole area of process chemistry in the pharmaceutical industry, this monograph provides the essential knowledge on the basic chemistry needed for future development and key industrial techniques, as well as morphology, engineering and regulatory compliances. Application-oriented and well structured, the authors include recent examples of excellent industrial production of active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries

Prospects for Reducing the Processing Cost of Lithium Ion Batteries Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and, reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from $502.8 kWh-1-usable to $370.3 kWh-1-usable, a savings of $132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

Lithium Its Chemistry and Technology

Lithium  Its Chemistry and Technology Book
Author : Yu. I. Ostroushko
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Lithium Its Chemistry and Technology book written by Yu. I. Ostroushko, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Handbook of Lithium Ion Battery Pack Design

The Handbook of Lithium Ion Battery Pack Design Book
Author : John T. Warner
Publisher : Elsevier Science
Release : 2015-06-09
ISBN : 9780128014561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Design: Chemistry, Components, Types and Terminology offers to the reader a clear and concise explanation of how Li-ion batteries are designed from the perspective of a manager, sales person, product manager or entry level engineer who is not already an expert in Li-ion battery design. It will offer a layman's explanation of the history of vehicle electrification, what the various terminology means, and how to do some simple calculations that can be used in determining basic battery sizing, capacity, voltage and energy. By the end of this book the reader has a solid understanding of all of the terminology around Li-ion batteries and is able to do some simple battery calculations. The book is immensely useful to beginning and experienced engineer alike who are moving into the battery field. Li-ion batteries are one of the most unique systems in automobiles today in that they combine multiple engineering disciplines, yet most engineering programs focus on only a single engineering field. This book provides you with a reference to the history, terminology and design criteria needed to understand the Li-ion battery and to successfully lay out a new battery concept. Whether you are an electrical engineer, a mechanical engineer or a chemist this book helps you better appreciate the inter-relationships between the various battery engineering fields that are required to understand the battery as an Energy Storage System. Offers an easy explanation of battery terminology and enables better understanding of batteries, their components and the market place. Demonstrates simple battery scaling calculations in an easy to understand description of the formulas Describes clearly the various components of a Li-ion battery and their importance Explains the differences between various Li-ion cell types and chemistries and enables the determination which chemistry and cell type is appropriate for which application Outlines the differences between battery types, e.g., power vs energy battery Presents graphically different vehicle configurations: BEV, PHEV, HEV Includes brief history of vehicle electrification and its future

Used Battery Collection and Recycling

Used Battery Collection and Recycling Book
Author : G. Pistoia,J.-P. Wiaux,S.P. Wolsky
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2001-11-08
ISBN : 9780080543475
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution.